1 Addressing Audit and Compliance requirements in a DB2 z/os environment Presenter: Rajesh Chandran Data Management Architect IBM ASEAN Session: January 21 - SINGAPORE January 26 MALAYSIA January 28 - THAILAND
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3 Landscape Customer Challenges Tremendous regulatory compliance pressures to demonstrate adequate institutional controls including audit reporting. Current DB2 on z/os environment typically has minimal auditing Manual effort requiring interaction by DBA s Reactive in nature with the implication that you only find information post event, or after the first breach Home grown process can provide some level of access reporting, however: Application managed code you have to maintain Exposure as a lack of robust application change controls can allow disabling of audit processing Overhead ( perceived or actual) in many cases drive decision to not audit DB2 on z/os data DB2 trace based processes are managed by DBA s The DBA s are responsible for generating audit data with which they are in turn audited, this constitutes a significant security risk and exposure.
4 DB2 Audit Trace versus RACF Why Audit when Production is Locked Down? Common arguments: "We don't need to audit, we have controls surrounding who can access data" "'We control who is connected to the DB2 SYSADM group and we know what those people are authorized to do" Counter arguments: RACF does two things: Prevents people from accessing a resource that is not essential or appropriate for their jobs Allows people access to the necessary data to do their jobs But RACF does NOT: prevent a malicious update if the user has authority to the data. prevent an authorized user from accessing sensitive data that is NOT within the scope of their job. E.g. a bank teller looks up the CEOs bank balance or personal customer information provide meaningful information about access to protected DB2 resources (authorized or not). IBM confidential, Rocket Software confidential 4
5 What to Audit A busy slide Closed Application Environment (Probably not a candidate) Traditional Application controls well defined and comprehensive CICS and IMS TM Signon and Transaction Access secured via RACF Production Batch Controlled via program pathing / Job Scheduling Data warehouse no risk of update but access audit might be needed Adhoc execution environnent QMF, SPUFI, etc. Constitutes exposure SPUFI Plan can be restricted but ALL use should be audited Privleged ID s (DBA/Sysadmin) should be audited Data may not be as granular as you think Depending on how you configured your connections into DB2 CICS attach, SAP, or CICS users with unique id s, and distributed transactions. May get all audit data but may not be meaningful because of attach environments. Group versus AUTHID. SQLESETI implementation can help Offline Utilities and certain tools are used outside of DB2 RACF dataset access defined controls Trigger based audit Use of DSN1COPY should be restricted
6 Audit data sources DB2 catalog SQL queries on catalog, other data audit, accounting and performance traces recovery log, current & historical data RACF audit facility, other SMF data,... Audit tools and techniques tracing: audit, performance, accounting, monitor formatting the traces: OMPE or PM, others DB2 Audit Management Expert, others DSN1SMFP, others log formatting: tools, DSN1LOGP, Log Analyzer
7 What actions are needed to start the Audit trace? -DSN START TRACE (AUDIT) CLASS (1,2,4,5,8) DEST (SMF) Requires one of the following privileges: SYSOPER SYSCTRL SYSADM TRACE In addition, Class 4 and 5 events will only be collected for objects (tables) with the audit attribute turned on via ALTER: AUDIT CHANGES enables collection of changes in conjunction with CLASS (4) AUDIT ALL enables collection of changes and / or reads with CLASS 4 and/or 5 active Note: When ALTER AUDIT is performed, plan and package invalidation occurs which requires a rebind to be performed
8 Audit class Events that are traced 1.Access attempts that DB2 denies because of inadequate authorization. This class is the default. 2.Explicit GRANT and REVOKE statements and their results. This class does not trace implicit grants and revokes. 3.CREATE, ALTER, and DROP statements that affect audited tables, and the results of these statements. This class traces the dropping of a table that is caused by DROP TABLESPACE or DROP DATABASE and the creation of a table with AUDIT CHANGES or AUDIT ALL. ALTER TABLE statements are audited only when they change the AUDIT option for the table. 4.Changes to audited tables. Only the first attempt to change a table, within a unit of recovery, is recorded. (If the agent or the transaction issues more than one COMMIT statement, the number of audit records increases accordingly.) The changed data is not recorded, only the attempt to make a change is recorded. If the change is not successful and is rolled back, the audit record remains; it is not deleted. This class includes access by the LOAD utility. Accesses to a dependent table that are caused by attempted deletions from a parent table are also audited. The audit record is written even if the delete rule is RESTRICT, which prevents the deletion from the parent table. The audit record is also written when the rule is CASCADE or SET NULL, which can result in deletions that cascade to the dependent table. 5.All read accesses to tables that are identified with the AUDIT ALL clause. As in class 4, only the first access within a DB2 unit of recovery is recorded. References to a parent table are also audited. 6. The bind of static and dynamic SQL statements of the following types: INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, CREATE VIEW, and LOCK TABLE statements for audited tables. Except for the values of host variables, the audit record contains the entire SQL statement. SELECT statements on tables that are identified with the AUDIT ALL clause. Except for the values of host variables, the audit record contains the entire SQL statement. 7. Assignment or change of an authorization ID because of the following reasons: Changes through an exit routine (default or user-written) Changes through a SET CURRENT SQLID statement An outbound or inbound authorization ID translation An ID that is being mapped to a RACF ID from a Kerberos security ticket 8. The start of a utility job, and the end of each phase of the utility.
9 Audit Trace Overhead The performance impact of auditing is directly dependent on the amount of audit data produced. When the audit trace is active, the more tables that are audited and the more transactions that access them, the greater the performance impact. The overhead of audit trace is typically less than 5% but workload dependent. Consider the frequency of certain events. Eg. security violations are not as frequent as table accesses. The frequency of utility runs is likely to be measured in executions per day. Alternatively, authorization changes can be numerous in a transaction environment. Weigh auditing requirements against workload and anticipated impacts to application service levels and performance objectives carefully. Don t underestimate impact on SMF activity and associated overhead
10 DSN1SMFP offline utility The DSN1SMFP utility processes DB2 trace data into reports. DSN1SMFP accepts data that SMF collects in standard SMF format and produces from one to fifteen reports. DSN1SMFP accepts all SMF record types, but it processes only type 101 (DB2 Accounting) and 102 (DB2 Performance) records. DSN1SMFP checks each type 101 and 102 record for DB2 audit trace types of these DB2 IFCIDs: 003: Accounting - DDF Data by Location (security-relevant fields only) 004: Trace Start 005: Trace Stop 023: Utility Start 024: Utility Change 025: Utility End 106: System Parameters (security-relevant fields only) 140: Audit Authorization Failures 141: Audit DDL Grant/Revoke 142: Audit DDL Create/Alter/Drop 143: Audit First Write 144: Audit First Read 145: Audit DML Statement 350: SQL Statement
11 The OMPE File Report command is used to create DB2 Load compatible record formats OMPE File report commands OMPE Audit Detail Report
12 A view of the audit data stored in the OMPE performance warehouse using DB2 Control Center Log RBA can be used to locate details about other actions for the LUW Table OBD will require join with DB2 Catalog SYSTABLES for meaningful reporting
13 Limitations of the audit trace Does not record everything Only records when Audit Trace is ON only the tables that you specifically choose to audit. Does NOT capture before/after change data Only records first access within a single unit of recovery The audit trace does not audit some utilities. eg COPY, RECOVER, REPAIR,DSN1CHKR and DSN1PRNT. You cannot audit the catalog tables. Dynamic SQL host variable data not collected When you choose classes of events to audit, consider that you might ask for more data than you are willing to process. Depending on AUDIT classes active, and workload mix, significant increases in SMF activity might be experienced. One customer scenario, with CLASS (1-6) a 12% increase in SMF was observed.
14 Separation of Roles and Responsibilities DB2 trace based processes are managed by DBA s The DBA s are responsible for generating audit data with which they are in turn audited, this constitutes a significant security risk and exposure Trace data collection can be interfered with or turned off completely DBA can issue DSN Stop Trace Use IFASMFDMP to selectively filter SMF data based on timestamp Use DB2PM (Or Equivalent) filter such as DATE/TIME/EXCLUDE to filter selected records Having the DBA involved in the collection of audit data is viewed as weak from a compliance and control perspective Security and Auditors with system privileges Also viewed as problematic from a compliance perspective Requires additional technical skills not within their core competencies Misuse of privileges without coordination can result in performance and availability issues Turning on traces without proper filtering to reduce overhead or quantity of trace data collected Altering objects to AUDIT without ensuring that plan/package invalidation is not an issue
15 Audit Management Expert - Monitor and Audit Helps auditors answer: Who, What, Where, Why, When, How Centralizes the audit data Pulls together disparate data sources from all the systems into a central repository Automates auditing process Eliminates all home grown processes Creates segregation of duties Gives auditors the business activity collected without being reliant on the technical personnel they need to monitor Flexible Reporting Drill down from overview to detail for forensic analysis
16 Audit Management Expert Overview Auditors will be able to Access: SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE activity by user or by object SQL Text and Host Variable value for each statement Row count that SQL statement affects CREATE, ALTER, and DROP operations against an audited object Explicit GRANT and REVOKE operations Utility access to an audited object DB2 commands entered Assignment or modification of an authorization ID Authorization failures Provides auditors with flexible options for examining the data in the audit repository Audit Trace Data, Audit SQL Collector (ASC), Log Analysis data V2.1 no longer needs to alter objects to AUDIT ALL for read/update DB2 Catalog Objects can now be audited for SQL read/update
19 Audit Management Expert GUI Client
20 Audit Management Expert GUI Client
22 Log Analysis Reports
23 Log Analysis Detailed Reports
24 Security and separation of roles Supporting internal and external auditors in collection and reporting of DB2 audit data Does not require auditors to be DB2 defined users within the monitored DB2 system(s) Does not require the auditors to log on to the operating system where the monitored system is running Does not require extensive interaction between the auditor and the system support personnel (DBA/Sys admin) Auditor will not be able to directly manipulate any DB2 resources Provide complete visibility of all auditable objects to an administrator level user Provide controls for limiting visibility to auditors of auditable objects Removes DBA from audit data collection process. With V2.1 removes the ALTER for AUDIT requirement
25 Audit Trace only or Audit Trace and Audit SQL Collector (ASC) AME can collects audit information by using Audit Trace Data, Audit SQL Collector data and Log Analysis data Audit Trace Class 1,2,7 & 8 - little or no overhead 1 Access attempts that DB2 denies, 2 Explicit GRANT and REVOKE, 7 Assignment or change of an authorization ID, 8 start of a utility job Class 3 create, alter, drop of AUDIT ALL Tables - little or no overhead Class 4 & 5 (read, update) may show overhead of 15-18% 4 Changes to AUDIT ALL tables (Only the first attempt within a unit of recovery) 5 Read accesses to AUDIT ALL tables (Only the first attempt within a unit of recovery) IFCID 90 & 91 for DB2 COMMANDS little or no overhead ASC: Using the ASC Audit SQL Collector is an alternative to using Classes 4 & 5 Advantage of using the ASC ASC sees every read or update Collects SQL text, Host Variable value, affected row count Tables do not require AUDIT ALL for read or update AME Agent Started Task starts ASC started task and Audit trace as required If valid collection profile defined for that DB2 Agent definition of collection method Can change collection choice and/or collection profile without stopping Agent
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