Colorado E. Coli Toolbox: A Practical Guide for MS4s. Jane Clary, Wright Water Engineers January 19, 2015

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1 Colorado E. Coli Toolbox: A Practical Guide for MS4s Jane Clary, Wright Water Engineers January 19, 2015

2 WQF History: Colorado E. coli Work Group White Paper Effort White Paper Topics Unresolved Issues (2009) 1. Regulatory Background 2. Colorado Case Studies 3. Sources of Bacteria 4. Monitoring and Assessment of Data 5. Best Management Practices (BMPs) 6. Unresolved Issues 2012: >65 stream segments listed in on CO 303(d) or M&E lists for E. coli in 2008: 22 segments listed as impaired) 1. Inland Flowing Waters and 1986 Criteria 2. Use of E. coli as Basis for Recreational Stream Standard 3. Wildlife/Environmental Contributions and Implications for TMDLs 4. Recreational Use Classifications: Primary vs. Not Primary 5. TMDL Endpoints

3 EPA s 2012 Update of Recreational Water Quality Criteria

4 2014 UWRRC Pathogens Report 1. Introduction 2. Basic regulatory background 3. Sources of FIB in urban areas 4. Predicting fate and transport 5. Monitoring and source tracking 6. Statistical analysis 7. Source controls 8. Structural controls 9. TMDL case studies 10. Research needs 11. And 40 pages of references Available for free download at: collaborate.ewrinstitute.org

5 Colorado E. coli Toolbox Effort UDFCD & City and County of Denver 1. Basics of E. coli Standards/TMDLs 2. Source Identification 3. Developing a Control Strategy 4. Source Controls 5. Structural Controls 6. Modeling (limited) 7. Site-specific Standards Target Length: 60 pages

6 Introduction/Basics Colorado Recreational Water Quality Criteria and Recreational Use Impairment Colorado s Approach(es) to E. Coli TMDLs Who Should be at the Table? Local Government Wastewater/Utilities Stormwater/MS4 Parks and Open Space Social/Community Services Police State/Federal Government Water Quality Control Division Parks and Wildlife U.S. EPA Region 8 Non- Governmental Organizations/ Non-profits Environmental Organizations Coalitions for Homeless Citizens: Businesses & Residents Restaurants Private Garbage Collection Services Recreators Residents

7 Finding the Source(s) of E coli Common Sources in Urban Areas Prioritizing Sources for Investigation Source Identification Methods Basic FIB Monitoring in Impaired Waters Source Tracking Toolbox Dry Weather Outfall Screening Flow Fingerprinting/ Chemical Tracer Methodologies Advanced Monitoring Using Microbial Source Tracking Managing and Interpreting Data Flow Chart Source: Geosyntec

8 Developing a Control Strategy Dry vs. Wet Weather Prioritizing Sources Cost & Effectiveness of Controls (Graphic Source: San Diego River Watershed Comprehensive Load Reduction Plan Phase II [Tetra Tech 2014])

9 Source Control BMPs Education and Outreach Repair of Aging Infrastructure and Correcting Illicit Connections Maintenance of Storm Sewers and Stormwater Controls Street Cleaning Downspout Disconnections/MDCIA Pet Waste Disposal and Pet Control Ordinances Animal Facilities Management (Doggy Daycares, Hobby Farms) Bird Controls Drawing upon existing Fact Sheets in UDFCD s Volume 3, Colorado Stormwater Council, Others Urban Wildlife (Mammals) Irrigation, Car Washing, Power Washing Good Housekeeping/Trash Management (Dumpsters, Restaurants, Garbage Cans) Mobile Sources of Human Waste: Portable Toilets and RV Dumping Septic Systems /OWTSs Homeless Encampment Outreach and Enforcement River Cleanup

10 Structural Control Practices Low-Flow Diversions for Dry Weather Flows Passive Stormwater Structural BMPs Urban Stormwater BMPs and Expected Effectiveness for Bacteria BMP Performance Findings from the International Stormwater BMP Database Optimizing BMP Designs to Enhance Bacteria Removal Considerations for Evaluating Proprietary Devices Active Disinfection Practices Treatment Systems Being Pilot Tested in Denver

11 Bacteria BMP Modeling Types of models Limitations Data needs Planning applications BMP placement Load reductions Multi-pollutant benefits Cost estimates

12 Regulatory Considerations/Site- Specific Standards Epidemiological studies Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) EPA s Framework for Use of QMRA for Developing Site-Specific Standards Practical Considerations for Monitoring to Support QMRA Alternative Indicators or Methods Source: Soller et al. 2010

13 Closing Thoughts on Common Challenges with E. coli TMDLs/Implementation Plans Inadequate data for meaningful TMDL development or implementation plans Drawing erroneous conclusions from seasonally imbalanced or limited data sets Assuming the problem Assuming the solution Within local governments: Difficulties managing long-term data and special studies conducted by various entities over time Integrating metadata in addition to E. coli data Integrating work by multiple departments

14 Games with E. coli Data

15 Same Data Set: Historical Annual E. coli Summary ( )

16 Questions or Topics of Interest for Toolbox? Jane Clary Wright Water Engineers

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