LTE network in a box. Nokia Networks

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1 Nokia Networks LTE network in a box Public safety networks will gradually evolve to LTE-based technology in the coming years. Such networks must offer much higher resilience and service availability than traditional mobile networks, making the public safety market the key driver for LTE-based network-in-a-box (NIB) solutions. A pre-installed NIB can be used to recover from network failures, whereas a rapidly deployable NIB can be used at the scene of an emergency outside wide area network coverage. Commercial mobile operators can enhance services with NIB, for example by offering high quality, reliable services in remote locations. NIB is also valid recovery solution in commercial networks. Several industry sectors, including oil, gas, energy, mining and healthcare, can use LTE and NIB to better meet their communication needs. Nokia Networks white paper LTE network in a box

2 Contents Network in a box meets many demands 3 LTE network in a box 4 LTE network in a box use cases 8 Nokia s position 12 References 13 Innovation is happening right now at Nokia Many of the innovations from previous years described in this document are still relevant today and have been developed to support the optimization of mobile broadband networks and services. Looking ahead, Nokia will continue to focus on innovation and we will be updating this document to reflect the latest developments. Page 2

3 Network in a box meets many demands Cellular networks encompass several functions normally distributed across different network elements and geographical locations. Commercial or private mobile networks can comprise thousands of base station sites, while core network functions are typically located only in a few centralized sites. Network in a box (NIB) is a fairly old term to describe a system in which the main mobile network functions are integrated into a small box. NIB for LTE includes the enodeb and integrated evolved packet core (EPC) functions. Many NIB uses require additional integrated functions, especially for voice communications. Public safety communication is key market for LTE NIB solutions. Public safety networks are expected to start migrating from current technologies, such as TETRA and P25, to LTE in the coming years. Deployable NIB can provide communications in uninhabited areas without existing network coverage, while pre-installed NIB is an effective recovery solution for mitigating network failures. 3GPP will focus on public safety resilience and its Release 13 will specify isolated E-UTRAN operations for public safety. The Rel-13 specifications are planned to be ready in early Fig. 1. NIB can be installed on a trailer for rapid deployment LTE NIB allows commercial mobile operators to develop their data services, for example for enterprise customers. Furthermore, operators can use NIB to deploy reliable mobile broadband to remote locations, sometimes in areas with commonly occurring natural disasters like tropical cyclones. In some situations, industry sectors often prefer dedicated private networks instead of commercial services. NIB meets their requirements for secure wireless communication. For example, a private network for an oil platform could be justified by the need to use only special safe mobile devices in the high risk environment and guarantee reliable wireless connections for automation systems. Page 3

4 LTE network in a box Overview A LTE NIB is a compact box including enodeb base station and tightly integrated EPC or mini-core. NIB offers standard authorized IP connectivity for LTE users. NIB can integrate additional functions and provide for example communication services such as Voice over LTE (VoLTE) and push-to-talk group communication for public safety. The local EPC mini-core can serve also neighboring enodebs, if transmission connections are available. Base station options Typical enodeb for NIB solution has macro site coverage and capacity performance. Especially deployable NIB solutions benefit from compact size. Therefore enodeb should be suitable for outdoors without a bulky cabinet. Preferably the enodeb platform can run LTE core network software in a virtualized environment. Some NIB use cases benefit from low power consumption and extremely small physical size of micro or pico cells. Such enodeb products may not have adequate processing power for core functions in which case for example additional industry PC hardware can be used for LTE core network software. Rest of this paper focuses on examples and use cases based on macro enodeb. RF module System module NIB SW integrated in system module enodeb EPC Fig. 2. Example of compact NIB integration to macro site enodeb Page 4

5 Core network functions NIB includes key EPC functions for authorized access, session and mobility management, and IP connectivity. Additional core network services, such as VoLTE, can also be included. NIB architecture must be flexible for a set of use cases anticipated and especially for future evolution. Management and deployment of core network functions and applications can be eased by utilizing network functions virtualization (NFV) technologies. Access authentication and authorization: Subscriber data held in the NIB Local Home Subscriber Server (HSS) can be specific to local users, or can be replicated data from a master HSS in a centralized core network. Session and mobility management: The Local Mobility Management Entity (MME) provides the S1 control plane interface to the enodeb to support relevant functions including session and mobility management. The MME can serve multiple enodebs when S1 connections are available to neighboring enodeb sites. IP connectivity: The Local Serving Gateway (SGW) and Packet Data Network Gateway (PDN-GW) provide user plane data services and enable local device-to-device IP connections; IP connections to external IP servers; and handovers between neighboring enodebs with S1 connections. NIB also includes Domain name Server (DNS) and firewall functions. Security and QoS features: Nokia NIB complies with standard 3GPP security features for authentication, integrity protection and encryption. It also supports 3GPP Quality of Service (QoS) for default bearers based on subscriber QoS settings in the HSS. Dynamic QoS is supported for dedicated bearers when NIB includes the Policy and Charging Rules Function (PCRF). Additional services: When NIB provides VoLTE service, the PCRF controls the Guaranteed Bit Rate (GBR) bearers and Call Session Control Function (CSCF) together with Telecom Application Server (TAS) include voice service registration and call control functions. Also other functions and applications can be integrated including 3GPP Rel-12 group communication system enablers (GCSE) and proximity services (ProSe), Rel-13 mission critical push to talk (MCPTT) application server as well as local video broadcasting, video and sensor edge analytics, local content at the network edge for rapid access and augmented reality, and location-based services. Page 5

6 Network architecture scenarios A NIB can be used as a standalone LTE network without connections to external networks or NIB can offer locally selected core function while rest of core function are served by centralized core network. The following scenarios are the most typical: Isolated network: A deployable NIB solution can provide complete LTE network service without any transmission connection to external networks. NIB can also support multiple enodebs connected with S1 interfaces, enabling it to act as a back-up core network for a region should neighboring enodebs lose transport connection to a centralized core site. Support remote locations: A NIB can optimize services in a remote location with limited transmission connection. Local breakout deployment: A NIB can support a local breakout solution when the local traffic volume is high, for example at enterprise sites. When applicable, Nokia NIB can use IP security for connections to the operator s centralized core site. Deployable NIB > EPC enables access for selected users (HSS data) > UEs can communicate within enb coverage area enb + EPC NIB serving isolated area after transport failure > NIB EPC enables access for selected users (HSS data) > UEs can communicate within area served by NIB and multiple enbs X transport failure enb + EPC S1, X2 enb enb UE UE Fig. 3. Single enodeb NIB as deployable standalone LTE network. NIB as backup core network. Page 6

7 Split core due to limited transport option 1 > NIB packet core optimizes local connectivity and mobility > Centralized HSS for authentication and network access > UEs can communicate with broadband performance locally Split core due to limited transport option 2 > Optionally localized broadband content and services can be offered HSS enb + MME+ SAE-GW enb Limited transport > Narrow bandwidth > High latency S1, X2 enb E.g. satellite HSS enb + MME+ SAE-GW S1, X2 enb Limited transport SGi Local data services UE UE Fig. 4. NIB optimization when transport connection to centralized core is limited. Split core for local breakout option 1 > NIB can optimize local traffic routing > For example local breakout for enterprise intranet traffic Split core for local breakout option 2 > NIB can optimize local VoLTE calls HSS IMS, TAS Internet HSS Internet enb + MME+ SAE-GW S1, X2 SGi enb + MME+ SAE-GW + PCRF + P-CSCF S1, X2 SGi enb Local data services enb Local data services UE UE Fig. 5. Local breakout with NIB. Deployment considerations Due to multiple NIB solution alternatives with varying network architectures and functional requirements that differ from traditional network deployments, attention must be drawn to design, implementation, integration, field verification and optimization of NIB solutions. Page 7

8 LTE network in a box use cases Isolated operations for LTE public safety Many public safety agencies and organizations are already investigating how to evolve evolution from their existing networks to LTE-based solutions. LTE supports a wide variety of services, from high bandwidth data services to real-time communication services all in a common IP-based network. Mission-critical communication during emergencies sets strict requirements for the network. NIB supports public safety and defence-related scenarios that require a mix of data (e.g. group messaging, location data, video streams, sensor data etc.) and voice services. Such advanced indoor and outdoor services must securely and reliably connect people and machines as well as support mobility using a light infrastructure. NIB can provide wireless communication in all conditions, a key requirement for LTE-based public safety services. Although LTE public safety devices will support direct mode operation (DMO), also known as device-to-device (D2D) communication, the coverage and communication capabilities are limited when network support is missing. NIB improves network resilience and provides a rapidly deployable solution for locations without existing network coverage. > Private LTE network as a deployable system for public safety forces (police, firefighters, disaster recovery) > Compact and robust, can be mounted into even small vehicles > Ready to operate within minutes, covers also larger areas when used with telescopic mast > Fully autonomous system, no backhaul required > Secure mobile broadband communications. For example increased situational awareness with video monitoring cameras and body cameras Fig. 6. Deployable NIB for public safety. It is feasible to design and implement LTE public safety networks to include a NIB as a back-up for a set of enodeb sites. Should the backhaul transmission connection to the centralized core network site be lost, the local NIB can provide the necessary core network services for a group of neighboring enodebs fitted with S1 fallback connections to the NIB EPC (See Figure 3). Page 8

9 Typically, countries have sparsely populated or uninhabited areas without network coverage, but incidents such as forest fires require emergency response. A rapidly deployable NIB with a macro sized enodeb brings vital communications to the responders over an area of several square kilometers. In normal conditions macro network EPC is serving the enodebs and public safety devices. Because isolated operation offers limited communication services, the mobile devices must detect it and inform the users. At the time of writing 3GPP has just started evaluating technical alternatives for isolated E-UTRAN operation for public safety (IOPS). Expected solution for detecting isolated operation is to assign dedicated public land mobile network identifier (PLMN ID) when enodeb enters isolated operation mode. Dedicated PLMN ID allows mobile device to differentiate easily cells operating in normal mode from isolated mode cells. Remote hotspot Broadband communication services in rural areas and remote locations can be poor. Quite often there is no fixed optical connectivity and external communication may rely on expensive satellite links. Substantial numbers of people live in regions affected by regular tropical storms that often damage telecommunication systems. Thus there is a need to improve telecom services in remote locations. LTE coverage extension to remote location Satellite Site with local EPC Optional local services & CDN/caching Operator LTE network > Extends commercial LTE services into geographical white spots such as rural areas, islands, deep valleys, cruise ships > Allows for various transport options like MWR, satellite, or wireline connection Centralized LTE core IP edge Internet Fig. 7. NIB for remote hotspots. LTE and NIB can be deployed to remote areas to enhance and improve the reliability of communications and data services. NIB can also be used to introduce local broadband services even in places served by satellite links. Local authorities can offer online services for inhabitants via local content servers. Page 9

10 Enterprise data services Mobile operators typically offer a large portfolio of services for businesses. Services include mobile communication and mobile broadband, together with various value-add options such as mobile devices, security and VPNs, applications and cloud services. Many enterprises have already migrated from fixed telephone lines to enterprise VoIP and mobile voice. However, mobile broadband has now reached a level of performance and cost that makes LTE a viable alternative to WiFi and Ethernet for mobile employees. LTE NIB is an attractive opportunity for mobile operators to offer wireless campus solutions for their business customers. Because a large portion of the data traffic generated by employee business mobile devices is internal to the enterprise, NIB provides local breakout in enterprise premises, offloading a significant amount of traffic from the operator s backhaul or centralized core network. This allows enterprises to save WiFi and Ethernet infrastructure. Data center > Mobile operator can offer LTE based mobile office and campus connectivity > Broadband data connection for smartphones, tablets and laptops and high quality VoLTE and VoIP with same infrastructure > NIB provides local breakout to enterprise IT solutions. Enterprise intranet traffic does not load operator backhaul or centralized packet core > Even enterprise internal voice calls can be routed locally Fig. 8. NIB for enterprise local breakout. Page 10

11 Mining - Industry example Mining is an industry that could benefit from LTE and NIB. Large openpit mines can be tens of square kilometers in size, which means that communications must be possible over distances ranging from a few kilometers to tens of kilometers. A wide area communication solution would be more efficient than, for example, a wired network and WiFi access points. Automation brings higher safety to mines and requires wireless machine communications to autonomous drilling and haulage system. Wireless communication is not only used to control systems remotely, but also for sending live video to a control room. NIB can provide the local connectivity and communications needed for managing autonomous mining systems, for collecting sensor data (e.g. vibration and pressure sensors), and for employee communication. NIB can serve multiple enodebs to support large sites and mining companies with multiple locations connected to centralized operations and control rooms. Large companies could centralize some NIB functions, but for operational continuity and safety would use easily local NIBs in the mining areas. > Private LTE network for secure and reliable wide area communication > VoLTE, messaging and industry specific applications for employees > Improved security with live video monitoring and real time data from vibration and pressure sensors > Enables autonomous drilling and haulage systems Fig. 9. NIB fulfilling all communication requirements in mining area. Page 11

12 Nokia s position Nokia has been developing and providing LTE public safety solutions for many years. It has several customer references including the world s first dedicated LTE Public Safety network for Qatar s Ministry of Interior, deployed in Current Nokia LTE products support 3GPP Release 11, which provides an excellent broadband data system for public protection and disaster relief. Nokia is driving the 3GPP standardization of public safety specific features in Releases 12 and 13 and its products will support Rel-12 and Rel-13 public safety specific features once standardization is complete. Nokia expects that public safety will be the key market for LTE network in a box solutions. 3GPP Rel-13 specifications for isolated E-UTRAN operation will increase the demand for standards compliant NIB implementations. Nokia considers that LTE network in a box will be valuable solution also for commercial mobile operators and different industries. Page 12

13 References TS TS TS TR GPP TS Group Communication System Enablers for LTE (GCSE_LTE); Stage 2 3GPP TS Mission Critical Push to Talk (MCPTT); Stage 1 GPP TS Isolated E-UTRAN operation for public safety; Stage 1 3GPP TR Study on architecture enhancements to support Isolated E-UTRAN Operation for Public Safety Page 13

14 Nokia is a registered trademark of Nokia Corporation. Other product and company names mentioned herein may be trademarks or trade names of their respective owners. Nokia Nokia Solutions and Networks Oy P.O. Box 1 FI Finland Visiting address: Karaportti 3, ESPOO, Finland Switchboard Product code C WP EN Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015

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