# AC Drive Theory and Application

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2 ac Line ac/dc Converter Filter Inverter Motor Speed Regulator Frequency Control FIGURE 1. TYPICAL WI DRIVE BLOCK DIAGRAM The inverter uses either SCRs or transistors as solid-state switches to convert the dc power to a stepped waveform output. The amplitude of the dc bus voltage determines the amplitude of the output voltage. Figure 2 shows typical output voltage and current waveforms for a VVI inverter. The voltage waveform is normally referred to as a six step waveform. Figure 3 is a block diagram of a typical PWM drive. It receives line voltage and converts it to a fixed dc voltage using a 3-phase full wave diode bridge. Since the dc bus is a fixed voltage level, the amplitude of the output voltage is fixed. Modulating the output waveform using IGBT inverter switches controls the effective value of the output voltage. Figure 4 shows the output voltage and current waveforms for the PWM inverter. Line-to- Neutral Line Current FIGURE 2. TYPICAL VVI VOLTAGE AND CURRENT WAVEFORMS ac Line Diode Bridge Rectifier Filter Inverter Motor Speed Reference and Frequency Control FIGURE 3. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF A TYPICAL PWM DRIVE 2 EATON CORPORATION Cutler-Hammer AC Drive Theory and Application Application Guide AP4145E Effective: May 28

3 Line-to Neutral Line Current FIGURE 4. TYPICAL PWM VOLTAGE AND CURRENT WAVEFORMS Principles of Adjustable Frequency Motor Operation Torque Speed Curves The operating speed of an AC induction motor can be determined by the frequency of the applied power and the number of poles created by the stator windings. Synchronous speed is the speed of the magnetic field created in the stator windings. It is given by: N = 12f / p where: n = speed in RPM f = operating frequency p = number of poles When the frequency is changed, the voltage must also be changed, based on the formula for reactance and Ohm s Law. X L = 2 π f L If the voltage is held constant and the frequency is decreased, the magnetic field strength would increase. This increases the iron losses and would cause the motor to burn out. The operating speed of the motor is synchronous speed minus slip. For a design B motor, slip is typically 3%. Figure 5 is a speed/torque curve for a typical NEMA design B motor. There are several important points indicated on the curve. Locked rotor or stall torque is the amount of torque necessary to start the motor under full load conditions. Pull out or breakdown torque is the amount of torque that will cause the motor to pull out or stall. Full load torque is the amount of torque the motor is designed to develop. The operating point is the point where the actual load is causing the motor to operate. Where L = inductance X L = reactance V = voltage I m = magnetizing current I m = V X L Percent Torque 2 Locked Rotor or Stall Torque Load Torque (Friction) Pull Out or Breakdown Torque Operating Point Combining the above equations yields: Slip 1 V I m = π f L f For steady-state operation, a constant volts per hertz ratio must be maintained. This is equal to the motor rated voltage divided by the rated frequency. Example: 46 volt motor 6 hertz 7.67 volts per hertz For the magnetizing current to remain constant, the V/f ratio, or the volts per hertz ratio, must remain constant. Therefore, the voltage must increase and decrease as the frequency increases and decreases Percent Speed Operating Speed Synchronous Speed FIGURE 5. NEMA DESIGN B MOTOR SPEED/TORQUE CURVE EATON CORPORATION Cutler-Hammer AC Drive Theory and Application Application Guide AP4145E Copyright 28 3

5 Soft Start Figure 8 shows torque/frequency and current/frequency at various operating frequencies. From these curves, we can see that when the motor is operating in the normal operating portions (solid lines) of the curves, motor current is directly proportional to motor torque. However, when we operate above 15% current, we can see the ratio of torque to current is significantly less than one. / Percent Current Current Torque Frequency - Hz FIGURE 9. TYPICAL MOTOR PERFORMANCE CURVES Figure 9 shows typical motor performance curves. These curves show that by using a high efficiency motor or by oversizing the motor, a wider constant torque speed range can be realized. Operation above 6 Hz will also give us a wider speed range. Load Characteristics Most loads are divided into two categories: and Horsepower Constant V/Hz (Constant Torque) Operating Range Variable Torque centrifugal fans and pumps Constant Torque conveyors, hoists, etc. Constant V/Hz (Constant hp) Operating Range Intermittent Torque High Efficiency Motor Torque Horsepower S.F. Motor Operating Frequency (Hertz) Horsepower Torque Horsepower FIGURE 8. SPEED/TORQUE AND SPEED/CURRENT CURVES If the motor is line started, we can see from Figure 8 that the current inrush will be approximately 6% of full load current. We can also see that at the 2 Hz curve we are already on the solid portion of the curve at start. This means that if a motor is started at 2 Hz or less we will not require a high starting current. If we start at a low frequency and then increase speed by increasing frequency, the motor will always operate on the solid portion of the curves and never require more than 15% of rated current. Motor Application and Performance Motor Sizing In sizing a drive, we must first match the torque/speed capabilities of the motor to the requirements of the driven load. We can then match the inverter to the motor. AC Drive Motor Torque vs. Speed Capability When a drive is being used in a constant torque application, we must remember that as motor speed is reduced below base speed, motor cooling will become less effective. The minimum speed allowable for continuous operation under constant torque conditions is effected by this limitation. In a variable speed application, we do not have this limitation, as motor load is lower at low speeds Percent Speed FIGURE 1. SPEED VS. TORQUE CONSTANT AND VARIABLE TORQUE The current drawn by an AC motor is proportional to the load torque. The above curves can also represent the motor load current versus speed (when supplied by an AC drive). EATON CORPORATION Cutler-Hammer AC Drive Theory and Application Application Guide AP4145E Copyright 28 5

6 22 6-Pole Motor Intermittent Torque Pole Motor Continuous Torque 4-Pole Motor Continuous Torque Torque for 6-Pole motor is based on percent of rated torque of 4-Pole motor of the same hp rating. Rating torque of 6-Pole motor is 1.5 times of rated torque of same hp 4-Pole motor Frequency (Hz) 18 RPM 4-Pole Motor 18 RPM 6-Pole Motor FIGURE 11. TORQUE SPEED CHARACTERISTICS FOR EXTENDED MOTOR PERFORMANCE Extended Motor Performance We can obtain extended motor performance by operating a motor above its base speed to 9 Hz. If an application was sized by using an 18 RPM motor, we could use a 12 RPM motor of the same size and operate the motor at 18 RPM by increasing the maximum frequency to 9 Hz (see Figure 11). We can see that the% torque ratings are based on % torque equal to the rated torque of a 4-pole motor. The rated torque of a 6-pole motor is 15% of the rated torque of a 4-pole motor of the same rated horsepower. The motor voltage is held constant between 6 Hz and 9 Hz; therefore the available torque follows a constant hp curve. This mode of operation increased the continuous and intermittent torque available over most of the speed range. It increases the breakaway torque to 225%. Continuous constant torque speed range is also increased. Because we have increased the frequency for any given speed by 5%, we have reduced the possibility of clogging. Since we have not increased the operating hp, it is usually not necessary to oversize the drive to obtain extended motor performance. Check the motor current to be sure. Operating Below Rated Motor Speed Most motors have an internal cooling fan. Operation below rated speed reduces the effectiveness of the fan. The motor may overheat. This is usually not a problem for fan or pump applications, since the load is very small at light loads. For constant torque applications, conveyors, hoists, cranes, forced cooling of the motor may be required. The following shows typical torque derating for a fan cooled motor operated below rated frequency Frequency FIGURE 12. MOTOR TORQUE DE-RATING Mechanical resonance may be present below the rated speed. Continued operation at these speeds can effect the performance of the driven equipment, and lead to premature failures. Most AC Drives allow certain speeds (frequencies) to be skipped. This avoids operating at the mechanical resonance speeds (also called critical speeds). 6 EATON CORPORATION Cutler-Hammer AC Drive Theory and Application Application Guide AP4145E Effective: May 28

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Lab 13: Wound rotor induction motor. Objective: to examine the construction of a 3-phase wound rotor induction motor; to understand exciting current, synchronous speed and slip in this motor; to determine

### NEW ADVANCES IN PULSE WIDTH MODULATED SLIP POWER RECOVERY DRIVES FOR PUMPS

NEW ADVANCES IN PULSE WIDTH MODULATED SLIP POWER RECOVERY DRIVES FOR PUMPS Stephan Bondy Douglas Phares Manish Verma Bill Horvath Oil & Gas segment leader Market leader, Global Drives Sales Application

### AC Motor Speed. n s = synchronous speed (in RPM), f = frequency (in Hz), and p = the number of poles

AC Induction Motors Simplest and most rugged electric motor Consists of wound stator and rotor assembly AC in the primary member (stator) induces current in the secondary member (rotor) Combined electromagnetic