Evaporative Cooling for Residential and Light-Commercial

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Evaporative Cooling for Residential and Light-Commercial"

Transcription

1 EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES This article was published in ASHRAE Journal, October Copyright 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. Posted at This article may not be copied and/or distributed electronically or in paper form without permission of ASHRAE. For more information about ASHRAE Journal, visit Evaporative Cooling for Residential and Light-Commercial Cooling on a Small Scale By Alissa Cooperman; John Dieckmann, Member ASHRAE; and James Brodrick, Ph.D., Member ASHRAE With evaporative cooling of the condenser, the outdoor air wetbulb temperature, rather than the dry-bulb temperature, becomes the heat sink temperature. This results in a lower condensing temperature, saving energy. Evaporative cooling of condensers is common in large chillers and in industrial-scale refrigeration equipment, where some level of maintenance cost is easily offset by the energy cost savings. However, in smaller systems, evaporative cooling of condensers generally has been avoided (in favor of air cooling), primarily due to maintenance issues. Depending on the climate, significant energy savings could be obtained through the use of evaporative condenser cooling in residential and light commercial airconditioning systems. Basics Three basic ways (and probably others and variants on these) to implement evaporative condenser cooling are: Directly evaporatively precool the cooling air before it goes through a conventional air-cooled finned condenser coil; Flood water over the condenser coil while air is blown through it; and Use a cooling tower to evaporatively cool cooling water, which in turn cools a water-cooled condenser. The first method can be compared to air cooling with equal cooling airflow rates through identical air cooled finned condenser coils, at Air-Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI)-prescribed conditions (outdoor dry and wet bulb temperatures of 95 F [35 C] and 75 F [23 C], respectively, with the cooling air evaporatively precooled in one case and not evaporatively precooled in the other). As shown in Figure 1, in the air cooling case (no evaporative precooling), cooling air enters the condenser at 95 F (35 C) and warms to 110 F (43 C) (a 15 F [8 C] rise) as it removes heat from the condensing refrigerant (this temperature rise corresponds to a cooling airflow rate of approximately 900 cfm [425 L/s] per ton of cooling capacity). The condensing temperature must be above the leaving air temperature. In this case it is assumed to be 120 F (49 C). With the air evaporatively precooled, the dry-bulb temperature approaches the wet-bulb temperature. For this example, it is assumed that the dry-bulb temperature is reduced to 80 F (27 C) (reduced by three-fourths of the difference between the dry- and wet-bulb temperatures). To a first order, everything else is the same, so the leaving air temperature is 95 F (35 C), which is 15 F (8 C) higher than the entering air temperature. The condensing temperature is 105 F (41 C), which is 10 F (6 C) higher than the leaving air temperature and 15 F (8 o C) lower than the condensing temperature with air cooling. This difference in condensing temperature typically results in about a 30% increase in the compressor energy efficiency ratio (EER). With Method 2, as the air goes through the condenser and warms up, more water can evaporate, effectively increasing the specific heat of the air several-fold (the combined sensible heat capacity and incremental latent heat capacity as the saturation humidity ratio increases as the air temperature increases). If the air does not have to get as warm to carry away the heat, the condensing temperature can be even lower. Figure 2 compares this method of evaporative condenser cooling with air cooling using the same assumptions that are the basis for Figure 1 (air drybulb temperature within 5 F [3 C] of the wet-bulb temperature, 10 F [6 C] temperature difference between the leaving air and condensing temperatures, 900 cfm [425 L/s] per ton cooling airflow rate). With evaporative cooling throughout the condenser air side, the air temperature rise is only 4 F (2 C) and the resulting condensing temperature is 94 F (34 C), 26 F (14 C) less than the air-cooled case, with an increase in compressor EER of more than 50%. Method 3 (cooling tower + water cooled condenser) is the most common configuration for large systems. Following standard design assumptions for cooling towers and water cooled condensers, the cooling water will leave the cooling 84 ASHRAE Journal ashrae.org October 2011

2

3 EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES 120 Condensing Temperature Air-Cooled 120 Condensing Temperature Air-Cooled Temperature ( F) Condensing Temperature Evaporatively Precooled Cooling Air DB Temperature Air-Cooled Cooling Air DB Temperature Evaporatively Precooled Temperature ( F) Cooling Air DB Temperature Air-Cooled Condensing Temperature Evaporatively Cooled Cooling Air DB Temperature Evaporatively Cooled Percent of Total Heat Rejection Percent of Total Heat Rejection Figure 1 (left): Comparison of air-cooled and evaporatively precooled condenser performance. Figure 2 (right): Comparison of air-cooled and evaporatively cooled (Method 2) condenser performance. tower 7 F (4 C) higher than the wet-bulb temperature, the cooling water will leave the condenser 10 F (6 C) higher than the entering temperature and the condensing temperature will be 5 F (3 C) higher than the leaving water temperature, therefore: condensing temperature = 75 F + 7 F + 10 F + 5 F = 97 F This is 23 F (13 C) lower than the condensing temperature with air cooling, similar to Method 2. Technology Status Evaporative precoolers and evaporatively cooled condenser coils are the most commonly used technologies in the evaporatively cooled residential condenser market. An evaporative precooler operates by drawing outdoor air over a wetted evaporative medium. This stage brings the outdoor air close to its wet-bulb temperature, reducing the inlet air temperature to the condenser, thereby lowering the condensing temperature (Method 1, as described previously). It can be comprised of a wraparound evaporative medium and a sump pump that keeps the medium wetted. A fan draws the outdoor air through the medium. Alternatively, the condenser coils can be sprayed with water as outdoor air is drawn over them or immersed in cooled water. These methods increase heat transfer between the refrigerant and the heat sink due to increased evaporative heat transfer coefficients and the latent heat as the water changes from liquid to vapor. One such technology uses an evaporative medium to cool the sump water, in which the condenser coils are submerged, to within 5 F to 10 F (3 C to 6 C) of the wet-bulb temperature (essentially a small cooling tower). The evaporatively cooled water cools the submerged condenser coils with the water and high side refrigerant flowing counter to each other (Method 3, as described previously). 1,2 Evaporative condenser (EC) technology is sensitive to water quality. Hard water leads to deposits on the outside of the condenser coils, and clogging of the spray nozzles. One company s solution to this problem involves condenser coils suspended such that the vibrations of normal operation shake any collected scale loose, wide spray nozzles to prevent blockage by scale, and sacrificial anode rods to prevent coil corrosion. 3 Another company is exploring a hybrid air and water cooled condenser. Scale is less likely to build up on cooler condenser coils; one company noted scale buildup on the outermost, hot- 86 ASHRAE Journal October 2011

4 test condenser coils versus their inner cooler coils. In its new hybrid EC design, the refrigerant temperature is first cooled through air cooling, and then by water cooling. This company is aiming to make its new hybrid evaporative condenser resistant to scale buildup. 4 Though EC technology consumes water, the overall water consumption of the unit is a small percentage of a household s yearly water consumption. For example, an average family of three in the U.S. consumes about 100,000 gallons ( L) of water annually. An EC consumes about 2,000 gallons (7600 L) of water annually, or about 2% of average annual water consumption. 3 Despite component sensitivities, EC units perform better than air-cooled units over a wider temperature range. As the temperature increases beyond 100 F (38 C), air-cooled units suffer from capacity reductions of up to 24%; it is customary to oversize these units such that capacity reductions due to outdoor temperature rise do not hinder cooling ability. With the negligible cooling capacity losses experienced by EC units as the temperature rises, the required unit size is a half to whole ton smaller than a vapor compression unit serving the same space. 3 A trend in the residential EC market is coupling the technology with geothermal heat pumps and swimming pools, as heat reservoirs. When coupled with a swimming pool, the EC air conditioner provides essentially free pool heating. 4 Energy Savings In ideal climate conditions, evaporatively cooled condensers provide increased efficiency over conventional vapor compression cycles. The ideal climate is one in which relative humidity is low and outdoor temperature is very high. This makes evaporatively cooled condensers ideal for California and desert climates. EC technology works in all climates. Manufacturers of EC technology have reported that their products have been sold and used throughout the United States, providing savings on cooling. A study of evaporative condenser technology in California by Pacific Gas and Electric found that EC units are more efficient than conventional air-conditioning units having seasonal energy efficiency ratios (SEER) of both 10 and 12 and demand less energy (10 SEER was the minimum required efficiency at the time that the study was done). Between 85 F and 110 F (29 C and 43 C), the SEER 10 unit studied lost approximately 16% of its cooling capacity, whereas the evaporatively precooled condenser lost 7% and the evaporatively cooled condenser lost only 4%. October 2011 ASHRAE Journal 87

5 EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Across the same temperature range, electric power demand was lowest for the evaporatively cooled condenser, 1.64 kw to 1.94 kw. The SEER 10 unit required 3.08 kw to 3.59 kw, or almost double the electric power required to operate the evaporatively cooled condenser unit. The units studied were lab and field tested; the field results confirmed the performance seen in the lab. 1 Of the technologies compared, SEER 10 and SEER 12 conventional air-conditioning units, an evaporatively precooled condenser, and an evaporatively cooled condenser, the latter provided the greatest monetary savings. Climate zone-dependent annual savings from $30 to more than $100 relative to SEER 10 technology were realized using DOE modeling software. Additionally, the savings increased with the severity of the climate region. The hotter and dryer it was, the better the unit outperformed its air-cooled counterpart. For the climatic regions of California, widespread use of EC technology has the potential to save energy and money. 1 Overall, EC units demand less energy and maintain their design capacity at higher temperatures than vapor compression units. However, both types of units demand more electricity as the outdoor air temperature rises. The primary difference is that the demand profile for an EC air conditioner is flatter than that of a conventional model. Projected demand savings for an evaporatively cooled condenser are at least 35% higher than those of an evaporatively precooled condenser: 0.5 kw to 1.1 kw compared to 1.1 kw to 1.7 kw, respectively. 1 Market Factors Clear benefits, energy and monetary savings, can be found from installing an evaporative condenser. The savings depend on climactic conditions: EC performs best in hot and dry places. However, its efficacy can be realized throughout U.S. climatic regions. One manufacturer has installed units throughout Texas, Nevada, and California, as well as in New Orleans and New York City. 5 Another manufacturer of evaporative condensers has witnessed the highest monetary savings from the use of his product in Key West, Fla. 6 A manufacturer of evaporative precooling for condensers has installed its product across the U.S. 7 The efficiency advantages of the technology are reduced in more humid climates, but still provide energy savings. 5 In addition, the unit s water consumption, though relatively minimal, is of concern for hot and dry climates where water is scarce. EC units come with maintenance concerns: scale 88 ASHRAE Journal October 2011

6 build-up, nozzle blockage, bacteria or other growth in the water, and lifetime of the evaporative media. Solutions to these problems include flexible condenser tubes, suspended condenser tubes that vibrate during normal operation, wide water spray nozzles, condenser tube coatings, sacrificial anodes, and sump water purging. Concerns about the water used by evaporative condensers can be offset by considering that the reduction in energy consumed is equivalent to less energy produced and thus less water consumed by the power plant. One study found that one-third of the water used by EC technology would be offset by the reduced water use at the power plant. Additionally, systems with smart purging based on either time intervals or water mineral content would help to conserve water. 8 At the time of the PG&E study, a SEER 10 residential AC unit cost approximately $2,500 whereas SEER 12 units were approximately $150/ton to $250/ton ($43/kW to $71/kW) more, units with evaporative precooling were about $180/ ton to $200/ton ($51/kW to $57/kW) more, and evaporative condensers were about $300/ton to $350/ton ($85/kW to $100/kW) more expensive. The average AC unit with an evaporatively precooled condenser was about $3,500 whereas the average AC unit with an evaporative condenser was about $ Of the EC technologies on the market, an evaporatively cooled condenser is the most interchangeable with current systems. Unlike direct or indirect evaporative cooling of the indoor air, neither airflow nor ventilation requirements change. An air conditioner with an evaporatively cooled condenser can be connected to current ducting Shelton, S Phone conversation. ADVEN, LLC. 6. Bacchus, R Phone conversation. RR&P LLC. 7. Nicolini, M Phone conversation. Premier Industries. 8. Reichmuth, H., et al Assessment of Market-Ready Evaporative Technologies for HVAC Applications. New Buildings Institute. Alissa Cooperman is a technologist and John Dieckmann is a director in the Mechanical Systems Group of TIAX, Cambridge, Mass. James Brodrick, Ph.D., is a project manager with the Building Technologies Program, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. References 1. Hoeschele, M., et al Evaporative Condensers: The Next Generation in Residential Air Conditioning. Davis Energy Group and Pacific Gas and Electric Company. tinyurl.com/hoeschele. 2. Davis Energy Group Evaluation of Residential Evaporative Condensers in PG&E Service Territory. Davis Keesee, M., and D. Bisbee The AquaChill. Energy Efficiency, Customer Research & Development, Sacramento Municipal Utility District. AquaChill. 4. Word, M Phone conversation. Thermal~Flow. October 2011 ASHRAE Journal 89

Power Plant Water Use By Alissa Cooperman; John Dieckmann, Member ASHRAE; and James Brodrick, Ph.D., Member ASHRAE S

Power Plant Water Use By Alissa Cooperman; John Dieckmann, Member ASHRAE; and James Brodrick, Ph.D., Member ASHRAE S EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES This article was published in ASHRAE Journal, January 2012. Copyright 2012 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. Posted at www.ashrae.org.

More information

Large Energy Savings Per Installation VFDs for Large Chillers

Large Energy Savings Per Installation VFDs for Large Chillers This article was published in ASHRAE Journal, June 2010. Copyright 2010 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. Reprinted here by permission from ASHRAE at www.tiaxllc.com.

More information

The Mean Green Cooling MachineTM www.aqua-chill.com

The Mean Green Cooling MachineTM www.aqua-chill.com The Mean Green Cooling MachineTM www.aqua-chill.com Runs Less. Cools More. What is AquaChill? AquaChill is not a swamp cooler. Aqua Chill is a water cooled evaporative air conditioner. A water cooled system

More information

COMMERCIAL HVAC CHILLER EQUIPMENT. Air-Cooled Chillers

COMMERCIAL HVAC CHILLER EQUIPMENT. Air-Cooled Chillers COMMERCIAL HVAC CHILLER EQUIPMENT Air-Cooled Chillers Technical Development Programs (TDP) are modules of technical training on HVAC theory, system design, equipment selection and application topics. They

More information

Optimization of Water - Cooled Chiller Cooling Tower Combinations

Optimization of Water - Cooled Chiller Cooling Tower Combinations Optimization of Water - Cooled Chiller Cooling Tower Combinations by: James W. Furlong & Frank T. Morrison Baltimore Aircoil Company The warm water leaving the chilled water coils is pumped to the evaporator

More information

Energy Efficiency. Energy Efficient Home Cooling:

Energy Efficiency. Energy Efficient Home Cooling: Energy Efficiency Energy Efficient Home Cooling: Choosing an air conditioning system is an important decision. A poor choice may be costly to purchase and operate and yet fail to provide the desired cooling

More information

Creating Efficient HVAC Systems

Creating Efficient HVAC Systems Creating Efficient HVAC Systems Heating and Cooling Fundamentals for Commercial Buildings Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems account for nearly half of the energy used in a typical

More information

ENERGY EFFICIENT HVAC DESIGN FOR WARM-HUMID CLIMATE CLIMATE

ENERGY EFFICIENT HVAC DESIGN FOR WARM-HUMID CLIMATE CLIMATE ENERGY EFFICIENT HVAC DESIGN FOR WARM-HUMID CLIMATE CLIMATE Overview of Design Conditions: Air conditioning system consumes most of the energy that a building needs in its operation. In order to reduce

More information

Rittal White Paper 508: Economized Data Center Cooling Defining Methods & Implementation Practices By: Daniel Kennedy

Rittal White Paper 508: Economized Data Center Cooling Defining Methods & Implementation Practices By: Daniel Kennedy Rittal White Paper 508: Economized Data Center Cooling Defining Methods & Implementation Practices By: Daniel Kennedy Executive Summary Data center owners and operators are in constant pursuit of methods

More information

Wet Bulb Temperature and Its Impact on Building Performance

Wet Bulb Temperature and Its Impact on Building Performance Wet Bulb Temperature and Its Impact on Building Performance By: Kurmit Rockwell, PE, CEM, LEED AP and Justin Lee, PE, LEED, AP BD+C Energy Solution Services, AtSite, Inc. 1 What is Wet Bulb Temperature?

More information

ENERGY EFFICIENT HVAC DESIGN FOR COMPOSITE CLIMATE

ENERGY EFFICIENT HVAC DESIGN FOR COMPOSITE CLIMATE ENERGY EFFICIENT HVAC DESIGN FOR COMPOSITE CLIMATE Overview of Design Conditions: Air conditioning system consumes most of the energy that a building needs in its operation. In order to reduce energy consumption

More information

SECTION 5 COMMERCIAL REFRIGERATION UNIT 22 CONDENSERS

SECTION 5 COMMERCIAL REFRIGERATION UNIT 22 CONDENSERS SECTION 5 COMMERCIAL REFRIGERATION UNIT 22 CONDENSERS UNIT OBJECTIVES After studying this unit, the reader should be able to explain the purpose of the condenser in a refrigeration system. describe differences

More information

Glossary of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Terms

Glossary of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Terms Glossary of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Terms Air Change: Unlike re-circulated air, this is the total air required to completely replace the air in a room or building. Air Conditioner: Equipment

More information

Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning Equipment

Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning Equipment FinAnswer Express Utah Incentive Catalog Effective as of May 19, 2012 Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning Equipment Rocky Mountain Power provides incentives for many types of energy-efficient technologies.

More information

International Telecommunication Union SERIES L: CONSTRUCTION, INSTALLATION AND PROTECTION OF TELECOMMUNICATION CABLES IN PUBLIC NETWORKS

International Telecommunication Union SERIES L: CONSTRUCTION, INSTALLATION AND PROTECTION OF TELECOMMUNICATION CABLES IN PUBLIC NETWORKS International Telecommunication Union ITU-T TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDIZATION SECTOR OF ITU Technical Paper (13 December 2013) SERIES L: CONSTRUCTION, INSTALLATION AND PROTECTION OF TELECOMMUNICATION CABLES

More information

Heat Recovery In Retail Refrigeration

Heat Recovery In Retail Refrigeration This article was published in ASHRAE Journal, February 2010. Copyright 2010 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. Posted at www.ashrae.org. This article may not

More information

Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning Equipment

Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning Equipment FinAnswer Express Wyoming Incentive Catalog Effective as of October 1, 2011 Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning Equipment Rocky Mountain Power provides incentives for many types of energy efficient

More information

KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA SAUDI ARABIAN STANDARDS ORGANIZATION SASO. SAUDI STANDARD DRAFT No. 3457/2005

KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA SAUDI ARABIAN STANDARDS ORGANIZATION SASO. SAUDI STANDARD DRAFT No. 3457/2005 KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA SAUDI ARABIAN STANDARDS ORGANIZATION SASO SAUDI STANDARD DRAFT No. 3457/2005 NON-DUCTED AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS TESTING AND RATING PERFORMANCE This standard is developed

More information

MODELLING AND OPTIMIZATION OF DIRECT EXPANSION AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM FOR COMMERCIAL BUILDING ENERGY SAVING

MODELLING AND OPTIMIZATION OF DIRECT EXPANSION AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM FOR COMMERCIAL BUILDING ENERGY SAVING MODELLING AND OPTIMIZATION OF DIRECT EXPANSION AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM FOR COMMERCIAL BUILDING ENERGY SAVING V. Vakiloroaya*, J.G. Zhu, and Q.P. Ha School of Electrical, Mechanical and Mechatronic Systems,

More information

Dehumidification Frequently Asked Questions

Dehumidification Frequently Asked Questions Dehumidification Basics Why do you want to keep indoor Rh between 30-60%? ASHRAE recommends keeping the relative humidity in a home between 30-60% to limit the effects of many unwanted conditions and harmful

More information

How Ground/Water Source Heat Pumps Work

How Ground/Water Source Heat Pumps Work How Ground/Water Source s Work Steve Kavanaugh, Professor Emeritus of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alabama Ground Source s (a.k.a. Geothermal s) are becoming more common as the costs of energy

More information

HVAC Systems: Overview

HVAC Systems: Overview HVAC Systems: Overview Michael J. Brandemuehl, Ph.D, P.E. University of Colorado Boulder, CO, USA Overview System Description Secondary HVAC Systems Air distribution Room diffusers and air terminals Duct

More information

Life Cycle Costing Analysis of Water-cooled Chillers. Chillventa Nuremburg, Germany

Life Cycle Costing Analysis of Water-cooled Chillers. Chillventa Nuremburg, Germany Life Cycle Costing Analysis of Water-cooled Chillers Chillventa Nuremburg, Germany Spring 2012 Description Life Cycle Cost Analysis is a method of determining and comparing the total costs of investment

More information

Lower Energy Costs with Rooftop Air-Conditioning Package Units

Lower Energy Costs with Rooftop Air-Conditioning Package Units Lower Energy Costs with Rooftop Air-Conditioning Package Units Sponsored by Mike West, PhD, PE Advantek Consulting, Inc Package Unit Efficiency Factors Sensible and latent performance ratings Unit efficiency

More information

Air-Conditioning Buying Guide

Air-Conditioning Buying Guide Air-Conditioning Buying Guide Buying a new air-conditioning system is a big decision. This Air-Conditioning Buying Guide can help you make the right choice, save energy and money. Shop with confidence

More information

Refrigeration Basics 101. By: Eric Nelson

Refrigeration Basics 101. By: Eric Nelson Refrigeration Basics 101 By: Eric Nelson Basics Refrigeration is the removal of heat from a material or space, so that it s temperature is lower than that of it s surroundings. When refrigerant absorbs

More information

COMMERCIAL HVAC EQUIPMENT. Condensers and Cooling Towers

COMMERCIAL HVAC EQUIPMENT. Condensers and Cooling Towers COMMERCIAL HVAC EQUIPMENT Condensers and Cooling Towers Technical Development Programs (TDP) are modules of technical training on HVAC theory, system design, equipment selection and application topics.

More information

SIMULATION OF RADIANT COOLING PERFORMANCE WITH

SIMULATION OF RADIANT COOLING PERFORMANCE WITH SUMMARY REPORT MAY 2008 SIMULATION OF RADIANT COOLING PERFORMANCE WITH EVAPORATIVE COOLING SOURCES Timothy Moore Center for the Built Environment (CBE) University of California, Berkeley May 2008 EXECUTIVE

More information

Presentation Outline. Common Terms / Concepts HVAC Building Blocks. Links. Plant Level Building Blocks. Air Distribution Building Blocks

Presentation Outline. Common Terms / Concepts HVAC Building Blocks. Links. Plant Level Building Blocks. Air Distribution Building Blocks Presentation Outline Common Terms / Concepts HVAC Building Blocks Plant Level Building Blocks Description / Application Data Green opportunities Selection Criteria Air Distribution Building Blocks same

More information

AC System Equipment Specification, Installation and Operational Options for Improved Indoor Humidity Control

AC System Equipment Specification, Installation and Operational Options for Improved Indoor Humidity Control AC System Equipment Specification, Installation and Operational Options for Improved Indoor Humidity Control Authors Don B. Shirey, III Original Publication Shirey III, D., "AC System Equipment Specification,

More information

DEEMED SAVINGS TECHNICAL ASSUMPTIONS

DEEMED SAVINGS TECHNICAL ASSUMPTIONS Product: - Direct-Evaporative Pre-cooling for Air-Cooled Condensers (DEPACC) Prescriptive rebates will be offered for Direct Evaporative Pre-cooling Technology for Air Cooled Condensers (DEPACC) for Rooftop

More information

How does solar air conditioning work?

How does solar air conditioning work? How does solar air conditioning work? In a conventional air conditioning system; The working fluid arrives at the compressor as a cool, low-pressure gas. The compressor is powered by electricity to squeeze

More information

Green Building Handbook for South Africa Chapter: Heating, Ventilation and Cooling Luke Osburn CSIR Built Environment

Green Building Handbook for South Africa Chapter: Heating, Ventilation and Cooling Luke Osburn CSIR Built Environment Green Building Handbook for South Africa Chapter: Heating, Ventilation and Cooling Luke Osburn CSIR Built Environment The heating, ventilation and cooling loads of typical commercial office space can range

More information

Dr. Michael K. West, PE 1 Dr. Richard S. Combes, PE 2 Advantek Consulting / Melbourne, Florida

Dr. Michael K. West, PE 1 Dr. Richard S. Combes, PE 2 Advantek Consulting / Melbourne, Florida Optimizing 100% Outside Air Systems with Heat Pipes Dr. Michael K. West, PE 1 Dr. Richard S. Combes, PE 2 Advantek Consulting / Melbourne, Florida Introduction To meet increasingly rigorous building codes

More information

Characteristics of Evaporators

Characteristics of Evaporators Characteristics of Evaporators Roger D. Holder, CM, MSME 10-28-2003 Heat or Energy In this paper, we will discuss the characteristics of an evaporator coil. The variance of the operational condenses of

More information

Analysis of data centre cooling energy efficiency

Analysis of data centre cooling energy efficiency Analysis of data centre cooling energy efficiency An analysis of the distribution of energy overheads in the data centre and the relationship between economiser hours and chiller efficiency Liam Newcombe

More information

Introduction. Motor Types

Introduction. Motor Types QwikSEER+ Theory of Operation and Retrofit Potential Mainstream Engineering Corporation Rockledge, FL 32955 http://www.qwik.com/products/qwikseer/index.jsp Prepared by Robert P. Scaringe and R. Paul Roth

More information

Cooling Systems 2/18/2014. Cooling Water Systems. Jim Lukanich, CWT ChemCal, Inc. Grapevine, TX

Cooling Systems 2/18/2014. Cooling Water Systems. Jim Lukanich, CWT ChemCal, Inc. Grapevine, TX Cooling Systems Jim Lukanich, CWT ChemCal, Inc. Grapevine, TX Cooling Water Systems Water is used for cooling because of its capacity to remove and store heat and availability. Cooling water is used in

More information

3/29/2012 INTRODUCTION HVAC BASICS

3/29/2012 INTRODUCTION HVAC BASICS INTRODUCTION HVAC BASICS AND HVAC SYSTEM EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT SECTION O HVAC systems or Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning systems control the environment for people and equipment in our facilities.

More information

Total Heat Versus Sensible Heat Evaporator Selection Methods & Application

Total Heat Versus Sensible Heat Evaporator Selection Methods & Application Total Heat Versus Sensible Heat Evaporator Selection Methods & Application Scope The purpose of this paper is to provide specifying engineers, purchasers and users of evaporators in industrial refrigeration

More information

Achieving ENERGY EFFICIENCY with Standard Air-Conditioning Units. Mike West, PhD, PE Advantek Consulting, Inc

Achieving ENERGY EFFICIENCY with Standard Air-Conditioning Units. Mike West, PhD, PE Advantek Consulting, Inc Achieving ENERGY EFFICIENCY with Standard Air-Conditioning Units Mike West, PhD, PE Advantek Consulting, Inc Standard Air Conditioning Unit Packaged Unit Split System DX (not chilled water) Air-cooled

More information

Evaluation Of Hybrid Air- Cooled Flash/Binary Power Cycle

Evaluation Of Hybrid Air- Cooled Flash/Binary Power Cycle INL/CON-05-00740 PREPRINT Evaluation Of Hybrid Air- Cooled Flash/Binary Power Cycle Geothermal Resources Council Annual Meeting Greg Mines October 2005 This is a preprint of a paper intended for publication

More information

Rittal White Paper 507: Understanding Data Center Cooling Energy Usage & Reduction Methods By: Daniel Kennedy

Rittal White Paper 507: Understanding Data Center Cooling Energy Usage & Reduction Methods By: Daniel Kennedy Rittal White Paper 507: Understanding Data Center Cooling Energy Usage & Reduction Methods By: Daniel Kennedy Executive Summary Data center energy usage has risen dramatically over the past decade and

More information

Cooling Efficiency Summary of 60-Day Notice

Cooling Efficiency Summary of 60-Day Notice Cooling Efficiency Summary of 60-Day Notice Public Service Company of Colorado ( Public Service or The Company ) is providing 60-Day Notice for a change to the Cooling Efficiency product offered to commercial

More information

Theoretical Study on Separate Sensible and Latent Cooling Air-Conditioning System

Theoretical Study on Separate Sensible and Latent Cooling Air-Conditioning System Purdue University Purdue e-pubs International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference School of Mechanical Engineering 2008 Theoretical Study on Separate Sensible and Latent Cooling Air-Conditioning

More information

Building Energy Systems. - HVAC: Heating, Distribution -

Building Energy Systems. - HVAC: Heating, Distribution - * Some of the images used in these slides are taken from the internet for instructional purposes only Building Energy Systems - HVAC: Heating, Distribution - Bryan Eisenhower Associate Director Center

More information

Data Center Heat Rejection

Data Center Heat Rejection This article was published in ASHRAE Journal, March 2011. Copyright 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. Posted at www.ashrae.org. This article may not be

More information

Get the FACTS about SEER and Deliver Better Customer Value

Get the FACTS about SEER and Deliver Better Customer Value What is SEER? SEER stands for Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio. It s a number that describes how well air-conditioning equipment works. A higher SEER means better efficiency and lower energy bills. SEER

More information

Comparing Air Cooler Ratings Part 1: Not All Rating Methods are Created Equal

Comparing Air Cooler Ratings Part 1: Not All Rating Methods are Created Equal Technical Bulletin By Bruce I. Nelson, P.E., President, Colmac Coil Manufacturing, Inc. Comparing Air Cooler Ratings Part 1: Not All Rating Methods are Created Equal SUMMARY Refrigeration air coolers (evaporators)

More information

Yijun Gao, Wei Wu, Zongwei Han, Xianting Li *

Yijun Gao, Wei Wu, Zongwei Han, Xianting Li * Study on the performance of air conditioning system combining heat pipe and vapor compression based on ground source energy-bus for commercial buildings in north China Yijun Gao, Wei Wu, Zongwei Han, Xianting

More information

Maximize energy savings Increase life of cooling equipment More reliable for extreme cold weather conditions There are disadvantages

Maximize energy savings Increase life of cooling equipment More reliable for extreme cold weather conditions There are disadvantages Objectives Increase awareness of the types of economizers currently used for data centers Provide designers/owners with an overview of the benefits and challenges associated with each type Outline some

More information

Heating & Cooling Efficiency

Heating & Cooling Efficiency Heating & Cooling Efficiency Advantages of Geothermal HVAC Efficiency Keith Swilley Gulf Power Company Why Gulf Power Promotes Energy Efficiency? Customer Satisfaction Education Help Customers Make Smart

More information

HVAC Efficiency Definitions

HVAC Efficiency Definitions HVAC Efficiency Definitions Term page EER - 2 SEER - 3 COP - 4 HSPF - 5 IPLV - 6 John Mix May 2006 Carrier Corporation 1 Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) The energy efficiency ratio is used to evaluate the

More information

In the compression-refrigeration loop (air conditioning), which is likely to be warmer? 1. Condenser coil 2. Evaporator coil

In the compression-refrigeration loop (air conditioning), which is likely to be warmer? 1. Condenser coil 2. Evaporator coil In the compression-refrigeration loop (air conditioning), which is likely to be warmer? 1. Condenser coil 2. Evaporator coil Answer: (1) Condenser coil See the video. A.R.E. Building Systems Study Guide

More information

DATA CENTER COOLING INNOVATIVE COOLING TECHNOLOGIES FOR YOUR DATA CENTER

DATA CENTER COOLING INNOVATIVE COOLING TECHNOLOGIES FOR YOUR DATA CENTER DATA CENTER COOLING INNOVATIVE COOLING TECHNOLOGIES FOR YOUR DATA CENTER DATA CENTERS 2009 IT Emissions = Aviation Industry Emissions Nations Largest Commercial Consumers of Electric Power Greenpeace estimates

More information

SASO XXXX:2016. (Including the modifications approved in Saudi Council Board No. XXX/2016) LARGE CAPACITY AIR CONDITIONERS

SASO XXXX:2016. (Including the modifications approved in Saudi Council Board No. XXX/2016) LARGE CAPACITY AIR CONDITIONERS SASO XXXX:2016 (Including the modifications approved in Saudi Council Board No. XXX/2016) LARGE CAPACITY AIR CONDITIONERS PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS AND METHODS OF TESTING 1 LARGE CAPACITY AIR CONDITIONERS

More information

Impacts of Refrigerant Charge on Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Performance

Impacts of Refrigerant Charge on Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Performance Purdue University Purdue e-pubs International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference School of Mechanical Engineering 2010 Impacts of Refrigerant Charge on Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Performance

More information

Selection Tips For Air-Conditioning Cooling Systems

Selection Tips For Air-Conditioning Cooling Systems PDHonline Course M117 (2 PDH) Selection Tips For -Conditioning Cooling Systems Instructor: A. Bhatia, B.E. 2012 PDH Online PDH Center 5272 Meadow Estates Drive Fairfax, VA 22030-6658 Phone & Fax: 703-988-0088

More information

Hidden Power Drains: Residential Heating and Cooling Fan Power Demand

Hidden Power Drains: Residential Heating and Cooling Fan Power Demand Hidden Power Drains: Residential Heating and Cooling Fan Power Demand ABSTRACT John Proctor, Proctor Engineering Group, Ltd. Danny Parker, Florida Solar Energy Center This paper compiles power draw, airflow,

More information

HVAC Technologies for Building Energy Efficiency Improvements 2013 National Symposium on Market Transformation. Richard Lord Carrier Fellow

HVAC Technologies for Building Energy Efficiency Improvements 2013 National Symposium on Market Transformation. Richard Lord Carrier Fellow HVAC Technologies for Building Energy Efficiency Improvements 2013 National Symposium on Market Transformation Richard Lord Carrier Fellow HVAC Industry Challenges and Issues Ozone Deletion Global Warming

More information

Why and How we Use Capacity Control

Why and How we Use Capacity Control Why and How we Use Capacity Control On refrigeration and air conditioning applications where the load may vary over a wide range, due to lighting, occupancy, product loading, ambient weather variations,

More information

CHILLER PLANT CONTROL MULTIPLE CHILLER CONTROLS

CHILLER PLANT CONTROL MULTIPLE CHILLER CONTROLS CHILLER PLANT CONTROL MULTIPLE CHILLER CONTROLS By: Michael J. Bitondo, Mark J. Tozzi Carrier Corporation Syracuse, New York August 1999 INTRODUCTION In December of 1998, the American Refrigeration Institute

More information

Defining Quality. Building Comfort. Precision. Air Conditioning

Defining Quality. Building Comfort. Precision. Air Conditioning Defining Quality. Building Comfort. Precision Air Conditioning Today s technology rooms require precise, stable environments in order for sensitive electronics to operate optimally. Standard comfort air

More information

Self-benchmarking Guide for Data Center Infrastructure: Metrics, Benchmarks, Actions 6-28-10. Sponsored by:

Self-benchmarking Guide for Data Center Infrastructure: Metrics, Benchmarks, Actions 6-28-10. Sponsored by: Self-benchmarking Guide for Data Center Infrastructure: Metrics, Benchmarks, Actions 6-28-10 Sponsored by: Disclaimer This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government.

More information

Air Conditioning 101. STN Presentation AC101

Air Conditioning 101. STN Presentation AC101 Air Conditioning 101 What is Refrigeration? Refrigeration is Cooling by the Removal of Heat Heat is Measured In BTU s A BTU is a British Thermal Unit It is the Amount of Heat to Raise One Pound of Water,

More information

White Paper #10. Energy Efficiency in Computer Data Centers

White Paper #10. Energy Efficiency in Computer Data Centers s.doty 06-2015 White Paper #10 Energy Efficiency in Computer Data Centers Computer Data Centers use a lot of electricity in a small space, commonly ten times or more energy per SF compared to a regular

More information

The Different Types of Air Conditioning Equipment for IT Environments

The Different Types of Air Conditioning Equipment for IT Environments The Different Types of Air Conditioning Equipment for IT Environments By Tony Evans White Paper #59 Executive Summary Cooling equipment for an IT environment can be implemented in 10 basic configurations.

More information

Laboratory Test Report for Fujitsu 12RLS and Mitsubishi FE12NA Mini-Split Heat Pumps

Laboratory Test Report for Fujitsu 12RLS and Mitsubishi FE12NA Mini-Split Heat Pumps Laboratory Test Report for Fujitsu 12RLS and Mitsubishi FE12NA Mini-Split Heat Pumps Jon Winkler, Ph.D. September 2011 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the

More information

Testing methods applicable to refrigeration components and systems

Testing methods applicable to refrigeration components and systems Testing methods applicable to refrigeration components and systems Sylvain Quoilin (1)*, Cristian Cuevas (2), Vladut Teodorese (1), Vincent Lemort (1), Jules Hannay (1) and Jean Lebrun (1) (1) University

More information

Appendix C. Minimum Equipment Efficiency Standards

Appendix C. Minimum Equipment Efficiency Standards Appendix C Minimum Equipment Efficiency Standards Appendix C: Minimum Equipment Efficiency Standards This Appendix is an overview of building and equipment standards in the State of California that have

More information

Answers to Your Questions from the Webinar

Answers to Your Questions from the Webinar 2008 Desert Aire and USA Swimming. Used by permission. Desert Aire & USA Swimming - Aquatics Webinar - Answers to Your Questions Answers to Your Questions from the Webinar Thank you for your interest in

More information

Guide to Minimizing Compressor-based Cooling in Data Centers

Guide to Minimizing Compressor-based Cooling in Data Centers Guide to Minimizing Compressor-based Cooling in Data Centers Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program By: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Author: William Tschudi

More information

CURBING THE COST OF DATA CENTER COOLING. Charles B. Kensky, PE, LEED AP BD+C, CEA Executive Vice President Bala Consulting Engineers

CURBING THE COST OF DATA CENTER COOLING. Charles B. Kensky, PE, LEED AP BD+C, CEA Executive Vice President Bala Consulting Engineers CURBING THE COST OF DATA CENTER COOLING Charles B. Kensky, PE, LEED AP BD+C, CEA Executive Vice President Bala Consulting Engineers OVERVIEW Compare Cooling Strategies in Free- Standing and In-Building

More information

APPLICATION GUIDE. Comparison of Latent Cooling Performance of Various HVAC systems in a Classroom Application

APPLICATION GUIDE. Comparison of Latent Cooling Performance of Various HVAC systems in a Classroom Application APPLICATION GUIDE Comparison of Latent Cooling Performance of Various HVAC systems in a Classroom Application Section Comparison of Latent Cooling Performance of Introduction Most commercial HVAC systems

More information

LIQUID DESICCANT AIR CONDITIONING Saves energy, Controls humidity, Cleans air. Trevor Wende Vice President, Marketing Advantix Systems, Inc.

LIQUID DESICCANT AIR CONDITIONING Saves energy, Controls humidity, Cleans air. Trevor Wende Vice President, Marketing Advantix Systems, Inc. LIQUID DESICCANT AIR CONDITIONING Saves energy, Controls humidity, Cleans air Trevor Wende Vice President, Marketing Advantix Systems, Inc. 0 Humidity: The Hidden Cost Driver Conventional A/C process Start

More information

Strategy Guideline: HVAC Equipment Sizing

Strategy Guideline: HVAC Equipment Sizing Strategy Guideline: HVAC Equipment Sizing Arlan Burdick IBACOS, Inc. February 2012 This report received minimal editorial review at NREL NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored

More information

Performance Rating of Room Fan- Coils

Performance Rating of Room Fan- Coils ANSI/AHRI Standard 440 with Addendum 1 (Formerly ARI Standard 440) 2008 Standard for Performance Rating of Room Fan- Coils ANSI/AHRI STANDARD 440-2008 WITH ADDENDUM 1, PERFORMANCE RATING OF ROOM FAN-COILS

More information

ASHRAE Rocky Mountain Chapter. RickPhillips Phillips, P.E., PE LEED AP Senior Mechanical Engineer The RMH Group, Inc.

ASHRAE Rocky Mountain Chapter. RickPhillips Phillips, P.E., PE LEED AP Senior Mechanical Engineer The RMH Group, Inc. ASHRAE Rocky Mountain Chapter Evaporative Cooling RickPhillips Phillips, P.E., PE LEED AP Senior Mechanical Engineer The RMH Group, Inc. April 19, 2013 1 Fundamentals Dry Bulb Temperature Wet Bulb Temperature

More information

Chilled Water HVAC Systems

Chilled Water HVAC Systems Chilled Water HVAC Systems By Ron Prager, Brinco Mechanical Services, Inc. Types of water based systems: There are three types of HVAC systems that utilize water as a heat transfer medium. The first system,

More information

Because here you can see a simple an elementary direct evaporative cooling system this is called as a single stage system you can see from the

Because here you can see a simple an elementary direct evaporative cooling system this is called as a single stage system you can see from the Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Prof M. Ramgopal Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture No. # 38 Air Conditioning Systems Welcome back in the last lecture

More information

Thermal Coupling Of Cooling and Heating Systems

Thermal Coupling Of Cooling and Heating Systems This article was published in ASHRAE Journal, February 2011. Copyright 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. Posted at www.ashrae.org. This article may not

More information

Chapter 3.4: HVAC & Refrigeration System

Chapter 3.4: HVAC & Refrigeration System Chapter 3.4: HVAC & Refrigeration System Part I: Objective type questions and answers 1. One ton of refrigeration (TR) is equal to. a) Kcal/h b) 3.51 kw c) 120oo BTU/h d) all 2. The driving force for refrigeration

More information

HVAC Basic Science - System Capacity

HVAC Basic Science - System Capacity HVAC Basic Science - System Capacity Btu/hour, btu/h, b/h, btuh. btu?? 1 MBH = 1000 btu/hour 1 KBH = 1000 btu/hour 1 ton of cooling= 12,000 btu/hour 1 watt = 3.414 btu/hour 1 kilowatt = 1000 watts = 3,414

More information

FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER

FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER Creating Energy Independence Since 1975 Impact of Energy-Efficiency Parameters on Home Humidity Rob Vieira Florida Solar Energy Center A Research Institute of the University

More information

Rating Water-Source Heat Pumps Using ARI Standard 320 and ISO Standard 13256-1

Rating Water-Source Heat Pumps Using ARI Standard 320 and ISO Standard 13256-1 Rating Water-Source Heat Pumps Using ARI Standard 320 and ISO Standard 13256-1 W. Vance Payne and Piotr A. Domanski National Institute of Standards and Technology Building and Fire Research Laboratory

More information

HEAT RECOVERY FROM CHILLED WATER SYSTEMS. Applications for Heat Reclaim Chillers

HEAT RECOVERY FROM CHILLED WATER SYSTEMS. Applications for Heat Reclaim Chillers HEAT RECOVERY FROM CHILLED WATER SYSTEMS Applications for Heat Reclaim Chillers April 2008 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION... 3 WASTE HEAT SOURCES... 3,4 Capturing Sufficient Heat for Useful Purposes...

More information

newsletter engineers energy-saving strategies for Water-Source Heat Pump Systems volume 36 2 providing insights for today s hvac system designer

newsletter engineers energy-saving strategies for Water-Source Heat Pump Systems volume 36 2 providing insights for today s hvac system designer engineers volume 36 2 newsletter providing insights for today s hvac system designer energy-saving strategies for Water-Source Heat Pump Systems from the editor... Water-source heat pump (WSHP) systems

More information

ASTACEA4 Inspect complex/central air conditioning systems

ASTACEA4 Inspect complex/central air conditioning systems Overview This Unit covers the competences required to inspect complex/central air conditioning systems as defined by the CIBSE TM 44 Figure 1.1: Summary of system types and their component parts. The air

More information

Geothermal Energy Using Water-Source Heat Pumps

Geothermal Energy Using Water-Source Heat Pumps Geothermal Energy Using Water-Source Heat Pumps By VIRSTAR Corporation Geothermal Expertise Since 1978 All information contained herein is the exclusive property of VIRSTAR Corporation, all rights reserved.

More information

AIR CONDITIONING EFFICIENCY F8 Energy eco-efficiency opportunities in Queensland Foundries

AIR CONDITIONING EFFICIENCY F8 Energy eco-efficiency opportunities in Queensland Foundries AIR CONDITIONING EFFICIENCY F8 Energy eco-efficiency opportunities in Queensland Foundries Hot tips and cool ideas to save energy and money! Air conditioning units or systems are often used by foundries

More information

Economizer Modes of Data Center Cooling Systems

Economizer Modes of Data Center Cooling Systems Economizer Modes of Data Center Cooling Systems White Paper 132 Revision 0 by John Niemann John Bean Victor Avelar > Executive summary In certain climates, some cooling systems can save over 70% in annual

More information

The Development of a Frost-Less Heat Pump

The Development of a Frost-Less Heat Pump The Development of a Frost-Less Heat Pump V. C. Mei, R. E. Domitrovic, and F. C. Chen, Oak Ridge National Laboratory J. K. Kilpatrick, Tennessee Valley Authority ABSTRACT There are two major concerns associated

More information

Pool Dehumidification Basics

Pool Dehumidification Basics Copyright 2009 Wescor. All rights reserved. Permission granted to reproduce for personal and educational use only. When energy costs were low, many pool owners considered only first cost when choosing

More information

Evaporative Cooling System for Aquacultural Production 1

Evaporative Cooling System for Aquacultural Production 1 Fact Sheet EES-100 March 1993 Evaporative Cooling System for Aquacultural Production 1 C. D. Baird, R. A. Bucklin, C. A. Watson and F. A. Chapman 2 INTRODUCTION Florida aquaculture sales totaled $54 million

More information

Environmental and Safety Impacts of HFC Emission Reduction Options for Air Conditioning and Heat Pump Systems

Environmental and Safety Impacts of HFC Emission Reduction Options for Air Conditioning and Heat Pump Systems Environmental and Safety Impacts of HFC Emission Reduction Options for Air Conditioning and Heat Pump Systems William M. Corcoran, George Rusch, Mark W. Spatz, and Tim Vink AlliedSignal, Inc. ABSTRACT

More information

Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Mounted Air Conditioners

Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Mounted Air Conditioners Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Mounted Air Conditioners Jon Winkler Chuck Booten Dane Christensen Jeff Tomerlin April 29, 2012 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department

More information

Massachusetts COOL SMART. RESIDENTIAL CENTRAL AC/DUCTED AIR SOURCE HEAT PUMP Rebate Application

Massachusetts COOL SMART. RESIDENTIAL CENTRAL AC/DUCTED AIR SOURCE HEAT PUMP Rebate Application Massachusetts COOL SMART 2015 RESIDENTIAL CENTRAL AC/DUCTED AIR SOURCE HEAT PUMP Rebate Application COOL SMART CENTRAL AC/HP PROGRAM COOL SMART is a residential central air conditioning rebate program

More information

*At the AHRI Standard flow rate of 3 gpm/ton, using today s efficient chillers, the ΔT is 9.3 F rather than the 10 F often assumed.

*At the AHRI Standard flow rate of 3 gpm/ton, using today s efficient chillers, the ΔT is 9.3 F rather than the 10 F often assumed. providing insights for today s hvac system designer Engineers Newsletter volume 41 3 Condenser Water System Savings Optimizing flow rates and control Optimized flow rates in the condenser water system

More information

Overview. Introduction Cooling Tower Basics Principles of Operation Types of Cooling Towers Common Applications Design Considerations

Overview. Introduction Cooling Tower Basics Principles of Operation Types of Cooling Towers Common Applications Design Considerations Stephen Lowe ASHRAE Hampton Roads Chapter Past President AECOM Design Mechanical Engineering Discipline Manager, Virginia Beach Division Professional Engineer Commonwealth of Virginia, NCEES BSME University

More information

Free Cooling in Data Centers. John Speck, RCDD, DCDC JFC Solutions

Free Cooling in Data Centers. John Speck, RCDD, DCDC JFC Solutions Free Cooling in Data Centers John Speck, RCDD, DCDC JFC Solutions Why this topic Many data center projects or retrofits do not have a comprehensive analyses of systems power consumption completed in the

More information