2 Stephen Lowe ASHRAE Hampton Roads Chapter Past President AECOM Design Mechanical Engineering Discipline Manager, Virginia Beach Division Professional Engineer Commonwealth of Virginia, NCEES BSME University of Virginia, 2002 Sheet metal fabricator, equipment installer, refrigeration service technician during high school and college Consulting Engineer from 2003 Present
3 Overview Introduction Cooling Tower Basics Principles of Operation Types of Cooling Towers Common Applications Design Considerations Selection Criteria Open Piping and Pumping Systems Water Quality Tower Location Ancillary Systems Construction Issues Constructability, Quality Control and Startup Rating and Certification Lessons Learned Conclusion Resources Questions and Discussion
4 Cooling Tower Basics Principles of Operation Cooling Via Evaporation depends on Wet Bulb Temperature Design Dry Bulb Temperatures commonly exceed 95 deg F: poor delta T for cooling processes Design Wet bulb much less: ~80 deg F Use a process that depends on WB to take advantage of greater delta T Evaporative effect is a change of state and thus a large transfer of energy occurs relative to the required mass flow
5 Open Cooling Tower Closed Circuit i Cooling Tower
6 Cross Flow Arrangement Counter Flow Arrangement
7 Cooling Tower Basics Common Applications Power Plant Steam Condensation Process Cooling HVAC Heat Rejection Chiller Condenser Heat WSHP Loop Heat *We will be focusing on open, cross flow cooling towers for chiller condenser heat rejection for the remainder of the presentation.
8 Basic HVAC Cooling Tower Application
9 Design Considerations Design Considerations Selection Criteria Open Piping and Pumping Systems Water Quality Tower Location Ancillary Systems
10 Design Considerations Selection Criteria Process (Chiller Condenser) Temperature Requirements Hot Water Temperature (HWT): Temperature of water entering the tower Cold Water Temperature (CWT): Temperature of water leaving the tower Tower Range: HWT CWT Lower CWT generally results in higher Chiller Efficiency Flow Rate or Capacity Ambient Conditions Evaporation (or Entering) Design Wet Bulb (EWB) Approach: CWT EWB Lower approach generally results in a larger tower
11 Design Conditions
12 Design Conditions NO YES
13 Design Conditions Use Evaporation Design WB for selection of evaporative equipment Use of 0.4%, 1%, or 2% condition i is up to the designer based on specific application and design firm practice A 2 degree F margin of safety is recommended to account for recirculation (rule of thumb further analysis is required for the specific application) Condenser water delta T depends on many factors such as the process that is cooled and optimization of the pumping system
14 Design Considerations Open Piping and Pumping Systems Cooling tower pumping application troubles are generally related to one of the following issues: Incorrect Pump Head Estimation Pump Cavitation Air Introduction to Pump Suction Improper Bypass Configuration/Control
15 Design Considerations Open Piping and Pumping Systems Pump Head Estimation Determine actual static lf lift height h Determine impact of siphon draw: either break the siphon or design to maintain it. Determine friction head Pipe Equipment (condenser, tower spray nozzle, etc.) Components (valves, strainers, etc.)
17 Design Considerations Open Piping and Pumping Systems Pump head estimation errors can cause: Unstable pump operation Unstable condenser flow at the chiller Admission of air into the pump pinlet Energy waste due to need for extensive throttling Many wasted hours and headaches finding the problem!
18 Design Considerations Open Piping and Pumping Systems Pump cavitation is the flashing (boiling) of the working fluid (water) into a vapor due to excessively low suction pressure and is often confused with air introduction ti into the pump suction. Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) is the measure of suction pressure. The required suction pressure for a particular pump is indicated NPSHR and is published as a curve on the pump selection chart. The suction pressure available to the pump in a particular system is indicated NPSHA and must be calculated by the engineer. If NPSHA < NPSHR, cavitation ti will occur.
19 NPSHA Example Calculation
22 Design Considerations Open Piping and Pumping Systems B & G Cooling Tower Pumping and Piping Manual has 4 rules concerning the pump suction piping: i 1. Leave the suction Line Alone! 2. Place the pump pbelow tower pan water level 3. Avoid above the pump air traps in the suction line 4. Avoid fine mesh, high pressure drop strainers in the suction line
23 Design Considerations Open Piping and Pumping Systems Air admittance to the pump inlet is typically caused by: Tower pan vortexing Tower pan drain down Incorrect bypass arrangement
24 Design Considerations Open Piping and Pumping Systems Tower pan vortexing is caused by excessive velocity in the tower exit piping i and can be controlled by: Do not excessively oversize the pump Maintaining tower exit pipe pp size for a minimum of 10 pipe pp diameters Increase pan depth Provide a vortex breaker in the tower pan Install tower on the equator
25 Design Considerations Open Piping and Pumping Systems Tower pan drain down is caused by insufficient water depth to flood the tower exit piping i and can be avoided d by: Correctly sizing the makeup water line Evaporation Rate Blowdown Rate Providing a check valve to keep the piping system flooded on pump shut down Properly isolating tower cells in multiple cell installations
26 WRONG Condenser and a significant portion of the piping system will drain pack to pan on pump shutdown. Pan may flood and chiller could start with a dry condenser. CORRECT Condenser will remain flooded on pump shutdown. Minimal system volume will drain to pan on shutdown, therefore pan should not flood.
28 WRONG Bypass connected to pump suction piping i can cause air introduction to pump inlet and unstable pump operation. CORRECT Bypass discharging i to basin with balancing valve set equal to discharge nozzle pressure drop will result in constant pump head and flooded pump psuction.
29 CORRECT Separate operators allow valves to maintain a constant total flow as both valves modulate. WRONG Linked valves will result in unstable flow.
30 Bypass Configuration Example
31 Design Considerations Water Quality Removal of Solids Chemical Treatment Consult a chemical treatment professional for your specific application Biological Contamination Minimize drift Site towers away from air intakes Avoid piping designs that result in stagnant water Chemically treat
32 Design Considerations Water Quality Removal of Solids What s that floating in the basin???? Whatever it is, it has a good shot at ending up inside your chiller!!!!
33 Design Considerations Water Quality Removal of Solids Guy with shovel and bucket In line strainers Side stream filters Basin sweeping system
35 Getting the proper Real Estate Location, location, location Cooling Towers are highly visible due to physical size and plume Need ample clearance to minimize recirculation and ensure proper performance Low frequency sound emitted from large fans travels great distance Drift can mark windows and paint jobs
36 Design Considerations Ancillary Systems Freeze Protection Tower Sump Basin Electric Steam Injection Recirculation Piping Water Treatment Systems Chemical Systems Solids Filtration Control Systems Pneumatic operators will require freeze protection in some climates Large valves require lots of torque electric operators may need to be industrial grade
37 Construction Issues Constructability, Startup, Quality Control There is lots of large piping underneath the tower, make sure you get plenty of space for it Consider laying out all of the piping based on a manufacturer s particular tower Use the manufacturer s startup checklist on your site visit Read the installation and operation manual during design; there are lots of options that affect the cost of the tower. You need to specify them if your application needs them.
38 Construction Issues Ratings and Certification Manufacturer s Rated Performance CTI Certification Performance Based Commissioning
39 Construction Issues Lessons Learned Tower Basin Freeze Protection Direct steam injection is popular in industrial and large scale HVAC applications. Chemical used for boiler feedwater may react with condenser water chemical treatment resulting in the release of noxious gases. A hot water circulator pump coupled to a heat source can be p p p used instead.
41 Construction Issues Lessons Learned Vertical Loop in Suction Piping Tower mounted on grade adjacent to mechanical room Cold water pipe exits bottom of basin and passes through mechanical room wall Pipe is the run up the wall to the roof structure to get the pipe across the room to the pump Upon shutdown, the system equalizes and the piping at the roof level becomes air locked The pump will require manual priming in order to start
43 Construction Issues Lessons Learned Flooding Tower on Pump Shutdown Tower is mounted on grade adjacent to mechanical room. There is a significant volume of water located above the tower basin due to a long horizontal run of hot condenser water pipe in the mechanical room. The diverting valve is installed in the horizontal with the bypass connection facing down. Whenever the pump shuts down, all of the water in the horizontal pipe runs through the diverting valve and back to the basin. The basin overflows in the parking lot resulting in an unsightly puddle and wasted chemical treatment
44 Construction Issues Lessons Learned Air introduced to pump suction via bypass
45 Construction Issues Lessons Learned Air introduced to pump suction via bypass AIR CAN BE DRAWN INTO PUMP SUCTION
46 Construction Issues Lessons Learned Air introduced to pump suction via tower discharge manifold
47 Construction Issues Lessons Learned Air introduced to pump suction via tower discharge manifold MUST ISOLATE TOWER DISCHARGE
48 Construction Issues Lessons Learned Flooding hot water pans on manifolded towers
49 Construction Issues Lessons Learned Flooding hot water pans on manifolded towers AUTOFLOW VALVE
50 Construction Issues Lessons Learned Multiple connected towers should have an equalization line. When adding or replacing towers connected through an equalization line, design the tower and framing to ensure that the existing operating water level is matched with the new tower. If it is necessary to provide vibration i isolation i for the tower, the piping system must be isolated from the tower.
51 Resources B & G Cooling Tower Pumping and Piping Manual Marley Cooling Tower Company Cooling Tower Fundamentals Baltimore Air Coil Product and Application Handbook Evapco Equipment Layout Manual ASHRAE H db k 8 HVAC S t d ASHRAE Handbook 2008 HVAC Systems and Equipment, Chapter 39
A Guide to Trouble-Free Cooling Towers A basic understanding of cooling tower operation and maintenance will help keep a cooling water system running in top condition, year after year By David M. Suptic
CONDENSERS AND CONDENSER COOLING SYSTEMS INTRODUCTION Conventional cooling methods of thermal power plants are extremely water intensive processes. Once-through cooling needs large natural bodies of water
Compressor - Loss of oil, Loss of oil pressure, or Cuts off on oil pressure control. Compressor short cycling. Insufficient oil in the system. Oil trapping in the system. Probably in the evaporator. Excessively
COMMERCIAL HVAC CHILLER EQUIPMENT Air-Cooled Chillers Technical Development Programs (TDP) are modules of technical training on HVAC theory, system design, equipment selection and application topics. They
Refrigeration Pressure Vessel Basics Presented by John Murdaugh Apex Refrigeration & Boiler Co. Phoenix Arizona Pressure Vessel: A container designed to hold liquid and or vapor at a pressure greater than
AIRAH Refrigeration (in HVAC) Back to Basics For the First Time Terms of Reference What this session is NOT about Detailed Refrigeration Design Detailed analysis of various Refrigants properties Comparison
Chilled Water HVAC Systems By Ron Prager, Brinco Mechanical Services, Inc. Types of water based systems: There are three types of HVAC systems that utilize water as a heat transfer medium. The first system,
Intelligent Process Cooling: Saving Money, Protecting the Environment & Curing Process Headaches Stephen Petrakis Frigel North America, Inc. 2008 All Contents Copyright Frigel Firenze & Frigel North America,
MC Fluid Cooler Unmatched reliability Heavy-duty construction, high performance design and our five-year mechanical warranty ensure consistent, fully-rated cooling over a wide range of flow and temperature
Building heat & domestic (double wall) 7 The Maxi-Therm concept We developed our patented, award-winning Vertical Flooded Heat Exchanger based on a proven system used in Europe for over 25 years but we
SECTION 5 COMMERCIAL REFRIGERATION UNIT 22 CONDENSERS UNIT OBJECTIVES After studying this unit, the reader should be able to explain the purpose of the condenser in a refrigeration system. describe differences
CCCT - C Product Group Detail General Information... C Principle of Operation... C Configuration... C Fan System... C3 Capacity Range... C3 Maximum Entering Fluid Temperature... C4 Typical Applications...
Table V Troubleshooting Checklist for Refrigeration Systems TROUBLE POSSIBLE CAUSE CORRECTIVE MEASURE High condensing pressure. Low condensing pressure. Air or non-condensable gas in system. Inlet water
Piping System Model as a Life Cycle Document White Paper Introduction When designing piping systems, a variety of documents are created providing the details necessary to design, purchase, build, and test
Cooling Systems Jim Lukanich, CWT ChemCal, Inc. Grapevine, TX Cooling Water Systems Water is used for cooling because of its capacity to remove and store heat and availability. Cooling water is used in
GENERAL: This section provides general standards for overall sizing and design of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems. Other sections contain specific standards for each system per
LESSON 5 direction for better separation of the condensate. The steam piping should come off the top of the header pipe to assure that only dry steam leaves the boiler. THE HARTFORD LOOP Areas A, B, and
Demystifying HVAC Test Your HVAC Knowledge By Ron Prager How much do you know about HVAC? Try testing yourself with the following questions and then take a look at the answers on the following page. 1)
Data Center Design Guide featuring Water-Side Economizer Solutions with Dynamic Economizer Cooling Presenter: Jason Koo, P.Eng Sr. Field Applications Engineer STULZ Air Technology Systems jkoo@stulz ats.com
Commissioning - Construction Documents (Page 1 of 6) A. General Information Climate Zone: Building Type: Conditioned Area (sf): Reviewer's Name: Reviewer's Agency: Note: Design Review for each system/subsystem
Application Guide AG 31-011 Refrigerant Piping Design Guide TX Valve Mounted in Vertical Line Sight Glass Solenoid Valve Liquid Line Distributor Slope In Direction Of Refrigerant Flow External Equalization
Home Performance Guide Heat Pump Installation Something to fully understand about heat pumps is that they are a part of an overall system, the heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system. That
Phil Rawlings, CGD, AI Trison Construction, Inc, email@example.com 903-454-8952 Just The Facts: Defining Geothermal Heat Pump System Maintenance and Life Cycle Advantages As Compared to Conventional
Contents GENERAL SAFETY INFORMATION 1 READ PRIOR TO STARTING THIS EQUIPMENT 1 DESCRIPTION 2 INSTALLATION 3 OPERATION 5 MAINTENANCE 6 FLOW SCHEMATIC 7 TROUBLESHOOTING 8 0 GENERAL SAFETY INFORMATION 1. This
Selecting the Pump Once the GPM and pump head are known, we can proceed with the actual pump selection. Pumps may be selected either manually using pump curves, or with software such as Taconet. To use
4658.4500 PLUMBING SYSTEMS; NEW CONSTRUCTION. Subpart 1. Installation. All plumbing systems must be installed and tested according to this chapter and chapter 4715, the Minnesota Plumbing Code. Subp. 2.
The Importance of Refrigerant Control in Today s High Efficiency Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heat Pump Systems Application Bulletin 101 Application Bulletin Number: 101 Release EN: B13104 Date:
WHITE PAPER August 2015 Pump cavitation and how to avoid it Best practices in pump system design Presented by: Xylem Applied Water Systems Cavitation is not a new phenomenon that can impact a pump system,
COMMERCIAL HVAC EQUIPMENT Coils: Direct Expansion, Chilled Water, and Heating Technical Development Program Technical Development Programs (TDP) are modules of technical training on HVAC theory, system
Process Chiller Product Guide www.koolantkoolers.com ISO 9001:2008 Industrial Processes Generate Heat. Most processes today utilize a process fluid to cool the equipment by moving heat away from the operation.
Proper Piping for Vacuum Systems LOREN WETZEL GRAHAM MANUFACTURING CO. Optimally designed piping upstream and downstream of vacuum equipment increases equipment efficiency and reduces maintenance. It also
MEBS6006 Environmental Services I http://www.hku.hk/bse/mebs6006 Condensation and Heat Rejection Dr. Benjamin P.L. Ho Department of Mechanical Engineering The University of Hong Kong E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Helsinki University of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering Energy Engineering and Environmental Protection Publications Steam Boiler Technology ebook Espoo 2002 Feedwater and Steam System Components
The System Evaluation Manual and Chiller Evaluation Manual have been revised and combined into this new book; the Air Conditioning and Refrigeration System Evaluation Guide. It will be available soon as
HVAC Systems Alfred Woody, PE Ventilation/Energy Applications, PLLC Norton Shores, Michigan 231 798 3536 HVAC System Functions Control space temperature Heating Cooling Control space humidity Control airborne
CHILLER PLANT CONTROL MULTIPLE CHILLER CONTROLS By: Michael J. Bitondo, Mark J. Tozzi Carrier Corporation Syracuse, New York August 1999 INTRODUCTION In December of 1998, the American Refrigeration Institute
Paul Mueller Company PyroPure Pure Steam Generators The Mueller PyroPure P7 Series Advantage Mueller PyroPure pure steam generators are capable of producing pyrogen-free pure steam that, when condensed,
Opening Throttled Discharge Valves This 21-story building, constructed in 1997, is located in Oregon and contains 589,000 gross square feet of mostly office occupancy. The HVAC system includes six large
FINDINGS OF A DETAILED ENERGY AUDIT AT A CHEMICAL PLANT IN SINGAPORE Main Energy Consuming Systems Process chiller system Brine chiller system Process cooling tower water system Air Compressors Boilers
HVAC Systems: Overview Michael J. Brandemuehl, Ph.D, P.E. University of Colorado Boulder, CO, USA Overview System Description Secondary HVAC Systems Air distribution Room diffusers and air terminals Duct
KNOWLEDGE: K1.01 [3.3/3.5] P21 Which one of the following contains indications of cavitation in an operating centrifugal pump? A. Low flow rate with low discharge pressure. B. Low flow rate with high discharge
Page 1 of 64 1.0 PURPOSE BOILER SYSTEMS Two utility boilers are designed to supply 125,000 lbs/hr each of superheated steam to maintain the Super High Pressure Steam Header at 1500 psig. They are to be
Industrial Refrigeration Systems: Floating Head Pressure Control For Peak Energy Performance Douglas Reindl, Ph.D., P.E. Professor, University of Wisconsin-Madison Director, Industrial Refrigeration Consortium
KU DESIGN GUIDELINES APPENDIX XVI RECOMMENDED BAS I/O CONTROL POINTS BY EQUIPMENT / SYSTEM AIR HANDLING UNITS... 1 CHILLERS... 2 COOLING TOWERS... 2 CLOSED LOOP COOLERS... 2 MISCELLANEOUS SUPPLY FANS...
Federal Wage System Job Grading Standards for Air Conditioning Equipment Operating, 5415 Table of Contents WORK COVERED... 2 WORK NOT COVERED...2 TITLES... 2 GRADE LEVELS... 2 HELPER AND INTERMEDIATE JOBS...
HS-901(A) BASIC HEATING SYSTEMS One-Pipe Two-Pipe Basic Steam Heating Systems One-pipe steam heating system EQUALIZER SAFETY FACTOR STATIC HEAD PRESSURE DROP 2" HEATING UNIT 15" DRIP CONNECTION In a one-pipe,
GENERAL: Steam and condensate piping and pump systems included in this document are for building systems starting at the pressure reducing station (PRV). DESIGN GUIDELINES: A. Design General 1. Definitions:
CASE STUDY 1 COMMISSIONING A GAS FIRED STEAM BOILER A steam boiler has been built and installed at a factory for the provision of process steam. The following lists the requirements used in the commissioning
Heating Water by Direct Steam Injection Producing hot water by direct steam injection provides a solution where large volumes of hot water at precise temperatures are required, and where energy and space
Heat recovery checklist and briefing note This document should enable you to undertake an initial assessment to determine whether using heat recovery could be a feasible option for your building. The recovery
Oil and Coolant Circulating Heating System Model - OCSM Installation & Operation Manual 216280-000 REV 2 Identifying Your System The HOTSTART heating system is designed to heat fluids for use in marine
General Electric Systems Technology Manual Chapter 2.8 Reactor Water Cleanup System TABLE OF CONTENTS 2.8 REACTOR CLEANUP SYSTEM... 1 2.8.1 Introduction... 2 2.8.2 System Description... 2 2.8.3 Component
Page 1 of 9 PURPOSE Steam is the most commonly used heating medium for maintaining process temperatures. Compared to other heating media, steam contains a significant amount of heat energy, and this heat
Valance WHAT IS A VALANCE UNIT? Valance heating and cooling units utilize hydronic coils mounted in an architectural enclosure. The units are mounted near the ceiling usually along an outside wall. The
- B 1 Product Detail Engineering Data... B2 Structural Support... B6 Engineering Specifications... B9 - B 2 Engineering Data REMARK: Do not use for construction. Refer to factory certified dimensions &
#112 Best Practices for Deploying the InfraStruXure InRow SC By David Roden Abstract The InfraStruXure InRow SC (ACSC100 and ACSC101) is a self-contained air conditioner for server rooms and wiring closets.
Douglas A. Stricker, Hixson Refrigeration Designer Chilled water systems are the primary means of cooling most commercial and industrial facilities and also can be used to cool equipment or products, such
PART 1 - GENERAL 1.01 OVERVIEW A. This section supplements Design Guideline Element D3041 on air handling distribution with specific criteria for projects involving design of a Data Center spaces B. Refer
Chapter 9 Open Cycle Refrigeration System Copy Right By: Thomas T.S. Wan 温 到 祥 著 Sept. 3, 2008 All rights reserved An open cycle refrigeration system is that the system is without a traditional evaporator.
Issue Date: 9/06 GESTRA Steam Systems GESTRA Information C 1.2 Utilization of the sensible heat of condensate Examples of effective steam plant design and appropriate equipment 1 Heat content of saturated
Figure 1 Automatic Minimum Flow System SMA 63 Advantage and Utility assurance of the required pump minimum continuous safe flow no inadmissible temperature increase in the pump; avoidance of cavitations
Filtration Guide Introduction Often, owners and operators overlook the impact that evaporative cooling equipment efficiency can have on profits. Even a marginal improvement in the efficiency of evaporative
TROUBLE SHOOTING The information contained in this section provides a guide for troubleshooting the pumps. It is a problem solving tool aimed at reducing unnecessary machine downtime. Following the fault-logic
ABSTRACT WASTE HEAT RECOVERY IN THE FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRY W. L. Lundberg and J. A. Christenson Westinghouse Electric Corporation Advanced Energy Systems Division F. Wojnar H. J. Heinz Company U.S.A.
ASHRAE Boston Chapter Meeting Designing AC Refrigeration Systems Lessons Learned February 11, 2014 Explanation of the refrigeration cycle. Compressors. Benefits and operating characteristics. -Reciprocating
Local regulations may restrict the use of this product to below the conditions quoted. In the interests of development and improvement of the product, we reserve the right to change the specification without
Action Plan Template HVAC Page 1 Once Establish expected HVAC system efficiency - Write down the expected efficiency of HVAC systems to use as a baseline - Add this information to maintenance plan documentation
HVAC Checklist - Long Form Page 1 of 14 Appendix B discusses HVAC system components in relation to indoor air quality. utside Air Intake Location pen during occupied hours? Unobstructed? Standing water,
Frequently Asked Questions System and Valve Basics: 1. Q: What is good cooling coil performance? A: The temperature range is controlled within +/- 0.5 F (0.28 C) off the cooling coil at set point or below.
THERMO KING TRUCK & TRAILER UNIT ALARM CODES THIS DOCUMENT SHOWS ALL CURRENT ALARM CODES FOR THERMO KING TRUCK AND TRAILER UNITS. NOT ALL CODES ARE POSSIBLE ON ANY INDIVIDUAL UNIT. IF THE ALARM APPLIES
USER MANUAL Recold OPERATION - MAINTENANCE M06-1339B ISSUED 5/2012 READ AND UNDERSTAND THIS MANUAL PRIOR TO OPERATING OR SERVICING THIS PRODUCT. general information Note Recold Evaporative Cooling products
Issued January 10, 1979 Page 1 of 7 Accumulators have long been recognized by the industry as an effective means of maintaining good system balance by storing excess refrigerant as the condenser or evaporator
SECTION 23 81 03 - PACKAGED ROOFTOP AIR CONDITIONING UNITS NON-CUSTOM PART 1 - GENERAL 1.1 SUMMARY A. Section Includes: 1. Packaged rooftop air conditioning unit (5 tons and smaller). 2. Roof curb. 1.2
Section 000 Bulletin 00 Issued 5/87 Replaces /8 JET PUMP TECHNICAL DATA pumping liquids This technical bulletin includes general information about Penberthy Jet Pumps plus specific details for selecting
What do these items have in common? Overview of Thermal Fluid Heaters 83 rd General Meeting of the National Board Presented by Melissa Wadkinson, PE Purpose Compared to Power Boilers and Heating Boilers,
HEAT RECOVERY FROM CHILLED WATER SYSTEMS Applications for Heat Reclaim Chillers April 2008 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION... 3 WASTE HEAT SOURCES... 3,4 Capturing Sufficient Heat for Useful Purposes...
A discussion of condensate removal systems for clarifier and thickener drives for water and wastewater facilities. Richard L. Dornfeld, BSME, P.E. Staff Engineer September 25, 2014 Moisture can be a problem
1932 Lexington Houston, Texas 77098-4220 (713) 524-4877 The purpose for this information is to provide a better understanding of the HVAC equipment, components, designs, and installations, of HVAC system
SECTION 23 22 23 PART 1 GENERAL 1.1 DESCRIPTION A. Steam condensate pumps for Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning. B. Definitions: 1. Capacity: Liters per second (L/s) (Gallons per minute GPM) of
Boiler feedwater treatment The service life of pipes, boiler systems, pumps and fittings in thermal hot-water and steam-boiler systems is determined to a great extent by the quality of the boiler water.
Rittal White Paper 508: Economized Data Center Cooling Defining Methods & Implementation Practices By: Daniel Kennedy Executive Summary Data center owners and operators are in constant pursuit of methods
Steam System Best Practices Condensate System Piping Summary The best method for improving steam system energy efficiency, reducing chemical costs, and reducing make-up water costs is to return the maximum
Part 1 General 1.1 Summary.1 Unless otherwise indicated, follow the standards below when specifying heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) work. These standards are not intended to restrict or