# Course 395: Machine Learning

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1 Course 395: Machine Learning Lecturers: Maja Pantic Stavros Petridis Goal (Lectures): To present basic theoretical concepts and key algorithms that form the core of machine learning Goal (CBC): To enable hands-on experience with implementing machine learning algorithms using Matlab Material: Machine Learning by Tom Mitchell (1997) Manual for completing the CBC Syllabus on CBR!! Notes on Inductive Logic Programming More Info:

2 Course 395: Machine Learning Lectures Lecture 1-2: Concept Learning (M. Pantic) Lecture 3-4: Decision Trees & CBC Intro (M. Pantic & S. Petridis) Lecture 5-6: Artificial Neural Networks I (S. Petridis) Lecture 7-8: Artificial Neural Networks II (S. Petridis) Lecture 9-10: Evaluating Hypotheses (S. Petridis) Lecture 11-12: Instance Based Learning (M. Pantic) Lecture 13-14: Genetic Algorithms (M. Pantic)

3 Course 395: Machine Learning Exam Material Lecture 1-2: Concept Learning (Mitchell: Ch.1, Ch.2) Lecture 3-4: Decision Trees & CBC Intro (Mitchell: Ch.3) Lecture 5-6: Artificial Neural Networks I (Mitchell: Ch.4) Lecture 7-8: Artificial Neural Networks II (Mitchell: Ch.4) Lecture 9-10: Evaluating Hypotheses (Mitchell: Ch.5) Lecture 11-12: Instance Based Learning (Syllabus!!, Mitchell: Ch.8) Lecture 13-14: Genetic Algorithms (Mitchell: Ch.9)

4 Course 395: Machine Learning - CBC Lecture 1-2: Concept Learning Lecture 3-4: Decision Trees & CBC Intro Lecture 5-6: Artificial Neural Networks I Lecture 7-8: Artificial Neural Networks II Lecture 9-10: Evaluating Hypotheses Lecture 11-12: Instance Based Learning Lecture 13-14: Genetic Algorithms

5 Course 395: Machine Learning NOTE CBC accounts for 33% of the final grade for the Machine Learning Exam. final grade = 0.66*exam_grade *CBC_grade

6 Course 395: Machine Learning - CBC Lecture 1-2: Concept Learning Lecture 3-4: Decision Trees & CBC Intro Lecture 5-6: Artificial Neural Networks I Lecture 7-8: Artificial Neural Networks II Lecture 9-10: Evaluating Hypotheses Lecture 11-12: Instance Based Learning Lecture 13-14: Genetic Algorithms

7 Course 395: Machine Learning Lectures! Lecture 1-2: Concept Learning (M. Pantic) Lecture 3-4: Decision Trees & CBC Intro (M. Pantic & S. Petridis) Lecture 5-6: Artificial Neural Networks I (S. Petridis) Lecture 7-8: Artificial Neural Networks II (S. Petridis) Lecture 9-10: Evaluating Hypotheses (S. Petridis) Lecture 11-12: Instance Based Learning (M. Pantic) Lecture 13-14: Genetic Algorithms (M. Pantic)

8 Concept Learning Lecture Overview Why machine learning? Well-posed learning problems Designing a machine learning system Concept learning task Concept learning as Search Find-S algorithm Candidate-Elimination algorithm

9 Machine Learning Learning Intelligence (Def: Intelligence is the ability to learn and use concepts to solve problems.) Machine Learning Artificial Intelligence Def: AI is the science of making machines do things that require intelligence if done by men (Minsky 1986) Def: Machine Learning is an area of AI concerned with development of techniques which allow machines to learn Why Machine Learning? Why Artificial Intelligence?

10 Machine Learning

11 Machine Learning Learning Intelligence (Def: Intelligence is the ability to learn and use concepts to solve problems.) Machine Learning Artificial Intelligence Def: AI is the science of making machines do things that require intelligence if done by men (Minsky 1986) Def: Machine Learning is an area of AI concerned with development of techniques which allow machines to learn Why Machine Learning? Why Artificial Intelligence? To build machines exhibiting intelligent behaviour (i.e., able to reason, predict, and adapt) while helping humans work, study, and entertain themselves

12 Machine Learning Machine Learning Artificial Intelligence Machine Learning Biology (e.g., Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithms) Machine Learning Cognitive Sciences (e.g., Case-based Reasoning) Machine Learning Statistics (e.g., Support Vector Machines) Machine Learning Probability Theory (e.g., Bayesian Networks) Machine Learning Logic (e.g., Inductive Logic Programming) Machine Learning Information Theory (e.g., used by Decision Trees)

13 Machine Learning Human Learning Machine Learning human-logic inspired problem solvers (e.g., rule-based reasoning) biologically inspired problem solvers (e.g., Neural Networks) supervised learning - generates a function that maps inputs to desired outputs unsupervised learning - models a set of inputs, labelled examples are not available learning by education (e.g., reinforcement learning, case-based reasoning) General Problem Solvers vs. Purposeful Problem Solvers emulating general-purpose human-like problem solving is impractical restricting the problem domain results in rational problem solving example of General Problem Solver: Turing Test examples of Purposeful Problem Solvers: speech recognisers, face recognisers, facial expression recognisers, data mining, games, etc. Application domains: security, medicine, education, finances, genetics, etc.

14 Well-posed Learning Problems Def 1 (Mitchell 1997): A computer program is said to learn from experience E with respect to some class of tasks T and performance measure P, if its performance at tasks in T, as measured by P, improves by experience E. Def 2 (Hadamard 1902): A (machine learning) problem is well-posed if a solution to it exists, if that solution is unique, and if that solution depends on the data / experience but it is not sensitive to (reasonably small) changes in the data / experience.

15 Designing a Machine Learning System Well-posed Problem? Determine type of training examples Determine Target Function Choose Target F-on Representation Choose Learning Algorithm Target Function V represents the problem to be solved (e.g., choosing the best next move in chess, identifying people, classifying facial expressions into emotion categories) V: D C where D is the input state space and C is the set of classes V: D [-1, 1] is a general target function of a binary classifier Ideal Target Function is usually not known; machine learning algorithms learn an approximation of V, say V Representation of function V to be learned should be as close an approximation of V as possible require (reasonably) small amount of training data to be learned V (d) = w 0 + w 1 x w n x n where x 1 x n d D is an input state. This reduces the problem to learning (the most optimal) weights w.

16 Designing a Machine Learning System Well-posed Problem? Determine type of training examples Determine Target Function Choose Target F-on Representation Choose Learning Algorithm V: D C where D is the input state and C is the set of classes V: D [-1, 1] is a general target function of a binary classifier V (d) = w 0 + w 1 x w n x n where x 1 x n d D is an input state. This reduces the problem to learning (the most optimal) weights w. Training examples suitable for the given target function representation V are pairs d, c where c C is the desired output (classification) of the input state d D. Learning algorithm learns the most optimal set of weights w (so-called best hypothesis), i.e., the set of weights that best fit the training examples d, c. Learning algorithm is selected based on the availability of training examples (supervised vs. unsupervised), knowledge of the final set of classes C (offline vs. online, i.e., eager vs. lazy), availability of a tutor (reinforcement learning). The learned V is then used to solve new instances of the problem.

17 Concept Learning Concept learning supervised, eager learning target problem: whether something belongs to the target concept or not target function: V: D {true, false} Underlying idea: Humans acquire general concepts from specific examples (e.g., concepts: beauty, good friend, well-fitting-shoes) (note: each concept can be thought of as Boolean-valued function) Concept learning is inferring a Boolean-valued function from training data concept learning is the prototype binary classification

18 Concept Learning Task An Example Concept learning task: target concept: Girls who Simon likes target function: c: D {0, 1} data d D: Girls, each described in terms of the following attributes a 1 Hair (possible values: blond, brown, black) a 2 Body (possible values: thin, average, plump) a 3 likessimon (possible values: yes, no) a 4 Pose (possible values: arrogant, natural, goofy) a 5 Smile (possible values: none, pleasant, toothy) a 6 Smart (possible values: yes, no) target f-on representation: h c : a 1, a 2, a 3, a 4, a 5, a 6 {0, 1} training examples D: positive and negative examples of target function c Aim: Find a hypothesis h H such that ( d D) h(d) c(d) < ε 0, where H is the set of all possible hypotheses h a 1, a 2, a 3, a 4, a 5, a 6, where each a k, k = [1..6], may be? ( any value is acceptable), 0 ( no value is acceptable), or a specific value.

19 Concept Learning Task Notation Concept learning task: target concept: Girls who Simon likes target function: c: D {0, 1} data d D: Girls, each described in terms of the following attributes a 1 Hair (possible values: blond, brown, black) a 2 Body (possible values: thin, average, plump) instances a 3 likessimon (possible values: yes, no) a 4 Pose (possible values: arrogant, natural, goofy) a 5 Smile (possible values: none, pleasant, toothy) a 6 Smart (possible values: yes, no) error rate target f-on representation: h c : a 1, a 2, a 3, a 4, a 5, a 6 {0, 1} training examples D: positive and negative examples of target function c Aim: Find a hypothesis h H such that ( d D) h(d) c(d) < ε 0, where H is the set of all possible hypotheses h a 1, a 2, a 3, a 4, a 5, a 6, where each a k, k = [1..6], may be? ( any value is acceptable), 0 ( no value is acceptable), or a specific value. h?,?,?,?,?,? h 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 h?,?, yes,?,?,?

20 Concept Learning as Search Concept learning task: target concept: Girls who Simon likes target function: c: D {0, 1} data d D: Girls, each described in terms of the following attributes a 1 Hair (possible values: blond, brown, black) +? a 2 Body (possible values: thin, average, plump) instances a 3 likessimon (possible values: yes, no) +? H = = 2305 a 4 Pose (possible values: arrogant, natural, goofy) a 5 Smile (possible values: none, pleasant, toothy) +? h 0,0,0,0,0,0 a 6 Smart (possible values: yes, no) +? error rate target f-on representation: h c : a 1, a 2, a 3, a 4, a 5, a 6 {0, 1} training examples D: positive and negative examples of target function c Aim: Find a hypothesis h H such that ( d D) h(d) c(d) < ε 0, where H is the set of all possible hypotheses h a 1, a 2, a 3, a 4, a 5, a 6, where each a k, k = [1..6], may be? ( any value is acceptable), 0 ( no value is acceptable), or a specific value. concept learning searching through H

21 General-to-Specific Ordering Many concept learning algorithms utilize general-to-specific ordering of hypotheses General-to-Specific Ordering: h1 precedes (is more general than) h2 ( d D) (h1(d) = 1) (h2(d) = 1) (e.g., h1?,?, yes,?,?,? and h2?,?, yes,?,?, yes h1 >g h2 ) h1 and h2 are of equal generality ( d D) { [(h1(d) = 1) (h2(d) = 1)] [(h2(d) = 1) (h1(d) = 1)] h1 and h2 have equal number of? } (e.g., h1?,?, yes,?,?,? and h2?,?,?,?,?, yes h1 =g h2 ) h2 succeeds (is more specific than) h1 ( d D) (h1(d) = 1) (h2(d) = 1) (e.g., h1?,?, yes,?,?,? and h2?,?, yes,?,?, yes h2 g h1 )

22 Find-S Algorithm Initialise h H to the most specific hypothesis: h a1,,an, ( i) ai = 0. FOR each positive training instance d D, do: FOR each attribute ai, i = [1..n], in h, do: IF ai is satisfied by d THEN do nothing ELSE replace ai in h so that the resulting h >g h, h h. Output hypothesis h.

23 Find-S Algorithm Example Initialise h H to the most specific hypothesis: h a1,,an, ( i) ai = 0. FOR each positive training instance d D, do: FOR each attribute ai, i = [1..n], in h, do: IF ai is satisfied by d THEN do nothing ELSE replace ai in h so that the resulting h >g h, h h. Output hypothesis h. c(d) hair body likessimon pose smile smart 1 1 blond thin yes arrogant toothy no 2 0 brown thin no natural pleasant yes 3 1 blond plump yes goofy pleasant no 4 0 black thin no arrogant none no 5 0 blond plump no natural toothy yes h 0,0,0,0,0,0 h d1 h blond,?, yes,?,?, no

24 Find-S Algorithm Find-S is guaranteed to output the most specific hypothesis h that best fits positive training examples. The hypothesis h returned by Find-S will also fit negative examples as long as training examples are correct. However, Find-S is sensitive to noise that is (almost always) present in training examples. there is no guarantee that h returned by Find-S is the only h that fits the data. several maximally specific hypotheses may exist that fits the data but, Find-S will output only one. Why we should prefer most specific hypotheses over, e.g., most general hypotheses?

25 Find-S Algorithm Example Initialise h H to the most specific hypothesis: h a1,,an, ( i) ai = 0. FOR each positive training instance d D, do: FOR each attribute ai, i = [1..n], in h, do: IF ai is satisfied by d THEN do nothing ELSE replace ai in h so that the resulting h >g h, h h. Output hypothesis h. c(d) hair body likessimon pose smile smart 1 1 blond thin yes arrogant toothy no 2 0 brown thin no natural pleasant yes 3 1 blond plump yes goofy pleasant no 4 0 black thin no arrogant none no 5 0 blond plump no natural toothy yes Find-S h = blond,?, yes,?,?, no BUT h2 = blond,?,?,?,?, no> fits D as well

26 Find-S Algorithm Find-S is guaranteed to output the most specific hypothesis h that best fits positive training examples. The hypothesis h returned by Find-S will also fit negative examples as long as training examples are correct. However, Find-S is sensitive to noise that is (almost always) present in training examples. there is no guarantee that h returned by Find-S is the only h that fits the data. several maximally specific hypotheses may exist that fits the data but, Find-S will output only one. Why we should prefer most specific hypotheses over, e.g., most general hypotheses?

27 Find-S Algorithm Example Initialise h H to the most specific hypothesis: h a1,,an, ( i) ai = 0. FOR each positive training instance d D, do: FOR each attribute ai, i = [1..n], in h, do: IF ai is satisfied by d THEN do nothing ELSE replace ai in h so that the resulting h >g h, h h. Output hypothesis h. c(d) hair body likessimon pose smile smart 1 1 blond thin yes arrogant toothy no 2 0 brown thin no natural pleasant yes 3 1 blond plump yes goofy pleasant no 4 0 black thin no arrogant none no 5 0 blond plump no natural toothy yes Find-S h1 = blond,?,?,?,?, no YET h2 = blond,?, yes,?,?,?> fits D as well

28 Find-S Algorithm Find-S is guaranteed to output the most specific hypothesis h that best fits positive training examples. The hypothesis h returned by Find-S will also fit negative examples as long as training examples are correct. However, 1. Find-S is sensitive to noise that is (almost always) present in training examples. 2. there is no guarantee that h returned by Find-S is the only h that fits the data. 3. several maximally specific hypotheses may exist that fits the data but, Find-S will output only one. 4. Why we should prefer most specific hypotheses over, e.g., most general hypotheses?

29 Candidate-Elimination Algorithm Find-S is guaranteed to output the most specific hypothesis h that best fits positive training examples. The hypothesis h returned by Find-S will also fit negative examples as long as training examples are correct. However, 1. Find-S is sensitive to noise that is (almost always) present in training examples. 2. there is no guarantee that h returned by Find-S is the only h that fits the data. 3. several maximally specific hypotheses may exist that fits the data but, Find-S will output only one. 4. Why we should prefer most specific hypotheses over, e.g., most general hypotheses? To address the last three drawbacks of Find-S, Candidate-Elimination was proposed

30 Candidate-Elimination (C-E) Algorithm Main idea: Output a set of hypothesis VS H that fit (are consistent) with data D Candidate-Elimination (C-E) Algorithm is based upon: general-to-specific ordering of hypotheses Def: h is consistent (fits) data D ( d, c(d) ) h(d) = c(d) Def: version space VS H is set of all h H that are consistent with D C-E algorithm defines VS in terms of two boundaries: general boundary G VS is a set of all h VS that are the most general specific boundary S VS is a set of all h VS that are the most specific

31 Candidate-Elimination (C-E) Algorithm Initialise G VS to the most general hypothesis: h a1,,an, ( i) ai =?. Initialise S VS to the most specific hypothesis: h a1,,an, ( i) ai = 0. FOR each training instance d D, do: IF d is a positive example Remove from G all h that are not consistent with d. FOR each hypothesis s S that is not consistent with d, do: - replace s with all h that are consistent with d, h >g s, h g g G, - remove from S all s being more general than other s in S. IF d is a negative example Remove from S all h that are not consistent with d. FOR each hypothesis g G that is not consistent with d, do: Output hypothesis G and S. - replace g with all h that are consistent with d, g >g h, h >g s S, - remove from G all g being less general than other g in G.

32 C-E Algorithm Example c(d) hair body likessimon pose smile smart 1 1 blond thin yes arrogant toothy no 2 0 brown thin no natural pleasant yes 3 1 blond plump yes goofy pleasant no 4 0 black thin no arrogant none no 5 0 blond plump no natural toothy yes G0 {?,?,?,?,?,? }, S0 { 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 }

33 C-E Algorithm Example c(d) hair body likessimon pose smile smart 1 1 blond thin yes arrogant toothy no 2 0 brown thin no natural pleasant yes 3 1 blond plump yes goofy pleasant no 4 0 black thin no arrogant none no 5 0 blond plump no natural toothy yes d1 is positive refine S no g G0 is inconsistent with d1 G1 G0 {?,?,?,?,?,? } add to S all minimal generalizations of s S0 such that s S1 is consistent with d1 S1 { blond, thin, yes, arrogant, toothy, no }

34 C-E Algorithm Example c(d) hair body likessimon pose smile smart 1 1 blond thin yes arrogant toothy no 2 0 brown thin no natural pleasant yes 3 1 blond plump yes goofy pleasant no 4 0 black thin no arrogant none no 5 0 blond plump no natural toothy yes d2 is negative refine G no s S1 is inconsistent with d2 S2 S1 { blond, thin, yes, arrogant, toothy, no } add to G all minimal specializations of g G1 such that g G2 is consistent with d2 G1 {?,?,?,?,?,? } G2 { blond,?,?,?,?,?,?,?, yes,?,?,?,?,?,?, arrogant,?,?,?,?,?,?, toothy,?,?,?,?,?,?, no }

35 C-E Algorithm Example c(d) hair body likessimon pose smile smart 1 1 blond thin yes arrogant toothy no 2 0 brown thin no natural pleasant yes 3 1 blond plump yes goofy pleasant no 4 0 black thin no arrogant none no 5 0 blond plump no natural toothy yes d3 is positive refine S two g G2 are inconsistent with d3, i.e.,?,?,?, arrogant,?,? and?,?,?,?, toothy,? G3 { blond,?,?,?,?,?,?,?, yes,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?, no } add to S all minimal generalizations of s S2 such that s S3 is consistent with d3 S2 { blond, thin, yes, arrogant, toothy, no } S3 { blond,?, yes,?,?, no }

36 C-E Algorithm Example c(d) hair body likessimon pose smile smart 1 1 blond thin yes arrogant toothy no 2 0 brown thin no natural pleasant yes 3 1 blond plump yes goofy pleasant no 4 0 black thin no arrogant none no 5 0 blond plump no natural toothy yes d4 is negative refine G no s S3 is inconsistent with d4 S4 S3 { blond,?, yes,?,?, no } add to G all minimal specializations of g G3 such that g G4 is consistent with d4 G3 { blond,?,?,?,?,?,?,?, yes,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?, no } G4 { blond,?,?,?,?,?,?,?, yes,?,?,? }

37 C-E Algorithm Example c(d) hair body likessimon pose smile smart 1 1 blond thin yes arrogant toothy no 2 0 brown thin no natural pleasant yes 3 1 blond plump yes goofy pleasant no 4 0 black thin no arrogant none no 5 0 blond plump no natural toothy yes d5 is negative refine G no s S4 is inconsistent with d4 S5 S4 { blond,?, yes,?,?, no } add to G all minimal specializations of g G4 such that g G5 is consistent with d5 G4 { blond,?,?,?,?,?,?,?, yes,?,?,? } " G5 { blond,?,?,?,?, no,?,?, yes,?,?,? }

38 C-E Algorithm Example c(d) hair body likessimon pose smile smart 1 1 blond thin yes arrogant toothy no 2 0 brown thin no natural pleasant yes 3 1 blond plump yes goofy pleasant no 4 0 black thin no arrogant none no 5 0 blond plump no natural toothy yes Output of C-E: version space of hypotheses VS H bound with specific boundary S { blond,?, yes,?,?, no } and general boundary G {?,?, yes,?,?,? } Output of Find-S: most specific hypothesis h blond,?, yes,?,?, no

39 C-E Algorithm Example c(d) hair body likessimon pose smile smart 1 1 blond thin yes arrogant toothy no 2 0 brown thin no natural pleasant yes 3 1 blond plump yes goofy pleasant no 4 0 black thin no arrogant none no 5 0 blond plump no natural toothy yes Output of C-E: version space of hypotheses VS H bound with specific boundary S { blond,?, yes,?,?, no } and general boundary G {?,?, yes,?,?,? } VS {?,?, yes,?,?,?, blond,?, yes,?,?,?,?,?, yes,?,?, no, blond,?, yes,?,?, no }

40 Concept Learning Lecture Overview Why machine learning? Well-posed learning problems Designing a machine learning system Concept learning task Concept learning as Search Find-S algorithm Candidate-Elimination algorithm

41 Concept Learning Exam Questions Tom Mitchell s book chapter 1 and chapter 2 Relevant exercises from chapter 1: 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.5 Relevant exercises from chapter 2: 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5

42 Course 395: Machine Learning Lectures Lecture 1-2: Concept Learning (M. Pantic)! Lecture 3-4: Decision Trees & CBC Intro (M. Pantic & S. Petridis) Lecture 5-6: Artificial Neural Networks I (S. Petridis) Lecture 7-8: Artificial Neural Networks II (S. Petridis) Lecture 9-10: Evaluating Hypotheses (S. Petridis) Lecture 11-12: Instance Based Learning (M. Pantic) Lecture 13-14: Genetic Algorithms (M. Pantic)

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