# Selection: Boolean Expressions (2) Precedence chart:

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1 Selection: Boolean Expressions Boolan operators: Return a Boolean value Types: 1. Relational operators Operators: (a) < (less than) (b) > (greater than) (c) = (equal to) (d) <= (less than or equal to) (e) >= (greater than or equal to) (f) <> (not equal to) Arguments must be type-compatible Note that assignment operator and equivalence test use same operator When using inequalities: (a) Numeric types as you would expect (b) Character comparison based on position in collating sequence (ASCII) (c) String comparison uses dictionary-style (d) Date comparisons based on calendar sequence (e) F alse < T rue 2. Logical operators Operators: (a) And (b) Or (c) Not (d) Xor (exclusive or) Arguments must be Boolean Values represented by truth tables Graphical way of expressing value of Boolean expression A B A And B A Or B A Xor B Not A True True True True False False True False False True True False False True False True True True False False False False False True 1

2 Selection: Boolean Expressions (2) Precedence chart: operator highest () unary +, - *, / +, - relational operators Not And, AndAlso Or, OrElse lowest Xor Boolean functions: 1. String functions: (a).endswith(str): hello.endswith( lo ) (b).startswith(str): hello.startswith( hell ) (c).equals(str): hello.equals( hello ) (d).compareto(str): hello.compareto( hello ) Returns 0 if caller equals str Returns -1 if caller < str Returns +1 if caller > str (e) IsNumeric(str): IsNumeric( \$5,000,123 ) 2. Char functions (a).isdigit(c) (b).isletter(c) (c).isletterordigit(c) (d).islower(c) (e).isupper(c) (f).ispunctuation(c) (g).issymbol(c) (e.g., operators: +, =, ˆ) (h).iswhitespace(c) Note:.Equals and.compareto available for all data types 2

3 Short circuit evaluation Selection: Boolean Expressions (3) Consider the Boolean expression a And b If a is F alse, there is no need to evaluate b VB provides two additional Boolean operators that perform short circuit evaluation They only evaluate as much as is needed to determine the truth value of the expression AndAlso and OrElse have the same semantics as And and Or, respectively, but use short circuit evaluation 3

4 Basic selection statement Syntax (limited): If Boolean-expression Then statements Else statements Semantics: Selection: If-Then-Else If Boolean-expression is True, execute statements after Then If Boolean-expression is False, execute statements after Else Note that the Else component is optional 4

5 Selection: If-Then-Else Examples Simple If-Then: pay = hours * rate If hours > 40 Then pay = pay + (hours - 40) * rate * 0.5 Simple If-Then-Else example: If hours <= 40 Then pay = hours * rate Else pay = 40 * rate + ((hours - 40) * 1.5 * rate) Nested If-Then-Else example: If temp < 100 Then txtwarn.text = "WARNING: Temperature below normal" Else If temp > 200 Then txtwarn.text = "WARNING: Elevated temperature" Else txtwarn.text = "Normal operating temperature" 5

6 The complete syntax for If is If Boolean-expression 1 Then statements 1 ElseIf Boolean-expression 2 Then statements 2... Else statements n Semantics: Selection: If-Then-ElseIf If Boolean-expression 1 is True, execute statements 1 If Boolean-expression 1 is False, check Boolean-expression 2... This format much more convenient than using separate nested ifs 6

7 If-Then-ElseIf example: Selection: If-Then-ElseIf Example If temp < 100 Then txtwarn.text = "WARNING: Temperature below normal" ElseIf temp > 200 Then txtwarn.text = "WARNING: Elevated temperature" Else txtwarn.text = "Normal operating temperature" 7

8 Selection: If-Then-Else Style Improper use of nested If-Then-Else: How many exemptions does someone over 65, married to someone over 65 and filing jointly receive? Dim married As Boolean Dim age, spouseage, dependents, exemptions As Integer Dim filingstatus As Char... If age > 65 Then exemptions = exemptions + 1 ElseIf spouseage > 65 Then exemptions = exemptions + 1 ElseIf (dependents > 0) Then exemptions = exemptions + dependents ElseIf married And (filingstatus = "J") Then exemptions = exemptions + 1 Proper version of nested If-Then-Else:... If age > 65 Then exemptions = exemptions + 1 If spouseage > 65 Then exemptions = exemptions + 1 If (dependents > 0) Then exemptions = exemptions + dependents If married And (filingstatus = "J") Then exemptions = exemptions + 1 8

10 Selection: If-Then-Else Style (3) Best use of nested ifs If avg >= 90 Then grade = "A" ElseIf avg >= 80 Then grade = "B" ElseIf avg >= 70 Then grade = "C" ElseIf avg >= 60 Then grade = "D" Else grade = "F" 10

11 Selection: Select Case Select statement is an alternative to nested If-ElseIf Syntax: Select Case expression Case valuelist 1 statements 1 Case valuelist 2 statements 2... Case Else statements n End Select valuelist is a comma-separated list of values (if more than one value) A value may have any of the following forms Let a value-returning-expression be either a literal, variable, or expression 1. value-returning-expression 2. Is relop value-returning-expression 3. value-returning-expression 1 To value-returning-expression 2 where value-returning-expression 1 < value-returning-expression 2 Semantics: expression is evaluated The Case clauses are evaluated one by-by-one until the value of expression meets the condition of valuelist When a Case is True, the statements following it are executed If no Case is True, either the statements following the Else are executed, or execution continues to the statement following the End Select 11

12 Selection: Select Examples Simple example: Select Case year Mod 4 Case 0 MessageBox.Show("This is an election year") Case 1 MessageBox.Show("Last year was an election year") Case 2 MessageBox.Show("Two years ago was an election year") Case 3 MessageBox.Show("Next year is an election year") End Select Another example: Select Case avg Case Is >= 90 grade = "A" Case Is >= 80 grade = "B" Case Is >= 70 grade = "C" Case Is >= 60 grade = "D" Case Else grade = "F" End Select And another: Select Case temp Case 100 To 200 MessageBox.Show("Normal operating temperature") Case Is < 100 MessageBox.Show("WARNING: Temperature below normal") Case Else MessageBox.Show("WARNING: Elevated temperature") End Select 12

13 Selection: Input Based on User Selection The following examines several controls that allow the user to select from a set of alternatives provided by the program 1. List Box Allows prgrammer to provide a list of choices for the user to select from (like a menu) To add items to a List Box, select String Collection Editor from the control s task button To add them during program execution, assign string values using lst- Box.Items.Add(str) Selection is made by clicking on an item When clicked, the string value is assigned to the List Box Text property The List Box items are numbered by VB (zero-based) 13

14 Selection: Input Based on User Selection (2) Properties: (a).selecteditem returns a reference to the item that was selected If value is Nothing, no item was selected If.SelectedItem is assigned Nothing, any selection is cleared (deselected) (b).selectedindex returns the index of the selected item If value is -1, no item was selected (c).sorted If value is True, items are displayed in alphabetic order (d).selectionmode determines how many items can be selected at one time If value is None, nothing can be selected If value is One, only one item can be selected at any one time Methods: (a).clearselected() clears all selections Events: (a) SelectedIndexChanged is triggered when an item is selected List boxes tend to be used when there are many options for the user to choose from 2. Group Box A Group Box is a container that holds other objects (controls) as a group These objects are said to be attached to the group box To add controls to a group box, simply drag them into it Events are not usually associated with a group box 14

15 3. Radio Button Selection: Input Based on User Selection (3) Displayed as a circle and label Usually displayed in a Group Box Radio buttons in a group box are mutually exclusive - only one can be set at any one time Cannot be toggled by reclicking Can associate an access key Properties: (a).text: label that is displayed (b).checked: Boolean that indicated whther the button is set Can provide the user a default by initially setting this to True Events: (a) CheckChanged is triggered when the button is clicked Generally used for short lists (seven or fewer options) 4. Check Box Displayed as a square and label Usually displayed in a Group Box Can select a many as you like at any one time Can be toggled by reclicking Can associate an access key Properties: (a).text: label that is displayed (b).checked: Boolean that indicated whther the check box is set Can provide the user a default by initially setting this to True Events: (a) CheckChanged is triggered when the button is clicked 15

16 Selection: Input Based on User Selection (4) General note: Each of the above can have events associated it In such a situation, the event will be triggered as soon as the user interacts with that control Frequently want to allow the user to make multiple selections using a combination of controls In this case, would not want to associate events with the individual controls Rather, provide a button for the user to click once the user has finished making selections Processing of the above controls is achieved using selection, as the program must check each control to determine which list box selection, radio button, and check box selections were set by the user 16

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