1 Chapter Multinational Market Regions and Market Groups McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Marketing, 13/e 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
2 Global Perspective Might Free Trade Bring Peace to the Middle East? Multinational Market Regions those groups of countries that seek mutual economic benefit from reducing trade and tariff barriers. Most important global trends today The world is awash in economic cooperative agreements as countries look for economic alliances to expand access to free markets.
3 Global Perspective Might Free Trade Bring Peace to the Middle East? Governments and businesses worry that the EU, NAFTA, and other cooperative trade groups will become regional trading blocs without trade restrictions internally but with borders protected from outsiders.
4 La Raison d Etre Successful economic union requires favorable economic, political, cultural, and geographic factors as a basis for success. The advantages of economic union must be clear-cut and significant, and the benefits must greatly outweigh the disadvantages before nations forgo any part of their sovereignty.
5 La Raison d Etre In the past, a strong threat to the economic or political security of a nation was the impetus for cooperation.
6 Economic Factors Markets are enlarged through preferential tariff treatment for participating members, common tariff barriers against outsiders, or both. Nations with complementary economic bases are least likely to encounter frictions in the development and operation of a common market unit.
7 Economic Factors For an economic union to survive, it must have agreements and mechanisms in place to settle economic disputes. The demise of the Latin American Free Trade Association (LAFTA) was the result of economically stronger members not allowing for the needs of the weaker ones.
8 Political Factors State sovereignty is one of the most cherished possessions of any nation and is relinquished only for a promise of significant improvement of the national position through cooperation. The importance of political unity to fully achieve all the benefits of economic integration has driven EC countries to form the European Union.
9 Geographic and Temporal Proximity & Cultural Factors Geographic and temporal proximity The most recent research demonstrates that more important than physical distance are differences across time zones. Trade tends to travel more easily in north-south directions then it did in ancient times. Countries that are widely separated geographically have major barriers to overcome in attempting economic fusion.
10 Geographic and Temporal Proximity & Cultural Factors Cultural factors The more similar the culture, the more likely a market is to succeed because members understand the outlook and viewpoints of their colleagues.
11 Patterns of Multinational Cooperation Regional cooperation groups Governments agree to participate jointly to develop basic industries beneficial to each economy. Free trade area An agreement between two or more countries to reduce or eliminate customs duties and nontariff trade barriers among partner countries while members maintain individual tariff schedules for external countries.
12 Patterns of Multinational Cooperation Customs union Enjoys free trade area s reduced or eliminated internal tariffs and adds a common external tariff on products imported from countries outside the union. Common market Eliminates all tariffs and other restrictions on internal trade, adopts a set of common external tariffs, and removes all restrictions on the free flow of capital and labor among member nations.
13 Patterns of Multinational Cooperation Political union Involves complete political and economic integration, either voluntary or enforced. Commonwealth a voluntary organization providing for the loosest possible relationship that can be classified as economic integration. Two new political unions came into existence in the 1990s: The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) The European Union (EU)
14 Global and Multinational Market Groups Reasons it is important that market potential be viewed in the context of regions of the world rather than country by country: The globalization of markets The restructuring of the Eastern European bloc into independent market-driven economies The dissolution of the Soviet Union into independent states The worldwide trend toward economic cooperation Enhanced global competition
15 A Brief History of European Integration Of all the multinational market groups, none is more secure in its cooperation or more important economically than the European Union. Historically, standards have been used to effectively limit market access. The Single European Act
16 A Brief History of European Integration (continued) EU Institutions Form of federal pattern with executive, parliamentary, and judicial branches European Union uses three legal instruments: 1. Regulations binding the member states directly and having the same strength as national laws 2. Directives also binding the member states but allowing them to choose the means of execution. 3. Decisions addressed to a government, an enterprise, or an individual, binding the parties named.
17 A Brief History of European Integration (continued) European Free Trade Association and European Economic Area For those European nations not willing to join the EEC but wanting to participate in a free trade area. EFTA will most probably dissolve as its members join either the European Economic Area (EEA) or the EU. European Economic Area a single market with free movement of goods, services, and capital.
18 A Brief History of European Integration (continued) The EEA is governed by a special Council of Ministers composed of representatives from EEA member nations.
19 European Union Ratification of the Maastricht Treaty (1992) Economic and Monetary Union Treaty of Amsterdam Expansion of the European Union
20 Strategic Implications for Marketing in Europe Multinational groups spell opportunity in bold letters through access to greatly enlarged markets with reduced or abolished country-by-country tariff barriers and restrictions. World competition will intensify as businesses become stronger and more experienced in dealing with large market groups.
21 Strategic Implications for Marketing in Europe Opportunities Economic integration creates large mass markets for the marketer Market barriers The initial aim of a multinational market is to protect businesses that operate within its borders. Reciprocity If a country does not open its market to an EU firm, it cannot expect to have access to the EU market.
22 Marketing Mix Implications In the past, companies often charged different prices in different European markets. As long as products from lower-priced markets could not move to higherpriced markets, such differential price schemes worked. Beddedas Shower Gel
23 Marketing Mix Implications In addition to initiating uniform pricing policies, companies are reducing the number of brands they produce to focus advertising and promotion efforts.
24 The Commonwealth of Independent States The remaining 12 republics of the former USSR after the aborted coup against Gorbachev and the formation of the Baltic States. The CIS is a loose economic and political alliance with open borders but no central government.
25 The Commonwealth of Independent States The 12 members of the CIS share a common history of central planning, and their close cooperation could make the change to a market economy less painful, but differences over economic policy, currency reform, and control of the military may break them apart.
26 Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Exhibit 10.6
27 North American Free Trade Agreement NAFTA was ratified and became effective in 1994, a single market of 360 million people with a $6 trillion GNP emerged. NAFTA requires the three countries to remove all tariffs and barriers to trade over 15 years, but each country will have its own tariff arrangements with nonmember countries.
28 North American Free Trade Agreement The elimination of trade and investment barriers among Canada, Mexico, and the United States creates one of the largest and richest markets in the world. NAFTA has its detractors, and it is safe to say that there has been constant turmoil since its inception presidential election Job losses have not been as drastic as once feared, in part because companies have established maquiladora plants in anticipation of the benefits from NAFTA.
29 Southern Cone Free Trade Area (Mercosur) Mercosur (including Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay) is the second-largest common-market agreement in the Americas after NAFTA. Since its inception, Mercosur has become the most influential and successful free trade area in South America.
30 Southern Cone Free Trade Area (Mercosur) The success can be attributed to the willingness of the region s governments to confront some very tough issues caused by dissimilar economic policies. Negotiations have been under way since 1999 for a free trade agreement between the EU and Mercosur, the first region-to-region free trade accord.
31 Latin American Economic Cooperation Almost every country in Latin America has either signed some type of trade agreement or is involved in negotiations. Latin American Integration Association Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM) NAFTA to FTAA or SAFTA?
32 Association of Southeast Asian Nations Goals of the ASEAN Economic integration and cooperation through complementary industry programs Preferential trading, including reduced tariff and nontariff barriers Guaranteed member access to markets throughout the region Harmonized investment incentives
33 Association of Southeast Asian Nations Four major events account for the vigorous economic growth of the ASEAN countries: The ASEAN governments commitment to deregulation, liberalization, and privatization of their economies. The decision to shift their economies from commodity based to manufacturing based. The decision to specialize in manufacturing components in which they have a comparative advantage. Japan s emergence as a major provider of technology and capital necessary to upgrade manufacturing capability and develop new industries.
34 Far Eastern Market Group Insert Exhibit 10.9
35 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Formed in 1989 APEC provides a formal structure for the major governments of the region, including the U.S. and Canada, to discuss their mutual interests in open trade and economic collaboration. Includes all major economies of the region and the most dynamic, fastest-growing economies in the world.
36 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Common goal and commitment: To open trade To increase economic collaboration To sustain regional growth and development To strengthen the multilateral trading system To reduce barriers to investment and trade without detriment to other economies.
37 Africa There has been little actual economic integration because of the political instability that has characterized Africa in recent decades and the unstable economic base on which Africa has had to build.
38 Africa The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the Southern African Development Community (SADC) are the two most active regional cooperative groups. ECOWAS continues to be plagued with financial problems, conflict within the group, and inactivity on the part of some members. The Southern African Development Community is the most advanced and viable of Africa s regional organizations.
39 Middle East The Middle East has been less aggressive in the formation of successfully functioning multinational market groups. A long history of border disputes and persisting ideological differences will have to be overcome.
40 Middle East Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) Creation of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) Represents 60 countries and over 650 million Muslims worldwide The member countries vast natural resources, substantial capital, and cheap labor force are seen as the strengths of the OIC.
41 Regional Trading Groups and Emerging Markets Two opposing views prevailed regarding the direction of global trade in the future. The world is dividing into major regional trading groups such as the European Union, NAFTA, and the ASEAN Free Trade Area that are now and will continue to be the major markets of the future. Global economic power may be shifting away from the traditional industrial markets to the developing world and its emerging markets.
42 Regional Trading Groups and Emerging Markets Many experts predict that over the next 50 years the majority of global economic growth will be in the developing world principally in those countries identified as emerging markets.
43 Summary Marketing efficiency is effected through the development of mass markets, encouragement of competition, improvement of personal income, and various psychological market factors.
44 Summary (continued) Production efficiency derives from specialization, mass production for mass markets, and the free movement of the factors of production. Regardless of the location of the marketer, multinational market groups provide great opportunity for the creative marketer who wishes to expand volume.
45 Summary (continued) Market groupings make it economically feasible to enter new markets and to employ new marketing strategies. Market groupings intensify competition by protectionism within a market group but may foster greater protectionism between regional markets.
46 Summary (continued) Mercosur and ASEAN+3 suggest the growing importance of economic cooperation and integration.
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