1 Chapter Multinational Market Regions and Market Groups McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Marketing, 13/e 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
2 Global Perspective Might Free Trade Bring Peace to the Middle East? Multinational Market Regions those groups of countries that seek mutual economic benefit from reducing trade and tariff barriers. Most important global trends today The world is awash in economic cooperative agreements as countries look for economic alliances to expand access to free markets.
3 Global Perspective Might Free Trade Bring Peace to the Middle East? Governments and businesses worry that the EU, NAFTA, and other cooperative trade groups will become regional trading blocs without trade restrictions internally but with borders protected from outsiders.
4 La Raison d Etre Successful economic union requires favorable economic, political, cultural, and geographic factors as a basis for success. The advantages of economic union must be clear-cut and significant, and the benefits must greatly outweigh the disadvantages before nations forgo any part of their sovereignty.
5 La Raison d Etre In the past, a strong threat to the economic or political security of a nation was the impetus for cooperation.
6 Economic Factors Markets are enlarged through preferential tariff treatment for participating members, common tariff barriers against outsiders, or both. Nations with complementary economic bases are least likely to encounter frictions in the development and operation of a common market unit.
7 Economic Factors For an economic union to survive, it must have agreements and mechanisms in place to settle economic disputes. The demise of the Latin American Free Trade Association (LAFTA) was the result of economically stronger members not allowing for the needs of the weaker ones.
8 Political Factors State sovereignty is one of the most cherished possessions of any nation and is relinquished only for a promise of significant improvement of the national position through cooperation. The importance of political unity to fully achieve all the benefits of economic integration has driven EC countries to form the European Union.
9 Geographic and Temporal Proximity & Cultural Factors Geographic and temporal proximity The most recent research demonstrates that more important than physical distance are differences across time zones. Trade tends to travel more easily in north-south directions then it did in ancient times. Countries that are widely separated geographically have major barriers to overcome in attempting economic fusion.
10 Geographic and Temporal Proximity & Cultural Factors Cultural factors The more similar the culture, the more likely a market is to succeed because members understand the outlook and viewpoints of their colleagues.
11 Patterns of Multinational Cooperation Regional cooperation groups Governments agree to participate jointly to develop basic industries beneficial to each economy. Free trade area An agreement between two or more countries to reduce or eliminate customs duties and nontariff trade barriers among partner countries while members maintain individual tariff schedules for external countries.
12 Patterns of Multinational Cooperation Customs union Enjoys free trade area s reduced or eliminated internal tariffs and adds a common external tariff on products imported from countries outside the union. Common market Eliminates all tariffs and other restrictions on internal trade, adopts a set of common external tariffs, and removes all restrictions on the free flow of capital and labor among member nations.
13 Patterns of Multinational Cooperation Political union Involves complete political and economic integration, either voluntary or enforced. Commonwealth a voluntary organization providing for the loosest possible relationship that can be classified as economic integration. Two new political unions came into existence in the 1990s: The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) The European Union (EU)
14 Global and Multinational Market Groups Reasons it is important that market potential be viewed in the context of regions of the world rather than country by country: The globalization of markets The restructuring of the Eastern European bloc into independent market-driven economies The dissolution of the Soviet Union into independent states The worldwide trend toward economic cooperation Enhanced global competition
15 A Brief History of European Integration Of all the multinational market groups, none is more secure in its cooperation or more important economically than the European Union. Historically, standards have been used to effectively limit market access. The Single European Act
16 A Brief History of European Integration (continued) EU Institutions Form of federal pattern with executive, parliamentary, and judicial branches European Union uses three legal instruments: 1. Regulations binding the member states directly and having the same strength as national laws 2. Directives also binding the member states but allowing them to choose the means of execution. 3. Decisions addressed to a government, an enterprise, or an individual, binding the parties named.
17 A Brief History of European Integration (continued) European Free Trade Association and European Economic Area For those European nations not willing to join the EEC but wanting to participate in a free trade area. EFTA will most probably dissolve as its members join either the European Economic Area (EEA) or the EU. European Economic Area a single market with free movement of goods, services, and capital.
18 A Brief History of European Integration (continued) The EEA is governed by a special Council of Ministers composed of representatives from EEA member nations.
19 European Union Ratification of the Maastricht Treaty (1992) Economic and Monetary Union Treaty of Amsterdam Expansion of the European Union
20 Strategic Implications for Marketing in Europe Multinational groups spell opportunity in bold letters through access to greatly enlarged markets with reduced or abolished country-by-country tariff barriers and restrictions. World competition will intensify as businesses become stronger and more experienced in dealing with large market groups.
21 Strategic Implications for Marketing in Europe Opportunities Economic integration creates large mass markets for the marketer Market barriers The initial aim of a multinational market is to protect businesses that operate within its borders. Reciprocity If a country does not open its market to an EU firm, it cannot expect to have access to the EU market.
22 Marketing Mix Implications In the past, companies often charged different prices in different European markets. As long as products from lower-priced markets could not move to higherpriced markets, such differential price schemes worked. Beddedas Shower Gel
23 Marketing Mix Implications In addition to initiating uniform pricing policies, companies are reducing the number of brands they produce to focus advertising and promotion efforts.
24 The Commonwealth of Independent States The remaining 12 republics of the former USSR after the aborted coup against Gorbachev and the formation of the Baltic States. The CIS is a loose economic and political alliance with open borders but no central government.
25 The Commonwealth of Independent States The 12 members of the CIS share a common history of central planning, and their close cooperation could make the change to a market economy less painful, but differences over economic policy, currency reform, and control of the military may break them apart.
26 Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Exhibit 10.6
27 North American Free Trade Agreement NAFTA was ratified and became effective in 1994, a single market of 360 million people with a $6 trillion GNP emerged. NAFTA requires the three countries to remove all tariffs and barriers to trade over 15 years, but each country will have its own tariff arrangements with nonmember countries.
28 North American Free Trade Agreement The elimination of trade and investment barriers among Canada, Mexico, and the United States creates one of the largest and richest markets in the world. NAFTA has its detractors, and it is safe to say that there has been constant turmoil since its inception presidential election Job losses have not been as drastic as once feared, in part because companies have established maquiladora plants in anticipation of the benefits from NAFTA.
29 Southern Cone Free Trade Area (Mercosur) Mercosur (including Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay) is the second-largest common-market agreement in the Americas after NAFTA. Since its inception, Mercosur has become the most influential and successful free trade area in South America.
30 Southern Cone Free Trade Area (Mercosur) The success can be attributed to the willingness of the region s governments to confront some very tough issues caused by dissimilar economic policies. Negotiations have been under way since 1999 for a free trade agreement between the EU and Mercosur, the first region-to-region free trade accord.
31 Latin American Economic Cooperation Almost every country in Latin America has either signed some type of trade agreement or is involved in negotiations. Latin American Integration Association Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM) NAFTA to FTAA or SAFTA?
32 Association of Southeast Asian Nations Goals of the ASEAN Economic integration and cooperation through complementary industry programs Preferential trading, including reduced tariff and nontariff barriers Guaranteed member access to markets throughout the region Harmonized investment incentives
33 Association of Southeast Asian Nations Four major events account for the vigorous economic growth of the ASEAN countries: The ASEAN governments commitment to deregulation, liberalization, and privatization of their economies. The decision to shift their economies from commodity based to manufacturing based. The decision to specialize in manufacturing components in which they have a comparative advantage. Japan s emergence as a major provider of technology and capital necessary to upgrade manufacturing capability and develop new industries.
34 Far Eastern Market Group Insert Exhibit 10.9
35 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Formed in 1989 APEC provides a formal structure for the major governments of the region, including the U.S. and Canada, to discuss their mutual interests in open trade and economic collaboration. Includes all major economies of the region and the most dynamic, fastest-growing economies in the world.
36 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Common goal and commitment: To open trade To increase economic collaboration To sustain regional growth and development To strengthen the multilateral trading system To reduce barriers to investment and trade without detriment to other economies.
37 Africa There has been little actual economic integration because of the political instability that has characterized Africa in recent decades and the unstable economic base on which Africa has had to build.
38 Africa The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the Southern African Development Community (SADC) are the two most active regional cooperative groups. ECOWAS continues to be plagued with financial problems, conflict within the group, and inactivity on the part of some members. The Southern African Development Community is the most advanced and viable of Africa s regional organizations.
39 Middle East The Middle East has been less aggressive in the formation of successfully functioning multinational market groups. A long history of border disputes and persisting ideological differences will have to be overcome.
40 Middle East Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) Creation of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) Represents 60 countries and over 650 million Muslims worldwide The member countries vast natural resources, substantial capital, and cheap labor force are seen as the strengths of the OIC.
41 Regional Trading Groups and Emerging Markets Two opposing views prevailed regarding the direction of global trade in the future. The world is dividing into major regional trading groups such as the European Union, NAFTA, and the ASEAN Free Trade Area that are now and will continue to be the major markets of the future. Global economic power may be shifting away from the traditional industrial markets to the developing world and its emerging markets.
42 Regional Trading Groups and Emerging Markets Many experts predict that over the next 50 years the majority of global economic growth will be in the developing world principally in those countries identified as emerging markets.
43 Summary Marketing efficiency is effected through the development of mass markets, encouragement of competition, improvement of personal income, and various psychological market factors.
44 Summary (continued) Production efficiency derives from specialization, mass production for mass markets, and the free movement of the factors of production. Regardless of the location of the marketer, multinational market groups provide great opportunity for the creative marketer who wishes to expand volume.
45 Summary (continued) Market groupings make it economically feasible to enter new markets and to employ new marketing strategies. Market groupings intensify competition by protectionism within a market group but may foster greater protectionism between regional markets.
46 Summary (continued) Mercosur and ASEAN+3 suggest the growing importance of economic cooperation and integration.
ECOWAS COMMON INVESTMENT MARKET IN THE REGIONAL INTEGRATION AGENDA Jonathan Aremu Ph.D Consultant, ECOWAS Common Investment Market Abuja Introduction Different group of countries are coming together all
Chapter 17 review Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of the following resulted in a retaliation by the United States of
Chapter 6 DEVELOPING COUNTRIES How the WTO deals with the special needs of an increasingly important group 1. Overview About two thirds of the WTO s around 150 members are developing countries. They play
Analyzing the international business environment and identifying key factors for international business operations R. JAYARAJ, M.A., Ph.D., 1-1 What is International Business All commercial transactions
Globalization p.1 Worksheet 3 Causes of Globalization 2 : Understanding Globalization from the Economic Do you recognize me? Do you know my place of origin? Do you know where I was born? Information for
12 Globalization and International Trade Globalization refers to the growing interdependence of countries resulting from the increasing integration of trade, finance, people, and ideas in one global marketplace.
Globalization: Who Wins, Who Loses? Economists focus on free trade in goods, services, labor, and capital, and the institutional rules that make this possible between (rather than just internal to) countries.
Global Economic Issues and Policies First edition Chapter 5 Regionalism and Multilateralism PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook Copyright 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 1.
Dr. Jürgen Pfister, Chief Economist and Head of Investment Research The Pros and Cons of European Integration: the Pros A German Perspective Global Insight s World Economic Outlook Conference Cambridge,
Chapter 10: The Globalization of Trade and Finance MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The vicious cycle common to financial panics in Thailand was a result of a. investors deciding to hold off from selling and waiting
Chapter 8 Regional Economic Integration International Business Strategy, Management & the New Realities by Cavusgil, Knight and Riesenberger International Business: Strategy, Management, and the New Realities
Unit 6. The Cold War (1945-1991) Learning Target 23 Summarize how atomic weapons have changed the nature of war, altered the balance of power and started the nuclear age. Following World War II, the United
IMPACTS AND MAIN ISSUES OF THE KOREA-CHINA FTA By Choi Nakgyoon Abstract all the main issues regarding goods, services, and trade-related rules following a single undertaking method. For its part, Korea
No reform of the UN will be complete without the reform of the Security Council Former Secretary-General of the United Nations Kofi Annan The United Nations Security Council: Reforms concerning its membership
Glossary of trade terms ACP: African, Caribbean and Pacific States; normally used to identify the countries that are signatories of the Lomé Convention with the European Union (EU), and are now negotiating
Unit 1 Chapter 5 5 The United States and the Global Economy Chapter Objectives Key Facts About U.S. International Trade Comparative Advantage, Specialization, and International Trade How Exchange Rates
AP EUROPEAN HISTORY 2011 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 7 Analyze the ways in which Western European nations have pursued European economic and political integration from 1945 to the present, referring to
The impact of globalisation on international road and rail freight transport activity Past trends and future perspectives Allan Woodburn, Julian Allen, Michael Browne & Jacques Leonardi Transport Studies
The World Trade Organization......In brief, the World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only international organization dealing with the global rules of trade between nations. Its main function is to ensure
REGIONAL INTEGRATION AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT: THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF THE FTAA AND THE EU-MERCOSUR AGREEMENT ON FDI FLOWS INTO MERCOSUR COUNTRIES Andrés López and Eugenia Orlicki 1 Although studies
Name: Class: Date: ID: A REVIEW ONE Matching Complete the following using these terms. a. outsourcing b. diversity c. entrepreneur d. competitive differentiation e. strategic alliance f. capital g. vision
TURKISH PERSPECTIVE ON FTAs under the Turkey-EU CU (with a Special Emphasis to TTIP) Murat YAPICI DG for EU Affairs Ministry of Economy Brussels, June 18, 2013 1 Contents I. Turkey-EU Association Relations
Hitachi Review Vol. 63 (2014), No. 6 315 Overview Global Deployment of IT Solutions that Contribute to Social Progress Sunao Ehara Wakana Kasai Isamu Nishikawa Shinichi Matsuoka SOLUTIONS THAT TIE TOGETHER
CELAC ACTION PLAN 2015 FOOD SECURITY AND HUNGER AND POVERTY ERADICATION 1. Implement CELAC s Plan for Food Security, Nutrition and Hunger Eradication 2025, developed by FAO, ECLAC and ALADI following up
List of tables I. World Trade Developments 1. Overview Table I.1 Growth in the volume of world merchandise exports and production, 2010-2014 39 Table I.2 Growth in the volume of world merchandise trade
Compensating Lost Revenue in Regional Trade Agreements 25 Peter Walkenhorst.The proliferation of free trade agreements and customs unions since the early 1990s has been remarkable. Today most countries
9 Trade Remedy Provisions Thomas J. Prusa The question of whether preferential trade agreements (PTAs) are good or bad for the global trade system has always been contentious. As experience has accumulated,
Final Report High Level Working Group on Jobs and Growth February 11, 2013 INTRODUCTION As the United States-European Union High Level Working Group on Jobs and Growth (HLWG) noted in its June 19, 2012
GEORGIA PERFORMANCE STANDARDS International Domain [Type the author name] GEORGIA PERFORMANCE STANDARDS INTERNATIONAL ECONOMICS Fundamental Economic Concepts SSEF3 The student will explain how specialization
The Political Economy of International Trade, Finance, & Regional Integration Classical Trade Theory & Comparative Advantage Neoclassical & Subsequent Economic Thought Trade and Finance An International
Marketers must: The Political, Legal, and Regulatory Environments of Global Marketing Global Marketing Chapter 5 Attempt to comply with each nation s laws and regulations. Keep up with laws and regulations
Elizaveta V. Ogloblina Assistant Professor International Banking and Finance Department Finance University under the Government of the Russian Federation Regional Monetary Fund: the Case for Latin America
The World Trade Organization......In brief, the World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only international organization dealing with the global rules of trade between nations. Its main function is to ensure
Standard: History Enlightenment Ideas A. Explain connections between the ideas of the Enlightenment and changes in the relationships between citizens and their governments. 1. Explain how Enlightenment
Trading Policy and Georgian Export Gelashvili Madona Associate Professor, Faculty of Business and Economics, Sokhumi State University, Tbilisi, Georgia Abstract Introduction and aim: Georgian foreign trade
Flat Rate versus Per Minute Charges for Telephone Service: The Relationship between Internet Access and Telephone Tariffs December 4, 2001 The vast majority of residential Internet users and many business
B126 Business Administration Project Management MTCU code - 60200 Program Learning Outcomes Synopsis of the Vocational Learning Outcomes The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to 1. evaluate
INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION TEAM International Elevator Investment Speeches Arbitration in Latin America: Year in Review 2014 International investment arbitration also known as investment treaty arbitration
Curriculum Guide I. Goals and Objectives A. Understand the importance of exports and imports to agriculture and how risk management is affected. B. Understand factors causing exports to change. C. Understand
ASQ509 Biomed/Biotech SIG February 26, 2015 ICH Its History, Evolution, Achievements and Challenges Justina A. Molzon, M.S. Pharm., J.D. FORMER Associate Director, International Program Office of Strategic
Competency: Communication (including culture and language) 1. Describe information systems and communications for international business. 2. Define terms such as culture, multiculturalism, stereotyping,
Brussels, 5 May 2014 BACKGROUND 1 FOREIGN AFFAIRS COUNCIL - TRADE ISSUES Thursday 8 May in Brussels The Council will take note of progress on the remaining technical issues to be resolved on a comprehensive
Thompson Casco Diaz-Bonilla Rogers 227 ISSUES AFFECTING LATIN AMERICAN AGRICUL- TURE AND FUTURE TRADE NEGOTIATIONS 3 Eugenio Diaz-Bonilla, IFPRI BACKGROUND Agriculture and agro-industry are central components
CAPTURE THE OPPORTUNITY IN COLOMBIA BUSINESS SWEDEN June 2015 Bogota COLOMBIA AMONG THE FASTEST GROWING ECONOMIES IN THE REGION EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Colombia has a privileged geographical location between
MKTG 680 Chapter 8 Exporting, Importing, and Sourcing Introduction Export Selling vs. Export Marketing Export selling involves selling the same product, at the same price, with the same promotional tools
GLOBALIZATION INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS OBJECTIVES To define globalization and international business and how they affect each other To understand why companies engage in international business and why international
Latham & Watkins International Arbitration Practice Number 1563 July 29, 2013 Investment Treaty Arbitration: A Primer International investors enjoy varying degrees of protection and opportunities to seek
Chapter 1 MOST-FAVOURED-NATION TREATMENT PRINCIPLE OVERVIEW OF RULES Most-Favoured-Nation ( MFN ) treatment requires Members to accord the most favourable tariff and regulatory treatment given to the product
Development Policy Research Unit University of Cape Town Trade Liberalisation and the Clothing and Textile Industry in Malawi DPRU Policy Brief No. 01/P11 April 2001 Trade Liberalisation and the Clothing
Trade Facilitation Initiatives in the ESCWA Region E/ESCWA/EDGD/2013/Technical Paper.3 13-0143 Trade facilitation at the WTO On 1 August 2004, the Member States of the World Trade Organization (WTO) agreed
1 East African Community STATEMENT BY AMB. DR. RICHARD SEZIBERA, SECRETARY GENERAL OF THE EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY AT THE OFFICIAL OPENING CEREMONY OF THE 6 TH EAC MILITARY GAMES AND CULTURAL EVENTS ON 7
Plan Number 2014 A- General Rules and Conditions: STUDY PLAN Master in Political Science (None Thesis Track) 1. This plan conforms to the valid regulations of the programs of graduate studies. 2. Areas
Chapter International Managerial Finance Web T his chapter provides a brief introduction to international finance. Of course, whole courses and even degree programs are offered on this topic. The reason
RECENT TRENDS AND CRITICAL ISSUES IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE LIBERALIZATION Parr Rosson Professor and Extension Economist Department of Agricultural Economics Texas A&M University U.S. agriculture has undergone
NINTH-TENTH GRADES SUGGESTED UNIT OUTLINES In ninth and tenth grade, students apply their deeper understanding of social studies concepts on a global scale. The recommended context in the ninth and tenth
To what extent were the policies of the United States responsible for the outbreak and development of the Cold War between 1945 and 1949? Although the dominant military confrontations of the 20 th century
Introduction Every day Australia and Australians benefit from trade. With a population of only 19 million people trade opens up a global market of more than five billion. Australia has a surplus of resources
Financing and guarantees to support SME s in the Caribbean Credit guarantees; The approach in Suriname A presentation made by Glenn. H. Gersie, President Credit Guarantee Fund Suriname Kingston, Jamaica,
Cambodian Preparedness for ASEAN Economic Community 2015 Presentation to the Bar Association of the Kingdom of Cambodia By Mr. Sok Siphana Member of the Bar Council 1 Outline n Background n Progress and
What is the European Union? A unique economic and political partnership between 27 democratic European countries. What are its aims? Peace, prosperity and freedom for its 495 million citizens in a fairer,
SOCIAL STUDIES MODERN WORLD HISTORY GRADE 9 I Can Checklist 2015-2016 Aligned with Ohio s Learning Standards for Social Studies Office of Teaching and Learning Curriculum Division 1 2 I can analyze a historical
EuroDev BV How to overcome the barriers in international business How to overcome the barriers in international business as an SME When small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) want to develop their business
Edited by Ashley J. Tellis and Michael Wills Country Studies How Domestic Forces Shape the PRC s Grand Strategy and International Impact Kenneth Lieberthal please note: For permission to reprint this chapter,
Dissolution of Global Alliance Conference Call June 5, 2015 Forward-Looking Statements Certain information contained in this presentation constitutes forward-looking statements for purposes of the safe
EIB GROUP 2015 RESULTS PRESS CONFERENCE 14 JANUARY 2016 WE DELIVER IMPACT WHERE IT S NEEDED JOBS HEALTH EDUCATION WATER 4.1m jobs in small businesses 9.8m people with access to improved health services
Supranationalism vs. Devolution Supranationalism Cooperation among states for a common goal (political, economic, military, environmental) Can be connected with globalizing forces States may give up some
Maximizing the Utilization of Thailand-Chile Free Trade Agreement By Mr.Phairush Burapachaisri Vice Chairman, Thai Chamber of Commerce Latin America Region Potentials and obstacles towards Latin America
9. Major powers and arms control: a Chinese perspective Li Changhe I. Introduction The major powers play a key role in the process of international arms control and disarmament. Their policies and actions
Department Head: Professor John T. Rourke Department Office: Room 137, Monteith Building Undergraduate Catalog 1998-1999 POLITICAL SCIENCE (POLS) For major requirements, see the College of Liberal Arts
April 2013 Pablo Heidrich, Laura Macdonald and Catalina Prada Canada and the Pacific Alliance The Pacific Alliance is an economic union between Mexico, Colombia, Peru, and Chile - all of which have coastlines
The second World War was a source of big, deep and far-reaching changes in International structure. It ended the traditional power structure in International Relations and ushered in a new power structure
POSITION PAPER May 2015 TTIP: the sustainability chapter KEY MESSAGES 1 pr in ci 2 pl e 3 p ur 4 p o 5 s e a n d fu n ct io The main objective of TTIP is to boost trade and investments between the European
Academic Standards for Civics and Government June 1, 2009 FINAL Secondary Standards Pennsylvania Department of Education These standards are offered as a voluntary resource for Pennsylvania s schools and
Applied Sciences and Business Economics Volume 1, Issue 2, 01-08, 2014 ISSN: 2312-9832 The Non-tariff Barriers in the Developed Countries (The Case of USA, EU and Japan) Emilija Miteva Kacarski Faculty
SEMINAR PRESENTATION on ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND ECONOMIC GROWTH by Professor Compton Bourne, Ph.D., O.E. President Caribbean Development Bank to UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES CAVE HILL CAMPUS DOCTORATE IN
Attracting Foreign Direct Investment through an Ambitious Trade Agenda: New Opportunities for the U.S. Economy and Workforce Matthew J. Slaughter July 2013 This report was sponsored by the Organization
Understanding the Trans-Pacific Partnership Jeffrey J. Schott Barbara Kotschwar Julia Muir December 19, 2012 The TPP: A Big Deal in the Making? The GDP of TPP-11 countries is $21 trillion or 30 percent
FLOR BUSN 3372 International Marketing CAPA FLORENCE PROGRAM Course Description This International Marketing course will help you develop an understanding of the scope and challenges of marketing in the
ADBI Working Paper Series The Impact of Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) on Business in the Republic of Korea Inkyo Cheong and Jungran Cho No. 156 October 2009 Asian Development Bank Institute Dr. Inkyo Cheong
Regionalism and the World Trading System Lawrence H. Summers Increasing economic integration has been one of the major forces driving the world economy's impressive growth over the last fortyfive years.
I. World trade developments World merchandise exports stagnated in value terms in 2012 while exports of commercial services increased by 2 per cent. Key developments in 2012: a snapshot Trade data List
The international trade of Higher Education Luciano Galán-Casado Universidad Autónoma de Madrid luciano.galan firstname.lastname@example.org Luciano Galán Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Fribourg, september 2003 1 The economy
Summary Oxfam International Concerns With Initialled Interim EPA Texts Friday, 07 December 2007 Over the past two weeks, a number of Interim Economic Partnership Agreements (Interim EPA) have been initialled
Trade justice or free trade? Key points Trade justice campaigners are today holding a mass lobby of MPs, ahead of the key WTO meeting in Hong Kong in December. The lobby, organised by the Trade Justice
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.