# Introduction to database design

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1 Introduction to database design KBL chapter 5 (pages ) Rasmus Pagh Some figures are borrowed from the ppt slides from the book used in the course, Database systems by Kiefer, Bernstein, Lewis Copyright 2006 Pearson, Addison-Wesley, all rights reserved. 2

2 Today s lecture This week and next week we cover KBL Chapter 5: SQL and relational algebra. SQL and relational algebra are relational query languages. SQL is declarative: Describe what you want. Relational algebra is procedural: Describe how to get what you want. 3

3 Relational algebra expression (formatted as a tree) 4

4 Greek letters, runes? 5

5 Query tree SELECT P.Name! FROM PROFESSOR P, TEACHING T! WHERE P.Id=T.ProfId AND T.Semester= F1994!! AND P.DeptId= CS! 6

6 Relational algebra Relations are considered a set of tuples, whose components have names. Operators operate on 1 or 2 relations and produce a relation as a result An algebra with 5 basic operators: Select Project Union Set difference Cartesian product E. F. Codd,

7 Select Selection of a subset of the tuples in a relation fulfilling a condition Denoted Operates on one relation SELECT *! FROM PROFESSOR! WHERE DeptId= CS! 8

8 Project Projection chooses a subset of attributes. The result of a projection is a relation with the attributes given in attribute list. By default the result is a set, i.e., contains no duplicates. SELECT DISTINCT Color FROM Cars 9

9 Set operations Set operations are union (R S), set difference (R-S), and intersection (R S). R S R-S R S R S Note that two relations have to be union-compatible for set operations to make sense, meaning that they have the same set of attributes. 10

10 Set operations - examples All pink and all green cars All IDs of professors for which there is a student with the same id. 11

11 Problem session Assume that we have the relations TRANSCRIPT(StudId,CrsCode,Semester,Grade)! TEACHING(ProfId,CrsCode,Semester)! What do these relational algebra expressions mean? 12

12 Cartesian product (aka. cross product) R S for relations R and S is the relation containing all tuples that can be formed by concatenation of a tuple from R and a tuple from S. 13

13 Cartesian product In SQL: SELECT * FROM R,S; If R has n tuples and S has m tuples, then R S contain n m tuples. Can be computationally expensive! Renaming necessary when R and S have attributes with the same name. Renaming is denoted by [name1, ] after an expression. 14

14 Join is equivalent to 15

15 Join example (equi-join) SELECT *! FROM Cars C, Owners O! WHERE C.Ownerid=O.Id! 16

16 Natural join A join where all attributes with the same name in the two relations are included in the join condition as equalities is called natural join. The resulting relation only includes one copy of each attribute. Natural join is denoted: 17

17 Semantics of SELECT statement SELECT A 1,A 2,! FROM R 1,R 2,! WHERE <condition>! Algorithm for evaluating: 1. FROM clause is evaluated. Cartesian product of relations is computed. 2. WHERE clause is evaluated. Rows not fulfilling condition are deleted. 3. SELECT clause is evaluated. All columns not mentioned are removed. A way to think about evaluation, but in practice more efficient evaluation algorithms are used. 18

18 String operations Expressions can involve string ops: Comparisons of strings using =, <, Strings are compared according to lexicographical order, e.g., green > blue. MySQL: Not case sensitive! Green = green Concatenation: Data base = Database LIKE, Dat_b% LIKE Database _ matches any single character % matches any string of 0 or more characters Car.Color= %green% is true for all colors with green as a substring, e.g. lightgreen greenish Details needed for project: See MySQL documentation. ( 19

19 Date operations You will probably need them in the second hand-in. See MySQL documentation for details. 20

20 Expressions in SELECT You can define new attributes using expressions: SELECT C.Ownerid, T.Amount/12! FROM Car C, Cartax T! WHERE C.Color= Green AND C.Regnr=T.Regnr! You can give attributes new names: SELECT C.Ownerid AS Id,!! T.Amount/12 AS MonthlyTax! 21

21 Set operations UNION ( ), INTERSECT( ), and EXCEPT(-). (SELECT *! FROM Car C! WHERE C.Color= green )! UNION! (SELECT *! FROM Car C! WHERE C.Color= blue )! (SELECT C.Regnr, C.Color! FROM Car C! WHERE C.Color= green )! EXCEPT! (SELECT *! FROM Car C! WHERE C.Regnr=1234)! MySQL supports UNION, but requires relations to be encapsulated in SELECT. 22

22 Aggregation by example SELECT SUM(T.Amount)! FROM Cartax T, Car C! WHERE T.Regnr=C.Regnr AND C.Ownerid=1234! SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT T.Amount)! FROM Cartax T, Car C! WHERE T.Regnr=C.Regnr AND C.Ownerid=1234! 23

23 Aggregation functions Functions: COUNT ([DISTINCT] attr): Number of rows SUM ([DISTINCT] attr): Sum of attr values AVG ([DISTINCT] attr): Average over attr MAX (attr): Maximum value of attr MIN (attr): Minumum value of attr DISTINCT: only one unique value for attr is used More functions: See MySQL manual 24

24 Grouping When more than one value should be computed, e.g. the total amount of tax each owner has to pay, use grouping together with aggregation: SELECT C.Ownerid AS Id, SUM(T.Amount) AS TotalTax! FROM Cartax T, Car C! WHERE T.Regnr=C.Regnr! GROUP BY C.Ownerid! 25

25 Grouping The resulting columns can only be the aggregate or columns mentioned in the GROUP BY clause. SELECT C.Ownerid AS Id, SUM(T.Amount) AS TotalTax! FROM Cartax T, Car C! WHERE T.Regnr=C.Regnr! GROUP BY C.Ownerid! Ownerid Regnr Regnr Amount Id TotalTax

26 HAVING SELECT C.OwnerId, SUM(T.Amount)! FROM Car C, Cartax T! WHERE C.Regnr=T.Regnr! GROUP BY C.OwnerId! HAVING SUM(T.Amount)<=1000! HAVING is a condition on the group. Use any condition that makes sense: Aggregates over tuples in group Conditions on tuple attributes 27

27 Evaluation algorithm Algorithm for evaluating a SELECT-FROM-WHERE: 1. FROM: Cartesian product of tables is computed. Subqueries are computed recursively. 2. WHERE: Rows not fulfilling condition are deleted. Note that aggregation is evaluated after WHERE, i.e. aggregate values can t be in the condition. 3. GROUP BY: Table is split into groups. 4. HAVING: Eliminates groups that don t fulfill the condition. 5. SELECT: Aggregate function is computed and all columns not mentioned are removed. One row for each group is produced. 6. ORDER BY: Rows are ordered. 28

28 In a figure 29

29 Subqueries 1: In FROM clause A relation in the FROM clause can be defined by a subquery. Example: SELECT O.FirstName, O.LastName, TPO.TotalTax! FROM! Owner O,!! (SELECT Sum(T.Amount) AS TotalTax,! T.OwnerId AS Id!! FROM Cartax T, Car C!! WHERE T.Regnr=C.Regnr!! GROUP BY C.Ownerid) AS TPO! WHERE TPO.Id=O.Id! 30

30 Alternative syntax Some DBMSs (e.g. Oracle) give this alternative to subqueries in FROM: WITH (SELECT Sum(T.Amount) AS TotalTax,! T.OwnerId AS Id!! FROM Cartax T, Car C!! WHERE T.Regnr=C.Regnr!! GROUP BY C.Ownerid) AS TPO! SELECT O.FirstName, O.LastName, TPO.TotalTax! FROM! Owner O, TPO! WHERE TPO.Id=O.Id! 31

31 Subroutines in SQL Views are used to define queries that are used several times as part of other queries: CREATE VIEW OwnerColor AS! SELECT O.Id, C.Color! FROM Owner O, Car C! WHERE O.Id=C.Ownerid! The view can be used in different queries: SELECT COUNT(*)! SELECT O.Color,COUNT(*)! FROM OwnerColor O! FROM OwnerColor O! WHERE O.Color= pink! GROUP BY O.Color!!!!! HAVING COUNT(*)<200! 32

32 Views A view defines a subquery. Defining a view does not execute any query. When a view is used, the query definition is copied into the query (as a subquery). CREATE VIEW OwnerColor AS! SELECT COUNT(*)! SELECT O.Id, C.Color!! FROM OwnerColor OC! FROM Owner O, Car C!! WHERE OC.Color= pink! WHERE O.Id=C.Ownerid! ! SELECT COUNT(*)! FROM (SELECT O.Id, C.Color FROM Owner O, Car C WHERE O.Id=C.Ownerid) AS OC! WHERE OC.Color= pink! 33

33 Usage of views Views can be used for: 1. Defining queries used as subqueries, making code more modular. 2. Logical data independence. 3. Customizing views for different users. 4. Access control. 34

34 Views and access control Views can be used to limit the access to data, the right to update data, etc. Example: GRANT SELECT ON OwnerColor TO ALL! Meaning: All users can see the table OwnerColor, but not the underlying relations Car and Owner. Other options: GRANT INSERT, GRANT ALL, and more TO ALL, TO user, TO group! 35

35 Subqueries 2: In WHERE SELECT C.Regnr! FROM Car C! WHERE C.Ownerid IN!! (SELECT O.Id!! FROM Owner O!! WHERE O.Lastname = Sørensen )! All registration numbers for cars owned by a person named Sørensen. SELECT C.Regnr! FROM Car C, Owner O! WHERE C.Ownerid=O.Id AND O.Lastname= Sørensen! 36

36 Reverse example SELECT C.Regnr! FROM Car C! WHERE C.Ownerid NOT IN!! (SELECT O.Id!! FROM Owner O!! WHERE O.Lastname = Sørensen )! Not expressible as a standard join! (Assume Owner.id is a candidate key.) 37

37 (Full) outer join, by example 38

38 Outer join in SQL Syntax: R FULL OUTER JOIN S ON <condition>. Semantics: Output the normal (inner) join result SELECT * FROM R,S WHERE <condition>, plus tuples from R and S that were not output (padded with NULLs). Variants: Left and right outer joins (supported in MySQL). 39

39 Problem session Suppose you have a DBMS that does not support: INTERSECT EXCEPT FULL OUTER JOIN How can you simulate the above using the following joins? LEFT JOIN RIGHT JOIN SELECT-FROM-WHERE 40

40 Subquery to define a value A subquery producing a single value can be used as any other value (constant or attribute): Note that the same table is used twice with two different tuple variables SELECT T.Regnr! FROM Cartax T! WHERE T.Amount =!! (SELECT T2.Amount!! FROM Cartax T2!! WHERE T2.Regnr= AB12345 )! If the subquery returns more than one tuple, a runtime error results. 41

41 Correlated subqueries A subquery is said to be correlated when a variable in the outer query is used in the subquery: SELECT R.Studid, P.Id, R.CrsCode! FROM TRANSCRIPT T, PROFESSOR P! WHERE R.CrsCode IN!! (SELECT T1.CrsCode!! FROM TEACHIN T1!! WHERE T1.ProfId=P.Id AND T1.Semester= S2009 )! The inner query is evaluated for each P.Id. Often expensive to evaluate correlated subqueries. 42

42 NOT EXISTS SELECT O.Id! FROM Owner O! WHERE NOT EXISTS!! (SELECT C.Regnr!! FROM Car C! True when subquery returns an empty relation! WHERE C.Color LIKE %green% AND!!! C.Ownerid=O.Id)! O is a global variable for the entire query, C is a local variable for the subquery. Subquery is evaluated for each value of O.Id. 43

43 Problem session What does the following query compute? SELECT C1.Color, AVG(T.Amount)! FROM (SELECT O.Id AS Id! FROM Owner O, Car C2! WHERE O.Id=C2.Ownerid! GROUP BY O.Id! HAVING COUNT(*)>8) AS Bigshots,! Cartax T,! Car C1! WHERE T.Regnr=C1.Regnr AND C1.Ownerid=Bigshots.Id! GROUP BY C1.Color! 44

44 Beware of NULLs! Things are not always what they appear. Aggregates treat nulls differently Logic is different. Different DBMSs handle NULLs differently Demo: SELECT * FROM BestMovies WHERE ((country="canada") or (country!="canada" and imdbrank>9.5));! Different behavior for NULL /empty string 45

45 Beware of NULLs, cont. 46

46 NULLs and boolean logic 47

47 Updating the database INSERT INTO TableName(a1,,an)! VALUES (v1,,vn)! INSERT INTO TableName(a1,,an)! SelectStatement! DELETE FROM TableName! WHERE Condition! UPDATE TableName! SET a1=v1, ai=vi! WHERE Condition! 48

48 Updating a view!? CREATE VIEW ProfNameDept(Name,DeptId) AS! SELECT P.Name, P.DeptId! FROM Professor P! What are the results of the following 2 updates? INSERT INTO ProfNameDept! VALUES (Hansen, CS )! DELETE FROM ProfNameDept! WHERE Name=Hansen and DeptId= CS! 49

49 Updating using a view Insertion: For unspecified attributes, use NULL or default values if possible. Deletion: May be unclear what to delete. Several restrictions, e.g. exactly one table can be mentioned in the FROM clause. NOT ALL VIEWS ARE UPDATABLE! 50

50 Materialized views (not available in MySQL) Views are computed each time they are accessed possibly inefficient Materialized views are computed and stored physically for faster access. When the base tables are updated the view changes and must be recomputed: - May be inefficient when many updates - Main issue when and how to update the stored view 51

51 Updating materialized views When is the view updated ON COMMIT when the base table(s) are updated ON DEMAND when the user decides, typically when the view is accessed How is the view updated COMPLETE the whole view is recomputed FAST some method to update only the changed parts. For some views the incremental way is not possible with the available algorithms.) 52

52 Related course goal Students should be able to: express simple relational expressions using the relational algebra operators select, project, join, intersection, union, set difference, and cartesian product. write SQL queries, involving multiple relations, compound conditions, grouping, aggregation, and subqueries. 53

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