1 Handling Missing Values in the SQL Procedure Danbo Yi, Abt Associates Inc., Cambridge, MA Lei Zhang, Domain Solutions Corp., Cambridge, MA ABSTRACT PROC SQL as a powerful database management tool provides many features available in the DATA steps and the MEANS, TRANSPOSE, PRINT and SORT procedures. If properly used, PROC SQL often results in concise solutions to data manipulations and queries. PROC SQL follows most of the guidelines set by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) in its implementation of SQL. However, it is not fully compliant with the current ANSI Standard for SQL, especially for the missing values. PROC SQL uses SAS System convention to express and handle the missing values, which is significantly different from many ANSIcompatible SQL databases such as Oracle, Sybase. In this paper, we summarize the ways the PROC SQL handles the missing values in a variety of situations. Topics include missing values in the logic, arithmetic and string expression, missing values in the SQL predicates such as LIKE, ANY, ALL, JOINs, missing values in the aggregate functions, and missing value conversion. INTRODUCTION SQL procedure follows the SAS System convention for handling missing values. The way it expresses missing numeric values and character values are totally different. A missing numeric value is usually expressed as a period (.), but it also can be stated as one of other 27 special missing value expressions based on the underscore (_) and letters A, B,,Z, that is,._,.a,.b,,.z. In SAS SQL procedure, a particular missing value is equal to itself, but those 28 missing values are not equal to each other. They actually have their own order, that is._ <. <.A<.B, <.Z. When missing numeric values are compared to non-missing numeric value, the missing numeric values are always less than or smaller than all the non-missing numeric values. A missing character value is expressed and treated as a string of blanks. Missing character values are always same no matter whether it is expressed as one blank, or more than one blanks. Obviously, missing character values are not the smallest strings. In SAS system, the way missing Date and DateTime values are expressed and treated is similar to missing numeric values. This paper will cover following topics. 1. Missing Values and Expression Logic Expression Arithmetic Expression String Expression 2. Missing Values and Predicates IS NULL /IS MISSING [NOT] LIKE ALL, ANY, and SOME [NOT] EXISTS 3. Missing Values and JOINs Inner Join Left/Right Join Full Join 4. Missing Values and Aggregate Functions COUNT Functions SUM, AVG and STD Functions MIN and MAX Functions 5. Missing value conversion In order to see how differently the missing data are handled in SQL procedure, we will produce examples based on a very small data set that can be generated by following SAS codes. data ABC; input x1 1-2 x2 4-5 y1 $7-9 y2 $11-12; datalines; -1 2 ABC DE CDE 56
2 ._.A 78..Z ER.A 2 ABC 90 ; run; The small data set has four variables, X1 and X2 are numeric variables, and Y1 and Y2 are character variables. 1. MISSING VALUES AND EXPRESSION Since SAS system uses different ways to express the missing numeric values and missing character values, the missing values are treated differently in the logic, arithmetic, and string expression. LOGIC EXPRESSION When a missing numeric value appear in the logic expression (not, and, or). The missing numeric value is regarded as 0 or FALSE. In another word, In SAS system, 0 and missing values are regarded as FALSE, and non missing numeric values except 0 are regarded as TRUE. Consider this example, Proc sql; Select not x1 as z1, x1 or. as z2, x1 and. as z3 ; Z1 Z2 Z _ A 0 Notice that missing numeric values behave like FALSE or 0 in NOT and AND logical expression, but in the logical OR expression, the missing values was simply dropped because of the nature of OR operation. ARITHMETIC EXPRESSIONS When you use a missing numeric value in an arithmetic expression (+,-,*, /), the SQL procedure always set the result of the expression to period (.) missing value. If you use that result in another expression, the next result is also period (.) missing value. This method of treating missing values is called propagation of missing values. For example, Select x1+1 as z1 where x1<0; Z Notice that all special missing values are changed into period (.) missing value after the calculation. STRING EXPRESSIONS When you use a missing character value in a string expression concatenated by, the SQL procedure sets the missing character value to a string of blanks, the length of which is equal to the length of the variable. Here is an example. Select AA y1 y2 ; Z AAABC12 AADE 34 AA AACDE56 AA 78 AAER AAABC90
3 2. MISSING VALUES AND PREDICATES In SQL procedure predicates test some conditions that have the truth-value TRUE, FALSE and NULL, and returns TRUE and FALSE. It also has special predicates to handle missing values, that is IS NULL and IS MISSING. Although missing character values are expressed as a string of blanks, but a string of blanks are always regarded as missing values. You will find this situation in a LIKE predicate below. IS [NOT] NULL /IS [NOT] MISSING IS [NOT] NULL and IS [NOT] MISSING predicates are two predicates especially designed to deal with missing values. IS [NOT] NULL is a SQL standard predicate and IS [NOT] MISSING is SAS SQL predicate. They are generic because they can handle both numeric and character variables. For example, Select x1, y1 Where x1 is not null and y1 is not missing; LIKE X1 Y ABC 0 DE 1 CDE As mentioned above, missing character values are always the same but there is one exception. In SAS SQL LIKE predicate, missing values are regarded as a string of blanks, they are not missing values. If the length of a character column variable is 3, then a missing character value is like one blank, two blanks, and three blanks, but not like four blanks or more than four blanks. Consider following SQL statement, which returns the same results because the length of y1 is 3. /* One Blank */ select x1, y1 where y1 like ' '; /* Two Blanks */ select x1, y1 where y1 like ' '; /* Three Blanks */ select x1, y1 where y1 like ' '; Same result: X1 Y _ However, the following SQL statement returns nothing. /* Four Blanks */ select x1, y1 where y1 like ' '; If you use [NOT] IN Predicate, missing character values are always equal to one or more blanks no matter what size of the variables. For example, following SQL statement returns the same results as those of first three SQL statements with LIKE predicate even though the size of blanks are more than 3. Select x1, y1 where y1 in ( ); /* Four Blanks */ For two character variables, say A, and B, with different size, if size(a) > size(b), then predicate A like B is TRUE, but predicate B like A is FALSE when they both have missing values. Note that predicate A=B is
4 always TRUE when both have missing values. For example, Proc sql; select x1, y1, y2 where y1 like y2; will return the following results: X1 Y1 Y However, Proc sql; select x1, y1, y2 where y2 like y1; Returns nothing. ALL, ANY, AND SOME ALL, ANY and SOME are special predicates that are oriented around subqueries. They are used in conjunction with relational operator. Actually, there are only two because ANY and SOME in SQL procedure are the same. ALL, ANY, and SOME are very similar to the IN predicate when it is used with subqueries; they take all the values produced by the subquery and treat them as a unit. However, unlike IN, they can be used only with subqueries. In SQL procedure, ALL and ANY differ from each other in how they react if the subquery procedures have no values to use in a comparison. These differences can give your queries unexpected results if you do not account for them. One significant difference between ALL and ANY is the way they deal with the situation in which the subquery returns no values. In SQL procedure, whenever a legal subquery fails to produce output, the comparison operator modified with ALL is automatically TRUE, and the comparison operator modified with ANY is automatically FALSE. This means that the following queries where x2 > ALL (select x1 where x2 < ALL (select x1 where x2 NE ALL (select x1 would produce the entire list of X2 values as following results. X A Z 2 Whereas those queries where x2 > SOME (select x1 where x2 < SOME (select x1 where x2 NE SOME (select x1 would produce no output. Of course, neither of these comparisons is very meaningful.
5 [NOT] EXISTS In [NOT] EXISTS predicate, the way missing values are dealt with in SQL procedure is different from that in most SQL databases because missing values are regarded as comparable values in SQL procedures. Consider following example. select x1 as a where exists (select x1 as b where a.x1=b.x1); would return an entire list of X1 values, including all the missing values, but in most SQL databases, it will only return nonmissing values. Because in most SQL databases, if the missing values are used in the predicate of the subquery, the predicate is made unknown in every case. This means the subquery will produce no values, and EXISTS will be false. This, naturally makes NOT EXISTS true. However, in SQL procedure, missing values are normal comparable values that would be used in evaluation of subquery. 3. MISSING VALUES AND JOINS In SQL procedure, a missing value equals to itself. When joining tables with missing values, the results are most likely different from those from most of ANSI-compatible SQL databases such as Oracle, Sybase because missing values are never equal to each other in those database system. For INNER JOIN, SAS SQL will probably produce more observations and for FULL JOIN, SAS SQL will probably have fewer observations if joining tables have missing values. Here are two examples: Example 1 proc sql number; select T1.x1, T2.x2 as T1 Inner join ABC as T2 on (T1.x1=T2.x2); Example 2 Row X1 X A A proc sql number; select T1.x1, T2.x2 as T1 LEFT join ABC as T2 on (T1.x1=T2.x2); Row X1 X _ A A MISSING VALUES AND AGGREGATE FUNCTIONS SQL procedure supports most common aggregate functions, or statistical summary functions such as count, average, sum, min, max, and standard deviation. They are functions that work on a set of values. Aggregate functions first construct a column variable as defined in the parameter. The parameter is usually a single column variable, but it can be an arithmetic expression with scalar functions and other column variables. Once the working column is constructed. The aggregate function performs its operation on a set of known values and the unknown values, or missing values will be given a special treatment dependent on the individual function.
6 COUNT FUNCTION Count function works on all SAS data type. Count(*) returns the number of rows in a table. It is the only aggregate function that uses as asterisk (*) as a parameter. The missing values in the table are counted because this function deals with observations or rows and not individual values. For an empty table, COUNT(*) returns zero. The COUNT([ALL]< sql-expression>) returns the number of non-missing values in the <sql-expression> set. The missing values have been excluded before the counting take place. It returns zero when <sql-expression> set is empty or consisted of only missing values. The COUNT(DISTINCT <sql- expression>) returns the number of unique non-missing values in the <sql-expression> set. The missing values have been excluded before the counting take place, and then all redundant duplicates are removed. Again, it returns zero when <sql-expression> set is empty or consisted of only missing values. If COUNT ([ALL DISTINCT] <sqlexpression>) is used to count the number of values in character variable, the blank strings will be excluded, which is undesirable in some situations. SAS function N, and FREQ have the exact functionality as COUNT ([ALL DISTINCT] <sqlexpression>), but there exist no N(*) and FREQ(*) functions in the SQL procedure. The other related SAS function is NMISS, which counts the number of missing values in a <sql-expression> set variable. You can even use NMISS(DISTINCT <sqlexpression>) to count the number of distinct missing numeric values. Below are two examples: create table DUAL (nothing num); insert into DUAL values(1); Select (select count(*) from ABC) as C1, (select count(x1) from ABC) as C2, (select count(all x1) ) as C3, (select count(distinct x1) ) as C4, from DUAL; C1 C2 C3 C create table DUAL (nothing num); insert into DUAL values(1); Select (select N(distinct x1) from ABC) as C5, (select freq(distinct x1) ) as C6, (select NMISS(distinct x1) ) as C7 from DUAL; C5 C6 C MIN AND MAX FUNCTIONS MIN and MAX functions work on numeric, DATE, DATETIME and character variables. MAX(<sql-expression>) returns the greatest known value in the <sql-expression> set, and MIN(<sql-expression>) returns the smallest known value in the <sqlexpression> set if the <sql-expression> set is not empty or not consisted of only missing values. The missing values have been excluded from the operation before the functions take place. It returns a period (.) for DATE, DATETIME and numeric values, and return blanks for character variables when the <sql-expression> set is empty or consisted of only missing values.
7 The MAX() for a set of known numeric values is the largest one. The MAX() for a set of known DATE and DATETIME data is the one farthest in the future or most recent. The MAX for a set of non-blank character strings is the last one in the ascending sort order. Likewise, the MIN() for a set of known numeric values is the smallest one. The MIN() for a set of known DATE and DATETIME data is the least recent one. The MIN() for a set of non-blank character strings is the first one in the ascending sort order. Here is an example: Select min(x1) as minx, max(x1) as maxx, min(y1) as miny, max(y1) as maxy ; MINX MAXX MINY MAXY ABC ER SUM AND OTHER RELATED FUNCTIONS SUM only works on numeric values. SUM([ALL]<sql-expression>) returns the numeric total of all known numeric values. It returns a missing value when the <sql expression> is empty or consisted of only missing values. SUM((DISTINCT<sql-expression>) returns the numeric total of all known, unique numeric values. The missing values and all duplicates have been removed before the summation took place. It returns a period (.), or a missing value if the <sql-expression> set is empty or consisted of only missing values. The other related SAS SQL functions such as AVG, MEAN, RANGE, STD, STDERR, CV, CSS use the same mechanism as SUM function to handling the missing numeric values. Here is an example. Select sum(x1) as sumx, avg(x1) as avgx, std(x1) as stdx, range(x1) as rangex ; SUMX AVGX STDX RANGEX MISSING VALUES CONVERSION Missing numeric values and character values can be converted into each other by SAS INPUT and PUT function, and they also can be converted into character values in macro variables by using INTO clause in the SELECT statement. A missing numeric value can be converted into a character value such as a period (.), underscore (-), or characters A-Z depending on the corresponding missing value form. A missing character value is always converted into a period (.) missing value. Here is an example. select x1 into :valx1 where x1 =._; select x1 into :valx2 from ABC where x1 =.; select x1 into :valx3 from ABC where x1 =.A; select y1 into :valy1 from ABC where y1=' '; %put valx1=**&valx1** is %length(&valx1); %put valx2=**&valx2** is %length(&valx2); %put valx3=**&valx3** is %length(&valx3); %put valy1=**&valy1** is %length(&valy1);
8 Log output: Valx1=** _** is 1 Valx2=**.** is 1 Valx3=** A** is 1 Valy1=** ** is 0 CONCLUSION In this paper we have discussed the ways the SAS procedure handle missing values in a variety of situations. Although SQL procedure is a very powerful tool and can save a lot of programming time, you must have a good understanding of how missing values are handled in the SAS SQL procedure in order to avoid the possible pitfalls. SAS and SAS/BASE mentioned in this paper are registered trademarks or trademarks of SAS Institute Inc. in the USA and other countries. indicates USA registration REFERENCES SAS Institute Inc., SAS Guide to the SQL Procedure, 1989 CONTACT ADDRESS Questions pertaining to this article should be addressed to: Danbo Yi Abt Associates Inc. 55 Wheeler Street Cambridge, MA , USA Tel: Fax: Lei Zhang DomianPharma Inc. 10 Maguire Road Lexington, MA 02140, USA Tel: Fax:
Oracle SQL Course Summary Identify the major structural components of the Oracle Database 11g Create reports of aggregated data Write SELECT statements that include queries Retrieve row and column data
Instant SQL Programming Joe Celko Wrox Press Ltd. INSTANT Table of Contents Introduction 1 What Can SQL Do for Me? 2 Who Should Use This Book? 2 How To Use This Book 3 What You Should Know 3 Conventions
WORKING WITH SUBQUERY IN THE SQL PROCEDURE Lei Zhang, Domain Solutions Corp., Cambridge, MA Danbo Yi, Abt Associates, Cambridge, MA ABSTRACT Proc SQL is a major contribution to the SAS /BASE system. One
Oracle University Contact Us: 1.800.529.0165 Oracle Database: SQL and PL/SQL Fundamentals Duration: 5 Days What you will learn This course is designed to deliver the fundamentals of SQL and PL/SQL along
Chapter 1 Overview of the SQL Procedure 1.1 Features of PROC SQL...1-3 1.2 Selecting Columns and Rows...1-6 1.3 Presenting and Summarizing Data...1-17 1.4 Joining Tables...1-27 1-2 Chapter 1 Overview of
Oracle University Contact Us: +966 12 739 894 Oracle Database: SQL and PL/SQL Fundamentals Duration: 5 Days What you will learn This Oracle Database: SQL and PL/SQL Fundamentals training is designed to
Oracle University Contact Us: + 38516306373 Oracle Database: SQL and PL/SQL Fundamentals NEW Duration: 5 Days What you will learn This Oracle Database: SQL and PL/SQL Fundamentals training delivers the
Microsoft Access 3: Understanding and Creating Queries In Access Level 2, we learned how to perform basic data retrievals by using Search & Replace functions and Sort & Filter functions. For more complex
Oracle University Contact Us: 1.800.529.0165 Oracle Database 12c: Introduction to SQL Ed 1.1 Duration: 5 Days What you will learn This Oracle Database: Introduction to SQL training helps you write subqueries,
ICAB4136B Use structured query language to create database structures and manipulate data Release: 1 ICAB4136B Use structured query language to create database structures and manipulate data Modification
for Developers This is a training guide to step you through the advanced functions of in NUFinancials. is an ad-hoc reporting tool that allows you to retrieve data that is stored in the NUFinancials application.
PharmaSUG 2015 - Paper TT03 PROC SQL: Make it a monster using these powerful functions and options Arun Raj Vidhyadharan, inventiv Health, Somerset, NJ Sunil Mohan Jairath, inventiv Health, Somerset, NJ
D80198GC10 Oracle Database 12c SQL and Fundamentals Summary Duration Vendor Audience 5 Days Oracle End Users, Developers, Technical Consultants and Support Staff Level Professional Delivery Method Instructor-led
1 Structured Query Language: Again So far we ve only seen the basic features of SQL. More often than not, you can get away with just using the basic SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statements. Sometimes
Paper DM05 Innovative Techniques and Tools to Detect Data Quality Problems Hong Qi and Allan Glaser Merck & Co., Inc., Upper Gwynnedd, PA ABSTRACT High quality data are essential for accurate and meaningful
Oracle For Beginners Page : 1 3.GETTING STARTED WITH ORACLE8i Creating a table Datatypes Displaying table definition using DESCRIBE Inserting rows into a table Selecting rows from a table Editing SQL buffer
Oracle University Contact Us: +381 11 2016811 Oracle Database: Introduction to SQL Duration: 5 Days What you will learn Understanding the basic concepts of relational databases ensure refined code by developers.
Unit 43: Programming with SQL Learning Outcomes A candidate following a programme of learning leading to this unit will be able to: Create queries to retrieve information from relational databases using
HP Education Services course data sheet Querying Microsoft SQL Server (20461) H8N61S Course Overview In this course, you will learn the technical skills required to write basic Transact-SQL (T-SQL) queries
Relational Database: Additional Operations on Relations; SQL Greg Plaxton Theory in Programming Practice, Fall 2005 Department of Computer Science University of Texas at Austin Overview The course packet
Ad Hoc Advanced Table of Contents Functions... 1 Adding a Function to the Adhoc Query:... 1 Constant... 2 Coalesce... 4 Concatenate... 6 Add/Subtract... 7 Logical Expressions... 8 Creating a Logical Expression:...
Paper 70-27 An Introduction to SAS PROC SQL Timothy J Harrington, Venturi Partners Consulting, Waukegan, Illinois Abstract This paper introduces SAS users with at least a basic understanding of SAS data
Oracle University Contact Us: 001-855-844-3881 & 001-800-514-06-97 Oracle Database: SQL and PL/SQL Fundamentals NEW Duration: 5 Days What you will learn This Oracle Database: SQL and PL/SQL Fundamentals
Oracle University Contact Us: 1.800.529.0165 Oracle Database: Introduction to SQL Duration: 5 Days What you will learn This Oracle Database: Introduction to SQL training teaches you how to write subqueries,
Oracle University Contact Us: 1.800.529.0165 Oracle Database: Introduction to SQL Duration: 5 Days What you will learn View a newer version of this course This Oracle Database: Introduction to SQL training
Access Queries (Office 2003) Technical Support Services Office of Information Technology, West Virginia University OIT Help Desk 293-4444 x 1 oit.wvu.edu/support/training/classmat/db/ Instructor: Kathy
Paper #HW02 Introduction to Proc SQL Steven First, Systems Seminar Consultants, Madison, WI ABSTRACT PROC SQL is a powerful Base SAS Procedure that combines the functionality of DATA and PROC steps into
AN INTRODUCTION TO THE SQL PROCEDURE Chris Yindra, C Y Associates Abstract This tutorial will introduce the SQL (Structured Query Language) procedure through a series of simple examples We will initially
DBMS / Business Intelligence, SQL Server Orsys, with 30 years of experience, is providing high quality, independant State of the Art seminars and hands-on courses corresponding to the needs of IT professionals.
Database Administration with MySQL Suitable For: Database administrators and system administrators who need to manage MySQL based services. Prerequisites: Practical knowledge of SQL Some knowledge of relational
Structured Query Language (SQL) Introduction Commercial database systems use more user friendly language to specify the queries. SQL is the most influential commercially marketed product language. Other
http://www.tutorialspoint.com/sql/sql-quick-guide.htm SQL - QUICK GUIDE Copyright tutorialspoint.com What is SQL? SQL is Structured Query Language, which is a computer language for storing, manipulating
Beginning C# 5.0 Databases Second Edition Vidya Vrat Agarwal Contents J About the Author About the Technical Reviewer Acknowledgments Introduction xviii xix xx xxi Part I: Understanding Tools and Fundamentals
IWS BI Dashboard Template User Guide Introduction This document describes the features of the Dashboard Template application, and contains a manual the user can follow to use the application, connecting
Paper TU_09 Proc SQL Tips and Techniques - How to get the most out of your queries Kevin McGowan, Constella Group, Durham, NC Brian Spruell, Constella Group, Durham, NC Abstract: Proc SQL is a powerful
: Database Systems 1 (DBS 1) (Compulsory) 1. OUTLINE OF SYLLABUS Topic Minimum number of hours Introduction to DBMS 07 Relational Data Model 03 Data manipulation using Relational Algebra 06 Data manipulation
MOC 20461C: Querying Microsoft SQL Server Course Overview This course provides students with the knowledge and skills to query Microsoft SQL Server. Students will learn about T-SQL querying, SQL Server
White Paper In the past few years, SQL Injection attacks have been on the rise. The increase in the number of Database based applications, combined with various publications that explain the problem and
Database Systems I (Compulsory) INTRODUCTION This is one of the 4 modules designed for Semester 2 of Bachelor of Information Technology Degree program. CREDITS: 04 LEARNING OUTCOMES On completion of this
3 CHAPTER 1 Overview of SAS/ACCESS Interface to Relational Databases About This Document 3 Methods for Accessing Relational Database Data 4 Selecting a SAS/ACCESS Method 4 Methods for Accessing DBMS Tables
Computational Finance and Risk Management Financial Data Access with SQL, Excel & VBA Guy Yollin Instructor, Applied Mathematics University of Washington Guy Yollin (Copyright 2012) Data Access with SQL,
Querying Microsoft SQL Server 2012 Microsoft Course 10774 This 5-day instructor led course provides students with the technical skills required to write basic Transact-SQL queries for Microsoft SQL Server
Course 20461C: Querying Microsoft SQL Server Module 1: Introduction to Microsoft SQL Server 2014 This module introduces the SQL Server platform and major tools. It discusses editions, versions, tools used
Paper 191-27 AN INTRODUCTION TO PROC SQL Katie Minten Ronk, Steve First, David Beam Systems Seminar Consultants, Inc., Madison, WI ABSTRACT PROC SQL is a powerful Base SAS 7 Procedure that combines the
Área de formação Plataforma e Tecnologias de Informação Querying Microsoft SQL Introduction This 5-day instructor led course provides students with the technical skills required to write basic Transact-SQL
Course 20461C: Querying Microsoft SQL Server Duration: 35 hours About this Course This course is the foundation for all SQL Server-related disciplines; namely, Database Administration, Database Development
Paper 109-25 Merges and Joins Timothy J Harrington, Trilogy Consulting Corporation Abstract This paper discusses methods of joining SAS data sets. The different methods and the reasons for choosing a particular
Oracle 10g PL/SQL Training Course Number: ORCL PS01 Length: 3 Day(s) Certification Exam This course will help you prepare for the following exams: 1Z0 042 1Z0 043 Course Overview PL/SQL is Oracle's Procedural
T-SQL STANDARD ELEMENTS SLIDE Overview Types of commands and statement elements Basic SELECT statements Categories of T-SQL statements Data Manipulation Language (DML*) Statements for querying and modifying
Oracle University Contact Us: 1.800.529.0165 Oracle Database 10g: Introduction to SQL Duration: 5 Days What you will learn This course offers students an introduction to Oracle Database 10g database technology.
Querying Microsoft SQL Server 2012 MOC 10774 About this Course This 5-day instructor led course provides students with the technical skills required to write basic Transact-SQL queries for Microsoft SQL
Five Little Known, But Highly Valuable, PROC SQL Programming Techniques a presentation by Kirk Paul Lafler Copyright 1992-2014 by Kirk Paul Lafler and Software Intelligence Corporation. All rights reserved.
Lincoln Land Community College Capital City Training Center 130 West Mason Springfield, IL 62702 217-782-7436 www.llcc.edu/cctc Querying Microsoft SQL Server 20461C; 5 days Course Description This 5-day
Chapter 9 Joining Data from Multiple Tables Oracle 10g: SQL Objectives Identify a Cartesian join Create an equality join using the WHERE clause Create an equality join using the JOIN keyword Create a non-equality
PharmaSUG 2015 - Paper QT06 PROC SQL for SQL Die-hards Jessica Bennett, Advance America, Spartanburg, SC Barbara Ross, Flexshopper LLC, Boca Raton, FL ABSTRACT Inspired by Christianna William s paper on
Database Programming with PL/SQL: Learning Objectives This course covers PL/SQL, a procedural language extension to SQL. Through an innovative project-based approach, students learn procedural logic constructs
Paper 268-29 Introduction to Proc SQL Katie Minten Ronk, Systems Seminar Consultants, Madison, WI ABSTRACT PROC SQL is a powerful Base SAS Procedure that combines the functionality of DATA and PROC steps
ABSTRACT Identifying Invalid Social Security Numbers Paulette Staum, Paul Waldron Consulting, West Nyack, NY Sally Dai, MDRC, New York, NY Do you need to check whether Social Security numbers (SSNs) are
Dataset Preparation and Indexing for Data Mining Analysis Using Horizontal Aggregations Binomol George, Ambily Balaram Abstract To analyze data efficiently, data mining systems are widely using datasets
PeopleSoft Query Training Overview Guide Tanya Harris & Alfred Karam Publish Date - 3/16/2011 Chapter: Introduction Table of Contents Introduction... 4 Navigation of Queries... 4 Query Manager... 6 Query
David M. Kroenke and David J. Auer Database Processing: Fundamentals, Design and Implementation Chapter Two: Introduction to Structured Query Language 2-1 Chapter Objectives To understand the use of extracted
SQL Server 2008 Core Skills Gary Young 2011 Confucius I hear and I forget I see and I remember I do and I understand Core Skills Syllabus Theory of relational databases SQL Server tools Getting help Data
CHAPTER 2 DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AND SECURITY 2.1 Introduction In this chapter, I am going to introduce Database Management Systems (DBMS) and the Structured Query Language (SQL), its syntax and usage.
Paper 042-29 Top Ten Reasons to Use PROC SQL Weiming Hu, Center for Health Research Kaiser Permanente, Portland, Oregon, USA ABSTRACT Among SAS users, it seems there are two groups of people, those who
Course 10774A: Querying Microsoft SQL Server 2012 Length: 5 Days Language(s): English Audience(s): IT Professionals Level: 200 Technology: Microsoft SQL Server 2012 Type: Course Delivery Method: Instructor-led
ONE STEP AHEAD. MOC 20461 QUERYING MICROSOFT SQL SERVER Length: 5 days Level: 300 Technology: Microsoft SQL Server Delivery Method: Instructor-led (classroom) COURSE OUTLINE Module 1: Introduction to Microsoft
Introduction to SQL and SQL in R LISA Short Courses Xinran Hu 1 Laboratory for Interdisciplinary Statistical Analysis LISA helps VT researchers benefit from the use of Statistics Collaboration: Visit our
Course 10774A: Querying Microsoft SQL Server 2012 About this Course This 5-day instructor led course provides students with the technical skills required to write basic Transact-SQL queries for Microsoft
Course 10774A: Querying Microsoft SQL Server 2012 Length: 5 Days Published: May 25, 2012 Language(s): English Audience(s): IT Professionals Overview About this Course Level: 200 Technology: Microsoft SQL
Oracle University Contact Us: 1.800.529.0165 MySQL for Beginners Ed 3 Duration: 4 Days What you will learn The MySQL for Beginners course helps you learn about the world's most popular open source database.
Database Applications Microsoft Access Lesson 4 Working with Queries Difference Between Queries and Filters Filters are temporary Filters are placed on data in a single table Queries are saved as individual
Netezza SQL Class Outline CoffingDW education has been customized for every customer for the past 20 years. Our classes can be taught either on site or remotely via the internet. Education Contact: John
Guide to SQL Programming: SQL:1999 and Oracle Rdb V7.1 A feature of Oracle Rdb By Ian Smith Oracle Rdb Relational Technology Group Oracle Corporation 1 Oracle Rdb Journal SQL:1999 and Oracle Rdb V7.1 The
Database Query 1: SQL Basics CIS 3730 Designing and Managing Data J.G. Zheng Fall 2010 1 Overview Using Structured Query Language (SQL) to get the data you want from relational databases Learning basic
Data Cleaning 101 Ronald Cody, Ed.D., Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ INTRODUCTION One of the first and most important steps in any data processing task is to verify that your data values
Page 1 of 7 SQL Boot Camp www.sqlbootcamp.com End To End SQL Query Writing, Database Design & Development Training Database Design Query Optimization SQL Boot Camp Training Database Development SQL Query
Testing data warehouses with key data indicators Results with Highspeed Adalbert Thomalla, Stefan Platz CGI GROUP INC. All rights reserved _experience the commitment TM Agenda The Problem General Problem