1 Introductions Monthly Meeting 10:00am 12:00pm Live Webinar August 12, 2014 Call-in: , Conference ID: Webinar: https://communityhealth.adobeconnect.com/crvfhpaugust2014/ AGENDA Review of July 17, 2014 Minutes 2014 Program Affordable Care Act (ACA) o ACA MSFW Outreach & Enrollment (Expected) Base Grant Adjustment o To be released mid-august (HRSA Primary Health Care Updates Webinar 08/07/2014) o Increase League presence at CHCs and farms o Increase in outreach staff in the community and at farms o Promotional materials (posters, flyers, etc.) o Overall goal: reach more patients with outreach and provide more primary care services Expanded Services Funding Opportunity Outreach Payments Voucher Payments Quality Improvement Plan [HRSA Program Requirement #1: Needs Assessment and #8: Quality Improvement/Assurance Plan] o MSFW Focus Groups planning/scheduling of 2014 sessions o Patient satisfaction surveys o League Clinical Issues Committee [HRSA Program Requirement #17: Board Authority] & Clinical Improvement Cycle o suggestion & assistance line at MLCHC active as of July 22 & will be included on business cards and brochures o August CHC Visits scheduled for August 18 August 22; please ensure all necessary staff are available to briefly meet o Reminders from June visits 2014 Contracts
2 Updates from the Field Resources o Water, Rest, Shade: OSHA s online heat toolkit o Teach-with-Stories webinar provided by the North Carolina Community Health Center Association and hosted by Health Outreach Partners. Additional resources for the Teach-with-Stories Method o Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Spanish-language oral health patient education materials o The National Hispanic and Latino ATTC s latest factsheet: Latino Immigration, Cultural Trauma, and Cultural Complex o The Boston Globe reports: State crackdown shuts migrant labor camps in Western Mass. o Binational Health Week report & resources Upcoming Events/Meetings August 10-16: National Health Center Week! August 14: National Farmworker Health Day August 13, 11:00 a.m. EDT: MPI offers Giving Cities and Regions a Greater Voice in Immigration Policy, a video-chat with migration specialists August 18: Deadline to add your signature to the MCN's National Clinician Sign-On Letter to strengthen the Worker Protection Standard August 20, 1:00 pm - 2:00 pm EST: Heat Stress Related to Agriculture webinar hosted by AgriSafe August 24-26, San Diego, CA: NACHC Community Health Institute & Expo. For more information, click here September 16: CRVFHP Monthly Meeting from 10:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. at Generations Family Health Center in Willimantic, CT. Click here to RSVP
3 Monthly Meeting 10:00am 12:00pm Caring Health Center July 15, 2014 Present BHC, Milta Franco CHC, Inc., Marie Yardis & Marilyn Felix-Rodriguez CHS, Patricia Miles HHC, Jeanne Allen & Miguel Cruz UConn, Shannon McClure MLCHC/CRVFHP, Michael Malloy & Barbara Proffitt Not Present CHC-Franklin County GFHC Introductions Michael Malloy began the CRVFHP Monthly Meeting at 10:00 a.m. by introducing himself and requesting that all attendees introduce themselves as well. Mr. Malloy introduced Barbara Proffitt, the quality improvement coach for the League, who will be assisting the CRVFHP in its clinical improvement cycle. Minutes of Last Month s Meeting Mr. Malloy reminded participants that previous CRVFHP monthly meeting minutes are ed out shortly after each meeting and always available on the CRVFHP webpage: hp. Mr. Malloy directed the group to June s CRVFHP Monthly Meeting minutes and asked for changes or updates; no changes were suggested and Milta Franco motioned to approve the minutes. The motion was accepted and the 06/17/2014 minutes were approved. Mr. Malloy suggested participants to or call him if questions regarding last month s meeting minutes arose Program Affordable Care Act (ACA) Mr. Malloy informed the group that in Massachusetts, Commonwealth Care and Temporary Coverage programs have been extended through December 31, Members enrolled in these health insurance programs began receiving notification during the week of 06/17/14. Mr. Malloy shared that this extension means current Commonwealth Care members and former Medical Security Plan members and those in Temporary Coverage will be able to access their current coverage through December 31, CRVFHP Monthly Meeting Minutes 07/15/2014 Page 1
4 Mr. Malloy also advised that the new software system, hcentive, which is being used for the Massachusetts health insurance website, passed a key functionality tests this week. Mr. Malloy advised that a final decision on whether the state will run its own site or join the federal exchange will be made in early August, just in time for the start of open enrollment on Nov. 15. Mr. Malloy advised that in Connecticut, a programming flaw was discovered to have caused coverage problems affecting thousands of people. Access Health CT, the state s marketplace, is contacting 5,784 customers, who were either incorrectly enrolled in Medicaid or who received inaccurate bills from insurers because the companies received incorrect information from the exchange. Mr. Malloy stated that of those customers, 903 lost coverage and are now being reinstated. Mr. Malloy updated participants on the availability of ACA O/E funds, stating that funds are available now and will be throughout Mr. Malloy advised if a CHC has remaining ACA O/E funds, they can now wrap the amount into the regular base outreach monies awarded with the RFP for a combined total, further explaining that CHCs could begin using remaining ACA O/E funds for general outreach purposes. Mr. Malloy encouraged CHCs to set up phone calls to discuss increases in funds and advised CHCs to send Mary Ellen O Driscoll an to formally request increases. Mr. Malloy added that CHCs that received ACA O/E funds must continue tracking the # of ACA assists, applications submitted, and successful enrollments to report on the HRSA O/E Quarterly Progress Report. Expected Base Grant Adjustment Mr. Malloy disclosed that additional outreach and voucher funds will be available upon request during the 2014 year due to an expected base grant adjustment. Mr. Malloy explained that the funds would be used to increase League presence at CHCs and farms in hopes of improving communication with CHC departments and staff. Mr. Malloy also expressed that funds should be used to increase the presence of outreach staff in the community and at the farms. Mr. Malloy shared that promotional materials such as posters, flyers, etc. would be purchased for dispersal during community outreach to local organizations and advised that the overall goal is to reach as many patients with outreach and to provide more primary care services. Expanded Services Funding Opportunity Mr. Malloy recapped the conversation he had during the CHC visits in June regarding an increase in funds for expanded services. Mr. Malloy announced that Ms. O Driscoll submitted the application to HRSA on 07/01/14 and will receive the award letter in September. The total amount Ms. O Driscoll applied for was $186,796, of which 44% will be used to expand voucher services; 35% used to expand outreach services; the CRVFHP Monthly Meeting Minutes 07/15/2014 Page 2
5 remaining amount will be set aside for strategic planning consultant & administration to help meet a 20% increase in patient and visit numbers by Outreach Payments Mr. Malloy informed that group that all expenditure reports received through July had been reimbursed and thanked those CHCs that have regularly submitted outreach contact sheets and expenditure reports. Mr. Malloy also requested that CHCs submit outreach contact sheets even if not requesting reimbursement from CRVFHP for outreach services to adequately record contacts. Lastly, Mr. Malloy reminded CHCs that reimbursement for outreach services cannot be issued if both the outreach contact sheet and expenditure report have not been submitted. Voucher Payments Mr. Malloy explained that all medical, dental, and pharmaceutical claims received as of 07/01/2014 had been entered and are awaiting reimbursement approval by Ms. O Driscoll. Mr. Malloy relayed that reimbursement checks should be issued by the end of July. Mr. Malloy requested CHCs to submit second quarter non-billable visit reports by July 30 th and advised he would distribute CHC quarterly reports on the # of patients, # of encounters, and # of missing eligibility applications at the end of the meeting. Quality Improvement Plan [HRSA Program Requirement #1: Needs Assessment and #8: Quality Improvement/Assurance Plan] Mr. Malloy reminded CHCs to plan and schedule focus groups for 2014 soon and report to him with the dates and times so he can attend. Mr. Malloy also advised that focus groups do not have to be a planned event, and that conversations regarding health issues, insurance, etc. can be counted as a focus group if feedback on the performance of the CRVFHP is recorded. Mr. Malloy also advised to record the number of participants, topic(s) discussed, date, time, and location of the focus group. Mr. Malloy iterated that focus groups are part of the CRVFHP QI/QA plan and that feedback received helps determine how funds should be allocated and upon what measures CHCs can improve. Mr. Malloy encouraged CHCs to collaborate, referring the successful focus group completed by Holyoke Health Center and Baystate Brightwood Health Center in Mr. Malloy reviewed the importance of patient satisfaction as part of the CRVFHP QI/QA plan, stating that few health centers have submitted completed surveys to-date for Mr. Malloy acknowledged the success of the Community Health Center of Franklin County, which has a medical assistant help patients complete the surveys after visits at the health center. Mr. Malloy requested that CHCs know where the patient satisfaction surveys are located and have them readily available in all departments. Lastly, Mr. CRVFHP Monthly Meeting Minutes 07/15/2014 Page 3
6 Malloy referred CHCs to the CRVFHP Webpage to print copies of the survey. They can be found under Contract Materials. Mr. Malloy reintroduced Ms. Proffitt, a member of the League s clinical staff and the quality improvement coach. Ms. Proffitt explained that she had reviewed the QI/QA plans submitted by each CHC and would be providing QI/QA guidance to the CRVFHP. Ms. Proffitt shared that Mr. Malloy and she would contact CHCs to discuss possible updates to their current QI/QA plans, which would include ensuring MSFWs were mentioned in each CHC s scope of care. Ms. Proffitt also advised that she would be reviewing the CRVFHP UDS and MCR results to present to the League s Clinical Issues Committee [HRSA Program Requirement #17: Board Authority] in October 2014; the Clinical Issues Committee will suggest two clinical measures for the CRVHFP to improve upon as a whole. Ms. Proffitt provided her contact information ) for CHCs to use if there are questions or concerns regarding quality improvement. Mr. Malloy updated the group on the suggestion & assistance line, which was proposed to the group during the May CRVFHP Meeting. Mr. Malloy explained that the line is set to be operational by end of July, and he would distribute cards with the phone number at a future meeting. The suggestion & assistance line will connect directly to Mr. Malloy s extension and the message will be bilingual in English and Spanish. Mr. Malloy asked the group to share updates about the personal preparedness kits he distributed during CHC visits in June. Milta Franco explained that many of the patients asked questions about the products which led to an exchange of information and conversation about their use. Miguel Cruz echoed Ms. Franco, sharing that the patients were inquisitive about how to use the products. Mr. Cruz also noted that patients were extremely thankful to receive the prep kits and very humble, too. Marilyn Felix- Rodriguez requested more kits be assembled and distributes if possible, while Shannon McClure advised that the patients were requested water bottles and air-filtration masks for dust. Ms. McClure also advised that farmworkers at Thrall Farm were denied access to kitchens and that the only water available to drink in the fields was from a hose. Patricia Miles shared that she had water bottles to hand out to farmworkers and advised Ms. McClure that she would contact her for more information. Mr. Malloy informed CHCs that he would be making visits and doing outreach again in August and September, but not July. Mr. Malloy explained that he d contact CHCs to reserve dates soon. Mr. Malloy also answered various questions that he was asked during his visits in June. He advised the following: CRVFHP Monthly Meeting Minutes 07/15/2014 Page 4
7 CHCs interested in establishing connections with mobile medical/dental units for MSFWs/dependents should request funds as needed and not wait for expanded services award to be announced in September. CHCs wishing to start specialty programs at farms Funds can be allocated for specialty programs at farms (i.e. breast and cervical cancer screenings/exams at farms) if the program is not already funded and the CHC can count encounters as qualified visits (whether billable or not). Voucher funds cannot be used to pay for overtime hours to providers; voucher reimbursements already cover time spent by provider during visit. Continue to establish Memorandums of Agreement/Memorandums of Understanding (MOA/MOU) on file for specialty providers and thank you to those who presented MOA/MOUs during visits! CHCs can still apply for the funds to host special projects there is no deadline for application. Special projects are meant to provide support to CRVFHP outreach workers or clinical staff to plan and execute a targeted event that they would not otherwise be able to carry out (ex: bring in a mental health provider to discuss issues regarding depression in the female Latina community). Medical interpreting is not included in the expanded services grant so funds cannot be used to hire medical interpreters. Also, CHCs are already required to hire culturally competent staff and provide interpretation services to patients. Purchasing health materials such as condoms is allowed if program supplies was an approved in line item in the RFP budget; otherwise, please make a request for funds to Ms. O Driscoll. Also, please keep in mind any other materials necessary for community health education and start planning activities. The CRVFHP encouraged CHCs to set up a MSFW cycle each year that plans out what to complete at the start, middle, and end of the year. Call Michael with questions! 2014 Contracts Mr. Malloy informed CHCs that the 2014 CRVFHP Contracts were sent on Monday, July 14 by Ms. O Driscoll. Mr. Malloy that the 2014 CRVFHP Contract asked CHCs to designate a Contract Liaison/Outreach Coordinator, Outreach Worker, Clinical Champion, and Financial Champion that would remain as the main sources of contact for himself and Ms. O Driscoll. Mr. Malloy also advised that he d want to visit with these designated staff during his visits in August and September. Updates from the Field Mr. Malloy asked each CHC to provide an update about MSFWs, local farms, and/or outreach activities. CRVFHP Monthly Meeting Minutes 07/15/2014 Page 5
8 Community Health Center, Inc.: Ms. Felix-Rodriguez shared that she had been visiting Thrall Farm with UConn to register patients and provide medical interpreting. Ms. Felix- Rodriguez asked if mental health services could be billed to the CRVFHP, mentioning that she had been assisting UConn with a mental health survey during farm visits. Mr. Malloy informed Ms. Felix-Rodriguez and all CHCs that yes, the CRVFHP reimburses for mental health services as part of the primary care voucher line item. UConn: Ms. McClure followed up on Ms. Felix-Rodriguez comment about the mental health survey, stating that grant money used from a UConn student was used to create the survey. Ms. McClure explained that UConn plans to incorporate more mental health services into farm visits by collaborating with Community Health Services and Community Health Center, Inc. Ms. McClure informed the group that various trips to the farms had been cancelled due to inclement weather, and added that although there seems to be a decrease in the number of farmworkers this year, each UConn clinic sees an increase in patients. Ms. McClure advised that workers at Thrall Farm had shown various flu-like symptoms in the past two weeks, sharing that many patients have had respiratory issues. Community Health Services: Ms. Miles added to Ms. McClure s comments, stating that she had seen patients at CHS from Thrall that were sick with flu-like symptoms. Ms. Miles voiced that she would contact Ms. McClure to discuss any issues with the patients. Holyoke Health Center: Mr. Cruz explained that he has been traveling with Jeanne Allen to the farms to register MSFW patients for the CRVFHP. Mr. Cruz stated that he has learned a lot about the living conditions of farmworkers and has enjoyed establishing relationships with patients. Ms. Allen informed the group that there are fewer crops in the area and that due to some crop changes, less farmworkers have come for work. Ms. Allen stated that the majority of workers are seasonal, which makes outreach more difficult due to changes in lodging. Ms. Allen also shared that HHC is short-staffed and has found it difficult to get MSFW patients appropriately identified and seen. Ms. Allen expressed technical difficulties in the field while attempting to access the HHC network to input patient data. Baystate Brightwood Health Center: Ms. Franco reported that she had mainly been visiting three farms located in Westfield and Southfield, MA where she noticed an increase in young Puerto Rican H2A workers that have come for a short period. Ms. Franco iterated that most patient visits were follow-up focused and for prescription refills. Ms. Franco informed the group that Arnold s Farm on College Highway planted less tobacco this year and began planting asparagus, which calls for fewer workers. Ms. Franco also shared a story of a farmworker who was recently attacked and beaten in Springfield, MA after asking somebody for directions. Ms. Franco claimed that the CRVFHP Monthly Meeting Minutes 07/15/2014 Page 6
9 patient was in stable condition and seeking possible residency in the U.S. Ms. Franco explained that many Central American families had been entering the Springfield, MA area in search of work and medical services. Lastly, Ms. Franco advised of possible abuse and negligence at Grower Direct, a farm in Somers, CT, where a female farmworker was being harassed by a crew leader and other farmworkers. Resources Mr. Malloy presented various health booklets from HealthStyle Press and asked participants if they were interested in ordering copies. Ms. Allen and Ms. Franco stated they were interested in the blood sugar, diabetes, and hypertension booklets. Mr. Malloy claimed he would survey each CHC to gauge how many booklets to order. Mr. Malloy directed CHCs to contact the CT & MA State monitor Advocates for issues that farmworkers are having with living conditions, treatment at work, etc. CT: Yu-Mon Luis Chang, MA: Jose Ocasio, Mr. Malloy provided CHCs with information regarding the Massachusetts Migrant Head Start Program, directing the group to contact Gloria Penagos ) with questions regarding enrollment. Mr. Malloy also provided the group with information about the Massachusetts Migrant Education Program and referred CHCs to contact Forrest Collins ) for information regarding offered services. Mr. Malloy also provided CHCs with a website with information regarding the Connecticut Head Start Program (http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/headstartoffices), which allows CHCs to search for programs using a virtual map. Mr. Malloy also informed CHCs of child care resources available through the State of Connecticut. Mr. Malloy directed the group s attention to a resource from the National Hispanic and Latino ATTC titled Psychoeducational Multifamily Groups: a Culture Specific Approach for Hispanics and Latinos in Need of Mental Health Services. Mr. Malloy encourage CHCs to use the bilingual information to plan culturally and linguistically appropriate outreach activities and pass the information along to other staff who interact with MSFW. Upcoming Events/Meetings Mr. Malloy ended the meeting by informing CHCs that August is National Health Center Week, with August 14 dedicated as National Farmworker Health Day. Lastly, Mr. Malloy reminded the group that the next CRVFHP Monthly Meeting would be held on August 12 from 10:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. at Community Health Services, Hartford, CT. The CRVFHP July Meeting ended at 11:50 a.m. CRVFHP Monthly Meeting Minutes 07/15/2014 Page 7
10 Mass. Will Not Host Unaccompanied Migrant Minors After All The potential of bringing unaccompanied migrant minors to Massachusetts caused protests on both sides. By Eric Levenson, Boston.com Staff August 5, :18 PM Massachusetts will not need to open shelters for unaccompanied minors who were caught at the Southern border, federal officials said Tuesday afternoon. Officials said the change was due to a decrease in the number of unaccompanied minors crossing the border, as well as expanded capacity at existing shelters, according to The Boston Globe s Michael Levenson. Once again the people of Massachusetts have displayed great generosity and compassion, Governor Deval Patrick said in a statement. It appears that there is not a need for Massachusetts to serve these children at this time, but I am proud of our willingness to do so. Federal officials had asked Massachusetts leaders to shelter the unaccompanied minors for a short period, and Governor Deval Patrick suggested locations in Cape Cod and Western Massachusetts that could have been used to house them. The debate over their housing caused protests at Beacon Hill among those against undocumented immigrants.
12 Farm Worker and Farm Worker Professional Service Provider perceptions of sexual violence and sexual violence prevention DRAFT By: Kimber J. Nicoletti Director MESA: Multicultural Efforts to end Sexual Assault Introduction: These focus groups examine farm workers and professional farm worker service providers perceptions about sexual violence and how it could be prevented. The focus groups draw upon the experiences of farm workers involved in a farm worker participatory violence prevention theatre initiative, Lideres Campesinas. The facilitator uses performance-based methods as tools to engage the realities of research participants to gain clearer understanding opinions and experiences in and around protective and risk factors for sexual violence. Using an experiential learning model, the analysis focuses on participant perceptions of the activities and their verbal and non-verbal responses to the activities. The facilitator recommends that a performance-based approach to data collection, despite some limitations, offers a more expansive opportunity for participant expression. Due to the verbal and storytelling history of farm worker culture, this method provides a more culturally relevant means of capturing data than traditional approaches used in academia. In addition, due to higher levels of acculturation and education, the facilitator uses a more traditional focus group approach for use with farm worker professional service providers. In the first part of this qualitative study, non-traditional focus groups were utilized to invite Latina migrant farm workers who were involved on some level with Lideres Campesinas to express their ideas about sexual violence prevention and how sexual violence prevention information could be delivered to other migrant farm worker women. Two focus groups composed of farm worker women (12 in the first group and 13 in the second) were conducted on February 22 nd and March 22 nd in Salinas, California. Due to lack of availability of Migrant Farm Workers in the State of Indiana during the early spring and the need for early data collection, the groups were conducted in California through a collaborative partnership with the National Effort to Combat Farm Worker Sexual Violence and Lideres Campesinas. However a third focus group was conducted on March 11th in Kokomo, IN with Migrant Farm Worker service professionals who have just arrived to prepare for Indiana s Migrant Farm Worker Season. The purpose of the focus groups was to elicit information from farm workers to increase the understanding of migrant farm workers perception of the causes of sexual violence and how it could be prevented.
13 Participants of the first two groups were recruited by members of the Lideres Campesinas staff. Lideres Campesinas is a farm worker women advocacy organization based in California. Facilitator has no specific information about recruitment methods or group demographics. Based upon observations, all 12 participants appeared to be Mexican or from Mexican descent, female and ranging between the ages of years old. In addition, three participants were representatives from California Rural Legal Assistance and two from Lideres Campesinas. The major themes that emerged were: help-seeking behavior, issues with gender roles and community cultural values. The Executive Director of Lideres Campesinas opened the groups by thanking members for their participation, explaining how this information would be utilized and introducing facilitator. Facilitator introduced herself to participants and explained that their participation was voluntary and that they could leave at any time. Facilitator also outlined rules for confidentiality and offered information on area resources should participants desire to seek outside support for any reason. The facilitator acknowledges her own assumptions to the group. The assumptions acknowledged by facilitator are that: 1. Facilitator is a university professional with a Masters degree in social work. 2. Facilitator identifies as a Chicana/Italiana. 3. Facilitator acknowledges some dialectal differences in her Spanish language word selection and accent. Due to cultural taboos that exist around sexuality, participants were prepared for the focus groups using a series of interactive theater exercises. These exercises serve to reduce stress and increase group cohesiveness and group identity. Cultural social constructs for interaction in many Latino communities require a high level of group identity in order for the sharing of personal information to be socially acceptable. In many Latino communities, la comunidad or the community as a whole is valued over individualism and therefore, it is important to create an environment where it is acceptable to share personal opinions and ideas. In social settings with lower levels of cohesion or group identity, participants may experience inhibited social interactions, opinion sharing and conversation. Two group activities were introduced and facilitated by facilitator in an open area of the room. In addition to building group rapport, these activities also established the relationship of the facilitator to the group while increasing group confidence. Following activities, participants were seated at tables arranged in a U shape. Each participant was provided a small jar of play dough, access to crayons and markers, blank sheets of paper and a small container of bubbles. These supplies were available to facilitate dialogue, in addition to, reducing personal stress experienced by participants. The focus group plan included the following questions: Questions:
14 1. Where do you get information about health? 2. Which format of health information is more helpful? Why? 3. What do you think causes sexual violence? 4. What do you think would prevent sexual violence? 5. Are there actions that each of us can take to prevent sexual violence? 6. What are words or images that describe safety from sexual violence? 7. Participants were divided into groups: several groups of (2) and one group of (3) and asked to develop a skit between a farm worker woman and a provider. The provider needs to bring up the subject of sexual violence. How can they bring up the issue of sexual violence? How can the subject of sexual violence prevention be presented without being offensive? Q: Where do you get information about health? Responses: Doctors, community members, Books, Pamphlets, looks for phone numbers for services, Lideres Campesinas Guide, Internet, doctor, police, wherever we can get help Participants discussed where they went to look for information about health. Most of the participants acknowledged asking a healthcare provider when they needed health information. One participant stated that she would ask a family member or friend. Another participant stated that she looked up health information on the computer at the library. Several of the participants were reluctant to answer the question. Q. The facilitator further clarified the question by sharing several examples of different types of information: cards, fotonovelas, pamphlets, booklets, brochures and asked participants if one of these examples was more helpful and why? Responses: Telephones, fotonovela with photos, child prefers comic-style fotonovela, call the police or ambulance Several participants responded that they were able to get information from the various types of examples that were provided but there was a strong preference for the fotonovela. Most of the participants agreed that they preferred the colored photographs over the comic-book style fotonovela. Participants stated that they could understand additional information from merely looking at the pictures even if they had problems with literacy. One participant acknowledged that she could sit with her children and read the fotonovela with them. One participant indicated that depending on the situation a person might need to call the police if its life or death or an ambulance if you were sick instead of looking for printed information Q. What do you think causes sexual violence?
15 Responses: -lack of knowledge, experiences of violence in their primary family, previous victimization, poverty, lack of jobs, resources, it s a chain reaction. They learn it and they live it, it s how men define masculinity, men feel it s their right to control others. Participants responded that men were the main perpetrators of violence and that the social norms that define masculinity (machismo) supported their behavior. Several participants indicated that masculinity entitled men to control and have power over others. Participants also indicated that they felt like once men were grown that you could not change their social values and behavior. Participants also acknowledged issues around gender roles for men and woman as a cause of sexual violence. One of the participants stated that parents do not teach their children to respect others and that this was the main cause of sexual violence. Q. What do you think would prevent sexual violence? Responses: Reporting it. Telling the truth. Many people don t have information about violence prevention and we need to get more information out there about violence prevention. There is lot of different dialects/languages in which there is no information or education about sexual violence prevention. Many people are disempowered because they are not citizens and feel they cannot take action. If you are seeing a lot of violence, try to combat it. Ask for help. Parents need to teach their children in early childhood about gender role values and what is violence and when should someone ask for help. Teaching to men to respect women and to not taunt/make fun of women. This question created a lot of conversation and many participants shared stories of personal experiences with their primary families and with their own children. Responses ranged from addressing issues around immigration and poverty to social concepts about gender roles. Many participants stated that men s attitudes had to change to prevent sexual violence; however, they felt there was little that could be done in this generation. Participants stated that preventing sexual violence starts when children are young and that parents had a responsibility to teach young children to not be violent. Q. What does safe from sexual violence mean/what does it look like? Several slides of artwork were introduced to the group to demonstrate the idea of how images can provide important information. Facilitator described the artwork and the types of messages the slides were trying to present before asking participants, What images or words could convey safety from sexual violence? Specifically, in developing primary prevention approaches for sexual violence against farm worker women, what images or words would best describe safety from sexual violence? Participants were asked to draw words or images that demonstrated safety from sexual violence using the markers and crayons on the table. Facilitator framed the activity by asking each participant to imagine she was an artist and this was for an art exhibit where each artist would be paid $ for their work. Participants joked back with the facilitator asking for an increased fee.
16 Responses: Four images emerged that participants viewed as protective factors from sexual violence: 1. Respect-9 participants used the word or image of respect 2. Heart-3 participants drew an image of a heart 3. Human figures-10 participants utilized human figures 4. Family-3 participants used images or words suggesting family After completing their drawings, participants had the opportunity to discuss their art work and explain their ideas. Ten participants elected to participate through sharing their ideas via drawing and explaining their picture. Three participants elected to express their ideas verbally and left their sheet of paper blank. The facilitator allowed each participant to select an item from a bag of gifts that she had brought with her after sharing their idea with the group. Throughout their explanations, several themes emerged, such as healthy families, personal value and respect, and supervisors/crew leaders. Respect was introduced in print in 9 of the drawings. However, all participants indicated respect was necessary to prevent sexual violence. In their discussions, participants indicated that mutual respect was necessary to prevent sexual violence. Participants expressed that mutual respect could change the emotional affect of the farm workers. In their drawings, participants indicated that farm workers would be happy when mutual respect was present by demonstrating figures with smiling faces. However when mutual respect was absent, farm workers would be sad or unhappy. This was indicated by drawing figures frowning or flat facial expressions. All participants indicated that being valued and respect were necessary elements to create an environment that was safe from sexual violence. Three of the participants used words or images of the family as a protective factor in sexual violence. All ten participants who participated with drawing used some form of human figures in their art work. The human figure was utilized as a protective factor such as family or community member in several pieces. Additionally, the human figure also represented a risk factor such as a potential perpetrator or supervisor in other drawings. Q. How can a provider or professional introduce the subject of sexual violence? There were five groups of (2) and one group of (3). Each group utilized theater skits to demonstrate how a provider could bring up the subject of sexual violence. Each group appeared to follow a format of rapport building, referral of service and 5 out of six groups identified the crew leader as the perpetrator. 1. Each group demonstrated an extended period of rapport building between provider and patient/client. This consisted of 5-6 interpersonal questions or exchanges about the patient/client, i.e., How are you today? How is your family? Though traditionally most providers might have a couple of exchanges, these examples clearly introduced the idea that a few more minutes needed to be offered to establish the Latino cultural value of
17 personalismo or where more value is placed on developing the context of the relationship rather then directly initiating the normal protocol of the appointment process. 2. After the initial rapport building part of the service provider interview, three themes emerged from the skits: a. Help-seeking behavior all six groups described various forms of help-seeking behavior that ranged from informal to formal and included friends who were supportive, contacting police and visiting service providers. Participants demonstrated a good knowledge of resources available that were geographically specific. Note: Due to exposure to information and trainings from Lideres Campesinas, it is not clear whether this knowledge would be consistent with farm workers in other geographic regions of the United States. Some geographic areas of the United States have very limited culturallyspecific services for migrant farm workers. b. Health-all six groups indicated some connection between health and presence of sexual harassment, violence and or abuse. Because health is viewed in a synergistic paradigm in many farm worker communities, it is not uncommon for stress, violence and health to be experienced in a holistic manner. c. Supervisor/Crew Leader-Five of the six groups portrayed the crew leader or supervisor as the perpetrator and expressed scenarios where this supervisor is sexually harassing the farm worker woman. The supervisor is aware that the farm worker woman has few other employment options and therefore has a great need to maintain this job. Second Group The second focus group consisted of the same participants as the first group, with one additional farm worker woman. It was decided that it was important to share the information collected from the first group with participants as a means to empower them. All professionals involved in organizing groups shared stories of experiences with farm workers who were not allowed to be involved in the process and that in the spirit of primary prevention, it was important for them to have power over what data was collected about them. Focus groups are becoming more widely used with low-income culturally diverse groups and recognized a valid method for collection of qualitative data. However, due to social norms and cultural taboos around the topic of sexuality specifically in farm worker settings, a non-traditional methodological process and approach was applied for data collection. Using an arts-based approach for data collection allows all participants to share and to be valued in the process. In farm worker communities, a large disparity frequently exists in abilities in the areas of literacy and spoken language. By using performance-based pieces, every participant could participate on some level. Due to the nature of these activities, everyone attending the group including staff from CRLA and Lideres Campesinas was asked to participate in activities. 1. Warming Up The Executive Director of Lideres Campesinas opened up this focus group and introduced the facilitator and the staff members from Lideres Campesinas and CRLA.
18 The facilitator established the ground rules with participants, stating the need for the space to be safe, open and confidential. Participants were encouraged to take appropriate measures for self-care as needed and offered referrals for resources if needed. Facilitator thanked all participants and expressed what a great honor it was for their willingness to share their time, ideas and energy. Facilitator explained to participants that this group would also be arts-based sharing but utilizing a theater format. Cover the Space Cover the Space was the initial activity selected to warm up the group and to also help increase group confidence and rapport. This activity requires participants to silently keep the floor covered at all times. Participants are encouraged to look around the room to see if the floor is covered evenly. Facilitator tells participants to Freeze! Participants are asked if there are gaps in the space and if there is a volunteer who can help cover that space. This activity allows participants to engage and began moving around while maintaining self-awareness. As the activity moved on, participants were asked to form various shapes such as circle, heart and two squares. After the activity, facilitator helped participants debrief the exercise using an experiential learning model: what did the participants experience, how participants could apply this experience and how that lesson could apply to other broader experiences. Participants moved about and there was some nervous laughter and giggling. Participants had been propelled into this activity to encourage spontaneity and loosen inhibitions. In this way participants were encouraged to explore, discover and create, which not only allowed them to bond and connect with each other but very quickly defined the workshop as a space of interaction and performance. Boal handshakes During the second activity, participants were asked to meet all of the other participants which included CRLA and Lideres Campesinas Staff. As they hold one person s hand, they greet/introduce themselves to the other person. They must hold that person s hand until they have the hand of another. They cannot let go of one person hand until they have the hand of another. Participants were encouraged to try to meet everyone in the room. It is important to understand that the purpose of the activities is to build group rapport and increase feeling of safety in the room. Participants shared their experiences and lessons learned following the activity. Word Brainstorm Participants were encouraged to brain storm to generate two separate lists of words under the categories of risk factor and protective factor from sexual violence. This activity would help generate words and concepts to explore in later activities. Additionally, this
19 activity helps group understand how they each relate to the concept of safety and sexual violence. Two volunteers from CRLA agreed to serve as the scribes for the list. Image of the Word In this activity, participants were asked to form a circle. Facilitator refreshed the group on the concept of how we learn information from images in picture. Facilitator selected a word and asked participants to raise their head and make an image of the word using facial expressions. After several rounds utilizing facial expressions, participants were asked to step into the empty space in front of them and make an image of the word using their bodies. Once everyone is in the space have the participants look around at the other images while holding their image. Relax and repeat. Participants were asked to form a series of images using words from the risk factor list. Facilitator explored with participants what fear or afraid looked like and what other characteristics or feelings could be pulled from the image. Sculpting Series In the next series of activities, three volunteers at a time went to the center of the circle where they would form a pose from the sexual violence risk factors list of words. Participants were allowed to come forward (one person at a time) to mold the actors to change the essence of the word they were modeling. The participants were encouraged to mold/sculpt the actors from the sexual violence risk factor word list into a pose from the protective factors from sexual violence list. Initially volunteers came forward in groups of threes for this activity. For the final phase of the sculpting series, participants formed groups of 4-5 persons to create a pose from the sexual violence risk factors word list. As the actors held their pose, the facilitator engaged actors in: Thought Tracking: A technique used to capture the thoughts, feelings or inner monologue of a character. When used with still images, the facilitator touches each character on the shoulder as a sign for the actor to say a few words, a sound, or a sentence that shows what their character might be thinking or feeling. When used with role-play, individuals can be asked to shadow the characters in the role-play. After each character speaks, the shadow says what the character is really thinking or feeling (sometimes what we say and what we feel are not the same!) Dynamize: To bring an image to life (usually for 2-3 minutes) by asking those in the image to speak without interruption through their part of the image (i.e. to say out loud what their character or their part of the image is thinking or feeling). The actors are to remain frozen as they speak. Depending on the image, a dialogue may spontaneously develop, or the parts of the image may just recite their character s inner monologue. Hot Seating: In order to learn more about a character s background, thoughts, and feelings, the group can pull a character out of a role play or an image and ask her questions about her life, her behaviors, her feelings, etc. The actor playing that character
20 must stay in role and answer the questions posed by the participants. If more than one character is hot seated at the same time and the topic being explored is a sensitive one, you may want to ask participants to imagine that the characters being hot seated are in separate rooms and cannot see or hear each other. This ensures that the characters will feel safe and be honest about their thoughts and feelings. Discussion: The results from the image work fell into three main categories: social context of sexual violence, plural understanding of risk and protective factors and help-seeking behavior. Social context of sexual violence In looking at community perspectives of sexual violence and safety, it is important to understand how traditional gender roles and their elements impact participants perceptions of sexual violence prevention. Masculine and feminine behaviors exist along the continuum of Machismo and Marianisma. Machismo is a term used that implies traditional gender roles in Latino social structure. Machismo has become associated with patriarchal behavior of males. This often consists of controlling behavior towards women and children. It is also associated with conservative values where men oppose women's rights, or to pursue things that fall outside of their traditional gender role. Traditional female gender role can be defined as Marianisma meaning, Mary like, as in the Virgin Mary, as being kind, nurturing, dependent, predictable, quiet, docile, vulnerable, yet enduring of pain, virginal and without aspiration; self-sacrificing mother and wife. The description also includes the acceptance of a double standard concerning sexual promiscuity and mutual acknowledgment of male superiority. Female roles include being gentle, delicate and protected. The female role also implies comfort and a boundless supply of love from the outside world. Often Latina women turn to another family member or her comadre or an elder female of the Latina social and family network. Participant-actors were asked to select words from the sexual violence risk factor list which they had generated earlier in the day. Participants selected words such as stress, maltreatment, and hurt instead of stronger words such as rape or sexual harassment. Many of the terms given by participants under the sexual violence risk factor category during the brain storming activity were implied terms rather than direct actions. Cultural taboos around sexuality are interwoven even into the fabric of the language. Social norms and cultural taboos around sexuality make this a difficult subject to discuss and express even in private. Farm worker women s reluctance to address sexuality is one of the elements indicative of the use of a traditional gender role framework. Sensitivity to participants reluctance to use stronger terms should be considered and reflected when developing any sexual violence prevention approaches targeted at farm worker communities.
21 Many of the sculptures posed by the actor participants display a tendency toward traditional gender roles. While current literature indicates some change in traditional gender roles in contemporary Latino communities, this is not indicated in most farm worker communities where access to resources, education and other forms of supports are more limited. All of the sculptures portrayed male behavior as being machismo and oppressing the female actors in the sculpture. Actors made statements such as, she s wearing tight pants, or She wouldn t do what I told her to do, which further confirms the experience of traditional gender roles in the daily lives of this farm worker community, as with other rural farm worker communities. Additionally, machismo appears to be a paradigm that is socially accepted and endorsed by other farm worker men. In most scenes created by the women, there were multiple male perpetrators or one perpetrator who was supported by multiple male bystanders. Plural Understanding of sexual violence prevention This focus group aimed to answer the question, how do farm workers view sexual violence and what are steps that can be taken to prevent sexual violence? The main findings were that many women felt helpless from sexual violence and harassment as it was viewed as almost inevitable and that women needed to band together to stay safe which was their concept of prevention, creating this plural understanding of safety. Women were encouraged to always travel in pairs or groups; and maintain close contact with family or friends. Most men seemed to be viewed as potential perpetrators. In earlier sessions, the crew leader was deemed as the most likely perpetrator; however, in this session participants indicated that it wasn t always the crew leaders. Safety was indicated as something that needed to be evaluated in every situation or location. Primary prevention seemed to be a far-off concept for farm worker women. When asked to develop a list of words that were indicative of sexual violence prevention, it was described as free, autonomous, beautiful, optimistic, strong, satisfied, nice, cordial, relaxed and comfortable. Terms used to describe prevention were euphoric and ideal. Facilitator asked if preventing sexual violence might feel normal. Most participants did not imagine that feeling safe would feel normal but rather expressed relaxed or happy. Participants couldn t imagine real protective factors because sexual violence was viewed as inevitable. The brainstorming activity on protective factors also contained words like ambulance, therapist, doctor and police. In the previous focus group session and in this session, many participant actors indicated that calling the police would be an act of safety. However, in this session, one of the participants contradicted herself, stating that the police don t help. Other participant actors also confirmed her statement. Most of the participant-actors action steps for sexual violence prevention were in the form of helpseeking behavior.
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