1 September 11, 2012 Janet Rico Uhrig, M.Ed., SPHR Coordinator, Residence Life Hannah Lozon, M.Ed. Coordinator of Social Justice Education, Residence Life
2 Understand terminology Define micro-aggressions Discuss awareness of micro-aggressions in the workplace Understand some of the possible responses to and impact of micro-aggressions Provide ways to address micro-aggressions and reflect on what change HR professionals can make
3 Diversity = The presence of difference. Social Justice = The process of social justice involves an equitable distribution of resources, equal access to those resources, and participation from all members of society. The goal of social justice is the full and equal participation of all groups in a society shaped to meet their needs. Important to note: Social justice is both a process and a goal. Definitions adapted from: Adams, M., Bell, L. A., & Griffin, P. (Eds.) (2007) Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice 2 nd Edition
4 Identity = Aspects & characteristics that make up our definition of self; what aspects & characteristics society defines us by. o Agent/Dominant = Those identities that experiences privilege. o Target/Subordinate= Those identities that experience oppression. Privilege = Unearned, unasked for, often invisible benefits and advantages only readily available to agent groups. Oppression = System that maintains advantage and disadvantage based on social group memberships. Operates on individual, institutional, and cultural levels. Definitions adapted from: Adams, M., Bell, L. A., & Griffin, P. (Eds.) (2007) Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice 2 nd Edition
5 Cultural Institutional Individual Adapted from: Adams, M., Bell, L. A., & Griffin, P. (Eds.) (2007) Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice 2 nd Edition Individual Oppression: Personal attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs that maintain and perpetuate oppression. Examples: believing people with mental disabilities are not capable of working, telling homophobic jokes, throwing a sexist theme party, etc.
6 Cultural Institutional Individual Adapted from: Adams, M., Bell, L. A., & Griffin, P. (Eds.) (2007) Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice 2 nd Edition Institutional Oppression: Social institutions like media, education, health services, and government that maintain and perpetuate oppression through laws, practices, policies, and norms. Examples: marriage being legal only for heterosexual couples, public schools more racially segregated than in 1950s, etc.
7 Cultural Institutional Individual Adapted from: Adams, M., Bell, L. A., & Griffin, P. (Eds.) (2007) Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice 2 nd Edition Cultural Oppression: Values, norms, societal expectations, ways of thinking and ways of knowing that form institutions and individual patterns of oppression. Examples: standards of beauty that are unrealistic for women, narrow definitions of gender expression, etc.
8 Aversive Oppression: Subtle, often unintentional, belief that one does not discriminate, usually views self as a liberal Possesses unconscious stereotypes and biases If those feelings are conscious, there is an attempt to dissociate from those feelings Gaertner & Dovidio, 2000
9 Microaggression: Subtle, verbal and nonverbal slights, insults, indignities, and denigrating messages directed toward an individual due to their group membership, often automatically and unconsciously. Usually committed by well-intentioned folks who are unaware of the hidden messages being communicated.
10 Microaggressions in everyday life Dr. Derald Wing Sue Microaggressions are similar to carbon monoxide - invisible, but potentially lethal - continuous exposure to these type of interactions can be a sort of death by a thousand cuts to the victim Sue, (2010) Microaggressions in Everyday Life: Race, Gender, and Sexual Orientation.
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12 Microinsult: Often unconscious verbal, nonverbal, and environmental communications that subtly convey rudeness and insensitivity that demean a person's heritage or identity Examples: asking a student of color which scholarship they received for admittance to college, joking that you cannot give female office worker constructive feedback or she ll cry Microassault: Conscious and intentional discriminatory actions on one s identity Examples: flying a confederate flag, denying child from dating someone of the same sex, using derogatory names Microinvalidation: Communications that subtly exclude negate or nullify the thoughts, feelings or experiential reality of a person s identity Examples: color blindness, myth of meritocracy, denial of individual homophobic experience Taken from: Sue, Capodilupo, Torino, Bucceri, Holder, Nadal & Equilin, 2007
13 Phase One Incident An event or situation experienced by the participant Phase Two Perception Participant s belief about whether or not the incident was racially motivated Phase Three Reaction: Participant s immediate response to the incident
14 Phase Four Interpretation The meaning made of the incident Phase Five Consequence Behavioral, emotive or though processes which develop over time as a result of incident Incident Types Verbal Nonverbal/Behavioral Environmental
15 You shouldn t come to the construction site. You re a distraction and it s hard for us to get work done. It s not your fault so don t take it personally, but that s just the way men are. Why don t you stay in the office and I ll check on you later?
16 A HR consultant when I was seeking advice on how I should go about discussing the harassment and discrimination I have dealt with concerning my natural afro-textured hair at my job. I do not wear braids, locs, or twists. Nor do I cut my hair or dye my hair in unnatural colors (I keep it brown). I ONLY wear my hair out like any other women at my job. Made me feel upset, insulted, and without a voice. Even someone who was suppose to help didn t understand how natural my hair is and instead compared it to an unnatural color.
17 This is what a co-worker said to me after learning that someone we both know is expecting a child. What if I can t have children? What if I don t want children? Why don t people think about that before speaking?
18 I asked a colleague to perform a simple task that is required of him. He responds with it must be that time of the month, scary. I ask him what female hormone levels have to do with his ability to carry out his job. He responds You sound like my wife. I am a 29 year old broadcaster. Made me frustrated, angry, tired.
19 Male co-worker, in a tone of great surprise, at seeing me use a screwdriver to open my PC because the hard drive had failed. I m female, 24, and I have a master s in computer science. Made me feel undervalued, like he s expecting less of me because of my gender.
20 This was said to me by an employee on my first day at a location as the assistant manager. It was after I attempted to deal with a difficult customer who refused my help because he didn t recognize me. The employee did not know at the time that I was raised Jewish.
21 From a Facebook post from a fellow counseling colleague from work.
22 Male, approx. 50-year-old coworker to me, 23-year-old female. Made me feel like he was marginalizing feminism using the excuse of a (scientifically unsupportable) claim. When I suggested that the world was, if anything, overpopulated, he ignored this.
23 During my shift at a customer service job. Made me annoyed, depressed.
24 My coworker, putting his hand on my arm after he suggested that only black people would vote again for Obama because he s black.
25 Anxiety The employee experiences a dread of going to work, loses sense of identity with his/her work or career, may experience physical problems Paranoia The self-consciousness created by second-guessing of others, worry about the racial and gender attributions of others, fear of damage to one s reputation Depression Depression is common in social or work withdrawal, isolation from coworkers, feelings of fatigue and exhaustion from even minor work tasks
26 Sleep Difficulties While correlated with depression, this cluster of symptoms is generally likely to occur first. Lack of Confidence The worker begins to question their abilities, judgment, and decision making. Worthlessness This feeling is related to a lack of confidence as the person now questions their value to coworkers, the company, and to themselves.
27 Intrusive Cognitions These are the constant and continuing thoughts that are replayed over and over in the mind of the person. Helplessness This feeling of powerlessness occurs in the workplace when the individual is unable to stop the microaggressions. Loss of Drive The person s energy, spiritual and psychological, is sapped through chronic workplace microaggressions.
28 False Positives Because of the constant and continuing feelings of harassment and put downs, the person begins to overgeneralize to coworkers or others all the negative experiences that they have had with others. Such an orientation has the unintended consequences of Further isolating oneself to others, Increasing mistrust everyone is out to get me, and Externalizing blame in a way that avoids personal responsibility for one s own actions.
29 Increase benefit utilization- census data Use of EAP, but info not coming to HR Stalled recruitment Lower morale and engagement Lower productivity High or unexplained Turnover
30 Examine applicant requirements and essential functions Awareness of Environmental microaggressions Good oral communications skills Pictures of all male management team in the reception area or on the web.
33 Low retention rates may be the result when minority groups are constantly bombarded by organizational policies, practices, programs, and structures that make them feel unfairly treated(sue, Lin,& Rivera, 2009) Micro inequities like: Speaking to employee in condescending tone (second-class citizen) Not responding to a coworker s ideas (invisibility) Not invited to lunch by coworkers The boss mispronouncing employee name
34 Bullying experienced by employees of color, women or LGBTs is described as: subtle and often unconscious manifestations of racism in the form of incivility, neglect, humor, ostracism, inequitable treatment that cause extreme distress and has a negative impact on work productivity. (Fox & Stallworth, 2004)
35 Lower life and job satisfaction Lower organizational commitment Lower morale and motivation Lower self-esteem Behaviors: Isolation Withdrawing from work Lower work productivity Working minimal hours despite tasks being incomplete
36 Disadvantage in: Networking Mentoring Access of flow of information important to advancing one s career Performance Appraisals Definitions of leadership and managerial potential Serve as gatekeeping functions that determine who is hired retained and promoted.
37 Work environments Philosophy/vision statements/and values Example: We define a multicultural organization as committed(action as well as words) to diverse representation throughout all levels, sensitive to maintaining an open, supportive, and responsive environment, working toward and purposefully including elements of diverse cultures in its ongoing operations, carefully monitoring organizational polices and practices to the goals or equal access and opportunity and authentic in responding to changing policies and practices that block cultural diversity. (Sue & Constantine, 2005,p.223)
38 1. True multiculturalism and diversity must be at all levels. 2. Organizations must create and maintain an open and supportive environment, free of microaggressions 3. Authenticity and commitment must be present.
39 Hearing the voices not dismissing, allowing voices to be heard Creating space where concerns can be raised without ramifications Coalition building/networking amongst identity is encouraged and supported
40 Commitment from top, but role modeling throughout Diversity Action plan w/ clear goals Oversight team w/ investment empowered to assess, develop, monitor
41 Accountability must be built in Systematic and long term commitment to educate the entire workforce concerning diversity issues, to address barriers the block multiculturalism, and increase sensitivity at all levels to the manifestation and power of microaggressions.
42 Needs to include everyone boards, administrators, senior leadership Needs to be a long term process Multicultural vs. we re all the same - Diversity statement
43 Thank you!
44 Microaggressions in Everyday Life by Derald Wing Sue
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