# UIL Computer Science for Dummies by Jake Warren and works from Mr. Fleming

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "UIL Computer Science for Dummies by Jake Warren and works from Mr. Fleming"

## Transcription

1 UIL Computer Science for Dummies by Jake Warren and works from Mr. Fleming 1

2 2 Foreword First of all, this book isn t really for dummies. I wrote it for myself and other kids who are on the team. Everything here is stuff that either nabbed me on tests or is very obscure information. Hopefully this book will help you in your studies. Jake Warren P.S. Don t forget to send you feedback to either or

4 4 Binary Search Trees A value that is less than the value in the parent node goes to the left. The following values are inserted into the tree:

5 5 Inorder Traversal Returns values in ascending order

6 6 Pre-Order Traversal Process the left sub-tree first Process the right sub-tree next Start at the top Work your way down

7 7 Post-Order Traversal Start with the children from the bottom up. Process the left nodes first Parent node last!!! Binary Search Tree Notes If a duplicate value is inserted, it will be discarded. Big-O Notation Extremely Fast Common: log 2 n Worst-case: log 2 n

8 8 Insertion Sort Here is how the insertion sort works graphically: You have a collection of CDs; each CD has an ID#, and you want to sort them in ascending order. 1. Add the new CD Compare the new CD(CD5) with the rightmost CD(CD9). Since 5 is less than 10, swap them

9 9 3. Repeat Step 2 until the new CD is greater than the CD to the left

10 10 Here is the recursive function that does the sort: int[5] mlist = new int [] 1,2,4,5,3; public void insertitem(int ItemToInsert) *swap( itemtoinsert,itemtoinsert -1 ); --itemtoinsert; If( (itemtoinsert >= 1 ) && ( mlist[ itemtoinsert ] <= mlist[ itemtoinsert -1] ) ) insertitem( itemtoinsert ); //recurse Here s a breakdown of the code: public void insertitem(int ItemToInsert) swap( itemtoinsert,itemtoinsert -1 ); 1. This method takes an integer(itemtoinsert) representing the offset of the item to insert. Then the function swaps it immediately to the left. --itemtoinsert; 2. For example, if the itemtoinsert variable has the value 5, you will need to swap the items at the offset 5 and 4. Having made that swap you now want to examine item 4 to see if it is bigger or smaller than item 3. To do so, you must decrement the itemtoinsert variable. If( (itemtoinsert >= 1 ) && ( mlist[ itemtoinsert ] <= mlist[ itemtoinsert -1] ) ) insertitem( itemtoinsert ); //recurse 3. Now you must compare again, if you find that item 3 is smaller, you must recurse the method. * The swap function is not included here, assuming that you understand the logic of a swap function.

11 11 4. You continue to recurse until you find the right spot or the list runs out. Insertion Sort Performance Big-O Notation: N 2 /4

12 12 Selection Sort The Selection Sort compares the first index j through the list and if it finds a smaller value than minimum it swaps it. The j is incremented and the process starts all over again. public void SelectionSort() int minimum; int nitems = mlist.length()-1; for( int j = 0; j < nitems-1; ++j) minimum = j; for( int w = j + 1; w < nitems; ++w) if( mlist[w] < minimum) minimum = j; if( minimum!= j) swap( minimum, j); Here s a breakdown of the code: This method works by using an outer loop to iterate through the list; and an inner loop to compare the items. The outer loop: for( int j = 0; j < nitems-1; ++j) Then you make an inner loop: for( int w = j + 1; w < nitems; ++w)

13 13 If the loop finds a smaller value, then minimum is reset. if( mlist[w] < minimum) minimum = j; Then if minimum doesn t equal the value of j, the two values are swapped: if( minimum!= j) swap( minimum, j); Selection Sort Performance Big-O Notation: Average: ( N * ( N -1 ) ) / 2 Worst-case: N 1

14 14 Bubble Sort Bad choice for a sort, but shows up on a few tests. The bubble sort works by comparing the first two elements in the list. If the second element is larger, then they are swapped. Then it compares the second and third item, and so on. Here is the Bubble Sort code: Public void BubbleSort() For(int j = nitems -1; j >= 1; j++) For(int w =1; w <= j; w++) If(mList[w] < mlist[w-1]) Swap( j, j-1); Bubble Sort Performance Big-O Notation: N 2 / 2

15 15 System.out.println() Tip: Memorize these! \n - new line \t - horizontal tab \r - carriage return; moves cursor back to start.(not a new Line!!!) All characters will be overwritten!!! \\ - backslash \ - used to print a double quote If a println() statement starts out with a ( ) character, then all output becomes strings. Int x = 3, y = 4; String s = UIL ; System.out.println( + x + y + s); Displays: 34UIL However: Int x = 3, y = 4; String s = UIL ; System.out.println(x + y + s); Displays: 7UIL

16 16?:?: is a unary operator that is a condensed version of an if statement. 1 3 (statement)? true : false 2 1. The statement that is evaluated to either true or false. 2. If the statement evaluates to true, then this value is returned. 3. If the statement evaluates to false, then this value is returned. System.out.println( StudentGrade >= 60? Passed : Failed ); If the student has an 80 average, then Passed is printed. If he has a 50 average, then Failed is printed.

17 17 Switch Can ONLY accept: byte, char, short, int values Exits immediately if it hits a break statement. Continues if it doesn t; or falls through, executing every statement below. Uses the default only if a case is not met. Characters must be in single quotes,. Int x = 1; Switch(x) Case 0: x=2; Break; Case 1: x=3; Break; Default: x=-1; X = 2 Int x = 0; Switch(x) Case 0: x=-1; Case 1: x=32767; Default: x=-1; X = 32767!!!! char ch = x ; Switch(ch) Case 0: ch= j ; break; Case 1: ch= w ; break; Ch still equals x!!!!

18 18 BASE ARITHMETIC Converting decimal to binary To convert decimal to binary is also very simple, you simply divide the decimal value by 2 and then write down the remainder, repeat this process until you cannot divide by 2 anymore, for example let's take the decimal value 157: = = = = = = = = 0 with a remainder of 1 with a remainder of 0 with a remainder of 1 with a remainder of 1 with a remainder of 1 with a remainder of 0 with a remainder of 0 with a remainder of 1 <--- to convert write this remainder first. Next write down the value of the remainders from bottom to top (in other words write down the bottom remainder first and work your way up the list) which gives: = 157 To Convert Hexadecimal to Binary Take the number A7 16 as an example (Hexadecimal numbering runs from (0-F) ) Separate it into individual digits A is the tenth value in the hexadecimal numbering system. Write ten in binary A becomes 1010 Now write 7 in binary 7 becomes 0111 A + 7 = So A7 16 = To Convert Binary to Hexadecimal Break Binary number into blocks of 4 digits Example broken in two becomes 1011 and 1101 Convert 1011 to decimal Hexadecimal = B Convert 1101 to decimal Hexadecimal = D (1*8 + 0*4 + 1*2 + 1*1) =11 Convert 11 to (1*8 + 1*4 + 0*2 + 1*1) =13 Convert 13 to That means that is equal to BD 16

19 19 To Convert Decimal numbers to Hexadecimal Method 1 2 Step Process Convert Decimal to Binary then Convert Binary to Hexadecimal Method 2 Determine largest possible power of 16 that is less than the decimal number. Examples 3899 Largest power of 16 less than 3899 is 256 (next power of 16 is 4096) Divide 3899 by 256 Quotient is 15 Remainder is 59 Divide 59 by 16 Quotient is 3 Remainder is 11 Convert each quotient to hexadecimal 15 = F 11 = B Results F3B 16 Obviously method one is preferred To Convert Octal numbers to Binary numbers Example Separate into individual numbers and convert to binary (3 places only) 3 = = = 001 So = Example = = = 101 So =

20 20 To Convert Binary numbers to Octal numbers Example (special note will be breaking into groups of three so you may need to add a zero in front) Adding a zero in front of making it Breaking into groups of three Convert each group to decimal 001 = = = 5 So = Example = = = 5 So = 705 8

21 21 To find the sum of numbers in mixed format 3 Step Process 1. Convert all values to Binary 2. Line up and do binary arithmetic 3. Convert Binary answer to Octal and Hexadecimal values Example 6A Convert 6 = 0110 A = 1010 = = = 100 = Line them up and do arithmetic RULES FOR BINARY ARITHMETIC 1. Only 1 and 0 are allowed 2. When summing each column: Sum of 2 put down a 0 and carry a 1 Sum of 3 put down a 1 and carry a 1 Sum of 4 put down zero and carry a 2 3. Work as far to the left as needed Original Number A (base 16) (base 8) So 6A = IF THAT ISNT AN ANSWER CHOICE THEN YOU MUST CONVERT IT Convert to Octal 101 = 5 011= 3 100=4 so answer = Convert to Hexadecimal (must use groups of 4 so need to add 000 to front of = = = 12 so it equals 15C 16

22 22 Bitwise Operators 1. Analyze the problem. 2. Breakdown into binary. 3. Line up the binary. 4. Solve. 5. Translate back into decimal. & - Bitwise AND: The resulting bits are set to 1 if both bits are 1. 6 & 4 //Statement //Broken into binary = 100 //The resulting binary number 4 // Translated back into decimal - Bitwise Inclusive OR: The resulting bits are set to 1 if either bit is //Statement //Broken into binary = //The resulting binary number 31 // Translated back into decimal - Bitwise Exclusive OR: The resulting bits are set to 1 if only one bit is ^ 7 //Statement //Broken into binary = //The resulting binary number 6 // Translated back into decimal

23 23 << - Left Shift: Shift the bits of the first operand to the left by the number specified by the second operand; fill from right with 0s 6 << 2 //Statement //Broken into binary = //The resulting binary number 24 // Translated back into decimal >> - Signed Right Shift: Shift the bits of the first operand to the right by the number specified by the second operand; if the operand is negative, fill from left with 1s, otherwise fill in with 0s. 6 >> 2 //Statement 110 //Broken into binary = 001 //The resulting binary number 1 // Translated back into decimal -6 >> 2 //Statement 110 //Broken into binary = //The resulting binary number 30 // Translated back into decimal >>> - Unsigned Right Shift: Shift the bits of the first operand to the left by the number specified by the second operand; fill from left with 0s -6 >>> 2 //Statement -110 //Broken into binary = -001 //The resulting binary number -1 // Translated back into decimal ~ - Bitwise Complement: All 0s are set to 1, all 1 bits are set to 0. ~25 //Statement //Broken into binary //The resulting binary number 6 //Translated back into decimal

24 24 String Tokenizer StringTokenizer is used to parse sentences into strings It removes all punctuation marks and white space.nexttoken() : Returns the next token.hasmoretokens() : Returns true or false depending upon whether you have used up your tokens StringTokenizer tk = new StringTokenizer( Hello Everyone ); System.out.println(tk.nextToken()); System.out.println(tk.hasMoreTokens()); System.out.println(tk.nextToken()); Displays: Hello true Everyone

25 25 Exceptions Exceptions are used to capture errors. Try // code goes here Catch( Exception e) // if an exception is thrown, this code is executed Finally // runs whether or not an exception is thrown

26 26 Stacks A stack operates like a stack of cups. Operates in LIFO order push() puts a new cup on top of the stack pop() pops a cup off of the top of the stack peek() looks at the bottom of the stack push(5)

27 27 pop()

28 28 peek() Stack s = new Stack(); Object obj; s.push( a ); s.push( b ); s.push( c ); obj = s.peek(); s.push(obj + d ); s.push(obj + x + obj); while(!isempty()) System.out.print(s.pop() + ); Queue Displays: cxc cd c b a Think of a queue as a line for a movie. As a person come up (enqueue) the line (queue) increases. As a person is let into the movie (dequeue) the line gets shorter.

29 29 Appendix A: Java Keywords Java has forty-eight keywords. You cannot declare the name of a variable, method, or class to be one of these keywords. If you try to do so, the compiler may give a rather puzzling error message. The keywords come in the several categories, listed below. Where the keywords are listed on two lines, the second line consists of keywords defined in the text in one place and never used anywhere else in the text (thus you do not need to remember them). 8 primitive types of values: boolean char int double long byte short float 3 constant values (technically these are two boolean literals and one null literal instead of keywords): true false null 14 statement indicators (the first word in the statement except for else and catch): if else while do for return try catch throw switch case default continue break 11 modifiers (can appear before the return type of a method): public private static final abstract protected synchronized native volatile transient strictfp 6 global (can be used outside of a class body): class interface extends implements import package 7 miscellaneous: void new this super throws instanceof finally 2 with no meaning, reserved so that people who accidentally put these C++ words in their programs will receive useful error messages: const goto

### Pemrograman Dasar. Basic Elements Of Java

Pemrograman Dasar Basic Elements Of Java Compiling and Running a Java Application 2 Portable Java Application 3 Java Platform Platform: hardware or software environment in which a program runs. Oracle

http://www.tutorialspoint.com/java/java_quick_guide.htm JAVA - QUICK GUIDE Copyright tutorialspoint.com What is Java? Java is: Object Oriented Platform independent: Simple Secure Architectural- neutral

### First Java Programs. V. Paúl Pauca. CSC 111D Fall, 2015. Department of Computer Science Wake Forest University. Introduction to Computer Science

First Java Programs V. Paúl Pauca Department of Computer Science Wake Forest University CSC 111D Fall, 2015 Hello World revisited / 8/23/15 The f i r s t o b l i g a t o r y Java program @author Paul Pauca

### A First Book of C++ Chapter 2 Data Types, Declarations, and Displays

A First Book of C++ Chapter 2 Data Types, Declarations, and Displays Objectives In this chapter, you will learn about: Data Types Arithmetic Operators Variables and Declarations Common Programming Errors

### Chapter 2 Introduction to Java programming

Chapter 2 Introduction to Java programming 1 Keywords boolean if interface class true char else package volatile false byte final switch while throws float private case return native void protected break

### Chapter 8. Arithmetic in C++

Christian Jacob Chapter 8 Arithmetic in C++ 8.1 The C++ Vocabulary 8.2 Variables and Types 8.2.1 Data Objects 8.2.2 Variables 8.2.3 Declaration of Variables 8.3 Elementary C++ Data Types 8.3.1 Integers

### Motto: Write once, run anywhere Sun Microsystem

Literature Pecinovský, Rudolf. 2009. Myslíme objektově v jazyku JAVA. 2nd ed. GRADA Publishing. Isaac Rabinovitch, Jacob Royal, Mark Hoeber, Scott Hommel, Sharon Zakhour, Tom Risser. 2007. JAVA 6 Výukový

### Keywords are identifiers having predefined meanings in C programming language. The list of keywords used in standard C are : unsigned void

1. Explain C tokens Tokens are basic building blocks of a C program. A token is the smallest element of a C program that is meaningful to the compiler. The C compiler recognizes the following kinds of

### Java Interview Questions and Answers

1. What is the most important feature of Java? Java is a platform independent language. 2. What do you mean by platform independence? Platform independence means that we can write and compile the java

### Java provides a rich set of operators to manipulate variables. We can divide all the Java operators into the following groups:

JAVA OPERATORS GENERAL Java provides a rich set of operators to manipulate variables. We can divide all the Java operators into the following groups: Arithmetic Operators Relational Operators Bitwise Operators

### Object Oriented Software Design

Object Oriented Software Design Introduction to Java - II Giuseppe Lipari http://retis.sssup.it/~lipari Scuola Superiore Sant Anna Pisa September 14, 2011 G. Lipari (Scuola Superiore Sant Anna) Introduction

### ECE 122. Engineering Problem Solving with Java

ECE 122 Engineering Problem Solving with Java Introduction to Electrical and Computer Engineering II Lecture 1 Course Overview Welcome! What is this class about? Java programming somewhat software somewhat

### Informatica e Sistemi in Tempo Reale

Informatica e Sistemi in Tempo Reale Introduction to C programming Giuseppe Lipari http://retis.sssup.it/~lipari Scuola Superiore Sant Anna Pisa October 25, 2010 G. Lipari (Scuola Superiore Sant Anna)

### C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Fifth Edition. Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++

C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Fifth Edition Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++ Objectives In this chapter, you will: Become familiar with the basic components of a C++ program,

### ,!7IA3C1-dcahfj!:t;K;k;K;k. Addison-Wesley s JavaScript Reference Card. Kathleen M. Goelz and Carol J. Schwartz, Rutgers University VARIABLES

Addison-Wesley s JavaScript Reference Card Kathleen M. Goelz and Carol J. Schwartz, Rutgers University Javascript: A scripting language designed to be integrated into HTML code to produce enhanced, dynamic,

### Two s Complement Arithmetic

Two s Complement Arithmetic We now address the issue of representing integers as binary strings in a computer. There are four formats that have been used in the past; only one is of interest to us. The

### AP Computer Science Java Subset

APPENDIX A AP Computer Science Java Subset The AP Java subset is intended to outline the features of Java that may appear on the AP Computer Science A Exam. The AP Java subset is NOT intended as an overall

### Topics. Parts of a Java Program. Topics (2) CS 146. Introduction To Computers And Java Chapter Objectives To understand:

Introduction to Programming and Algorithms Module 2 CS 146 Sam Houston State University Dr. Tim McGuire Introduction To Computers And Java Chapter Objectives To understand: the meaning and placement of

### Punctuation in C. Identifiers and Expressions. Identifiers. Variables. Keywords. Identifier Examples

Identifiers and Expressions CSE 130: Introduction to C Programming Spring 2005 Punctuation in C Statements are terminated with a ; Groups of statements are enclosed by curly braces: { and } Commas separate

### Basic Programming and PC Skills: Basic Programming and PC Skills:

Texas University Interscholastic League Contest Event: Computer Science The contest challenges high school students to gain an understanding of the significance of computation as well as the details of

### Adjusted/Modified by Nicole Tobias. Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++

Adjusted/Modified by Nicole Tobias Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++ Objectives In this chapter, you will: Become familiar with functions, special symbols, and identifiers in C++ Explore simple data types

### J a v a Quiz (Unit 3, Test 0 Practice)

Computer Science S-111a: Intensive Introduction to Computer Science Using Java Handout #11 Your Name Teaching Fellow J a v a Quiz (Unit 3, Test 0 Practice) Multiple-choice questions are worth 2 points

### Handout 1. Introduction to Java programming language. Java primitive types and operations. Reading keyboard Input using class Scanner.

Handout 1 CS603 Object-Oriented Programming Fall 15 Page 1 of 11 Handout 1 Introduction to Java programming language. Java primitive types and operations. Reading keyboard Input using class Scanner. Java

### Primitive Data Types Summer 2010 Margaret Reid-Miller

Primitive Data Types 15-110 Summer 2010 Margaret Reid-Miller Data Types Data stored in memory is a string of bits (0 or 1). What does 1000010 mean? 66? 'B'? 9.2E-44? How the computer interprets the string

### 12 Abstract Data Types

12 Abstract Data Types 12.1 Source: Foundations of Computer Science Cengage Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, the student should be able to: Define the concept of an abstract data type (ADT).

### CS 141: Introduction to (Java) Programming: Exam 1 Jenny Orr Willamette University Fall 2013

Oct 4, 2013, p 1 Name: CS 141: Introduction to (Java) Programming: Exam 1 Jenny Orr Willamette University Fall 2013 1. (max 18) 4. (max 16) 2. (max 12) 5. (max 12) 3. (max 24) 6. (max 18) Total: (max 100)

### 6.096 Lab 1. Due: 7 January 12:30:00. September 20, 2011

6.096 Lab 1 Due: 7 January 1:30:00 September 0, 011 1 Additional Material 1.1 Constants A constant is an expressions with a fixed value. Kinds of constants: Literals: used to express particular values

### Encoding Systems: Combining Bits to form Bytes

Encoding Systems: Combining Bits to form Bytes Alphanumeric characters are represented in computer storage by combining strings of bits to form unique bit configuration for each character, also called

### Introduction to Programming

Introduction to Programming SS 2012 Adrian Kacso, Univ. Siegen adriana.dkacsoa@duni-siegena.de Tel.: 0271/740-3966, Office: H-B 8406 Stand: April 25, 2012 Betriebssysteme / verteilte Systeme Introduction

### JavaScript: Control Statements I

1 7 JavaScript: Control Statements I 7.1 Introduction 2 The techniques you will learn here are applicable to most high-level languages, including JavaScript 1 7.2 Algorithms 3 Any computable problem can

### Numeral Systems. The number twenty-five can be represented in many ways: Decimal system (base 10): 25 Roman numerals:

Numeral Systems Which number is larger? 25 8 We need to distinguish between numbers and the symbols that represent them, called numerals. The number 25 is larger than 8, but the numeral 8 above is larger

### COMP2121: Microprocessors and Interfacing

Interfacing Lecture 3: Number Systems (I) http://www.cse.unsw.edu.au/~cs2121 Lecturer: Hui Wu Session 2, 2005 Overview Positional notation Decimal, hexadecimal and binary One complement Two s complement

### School of Informatics, University of Edinburgh

CS1Ah Lecture Note 5 Java Expressions Many Java statements can contain expressions, which are program phrases that tell how to compute a data value. Expressions can involve arithmetic calculation and method

### Variables are nothing but reserved memory locations to store values. This means that when you create a variable you reserve some space in memory.

JAVA TYPES BASIC DATA TYPES GENERAL Variables are nothing but reserved memory locations to store values. This means that when you create a variable you reserve some space in memory. Based on the data type

### Data Structures Using Java

Data Structures Using Java D. S. Malik P. S. Nair THOMSON COURSE TECHNOLOGY Australia Canada Mexico Singapore Spain United Kingdom United States TABLE OF Contents PREFACE XXV 1.Software Engineering Principles

### A TOOL FOR DATA STRUCTURE VISUALIZATION AND USER-DEFINED ALGORITHM ANIMATION

A TOOL FOR DATA STRUCTURE VISUALIZATION AND USER-DEFINED ALGORITHM ANIMATION Tao Chen 1, Tarek Sobh 2 Abstract -- In this paper, a software application that features the visualization of commonly used

### UNIT-1. C Programming & Data Structures. Introduction to Computers: Computing Environment: Types of Computing Environments:

Introduction to Computers: C Programming & Data Structures UNIT-1 A computer system consists of hardware and software. Computer hardware is the collection of physical elements that comprise a computer

### Introduction to Data Structures

Introduction to Data Structures Albert Gural October 28, 2011 1 Introduction When trying to convert from an algorithm to the actual code, one important aspect to consider is how to store and manipulate

### Introduction to Java

Introduction to Java The HelloWorld program Primitive data types Assignment and arithmetic operations User input Conditional statements Looping Arrays CSA0011 Matthew Xuereb 2008 1 Java Overview A high

### DATA STRUCTURES USING C

DATA STRUCTURES USING C QUESTION BANK UNIT I 1. Define data. 2. Define Entity. 3. Define information. 4. Define Array. 5. Define data structure. 6. Give any two applications of data structures. 7. Give

### Dept. of CSE, IIT KGP

Programming in C: Basics CS10001: Programming & Data Structures Pallab Dasgupta Professor, Dept. of Computer Sc. & Engg., Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur Types of variable We must declare the

### 1) The postfix expression for the infix expression A+B*(C+D)/F+D*E is ABCD+*F/DE*++

Answer the following 1) The postfix expression for the infix expression A+B*(C+D)/F+D*E is ABCD+*F/DE*++ 2) Which data structure is needed to convert infix notations to postfix notations? Stack 3) The

### Variables, Constants, and Data Types

Variables, Constants, and Data Types Primitive Data Types Variables, Initialization, and Assignment Constants Characters Strings Reading for this class: L&L, 2.1-2.3, App C 1 Primitive Data There are eight

### Pseudo code Tutorial and Exercises Teacher s Version

Pseudo code Tutorial and Exercises Teacher s Version Pseudo-code is an informal way to express the design of a computer program or an algorithm in 1.45. The aim is to get the idea quickly and also easy

### Basic C Syntax. Comp-206 : Introduction to Software Systems Lecture 10. Alexandre Denault Computer Science McGill University Fall 2006

Basic C Syntax Comp-206 : Introduction to Software Systems Lecture 10 Alexandre Denault Computer Science McGill University Fall 2006 Next Week I'm away for the week. I'll still check my mails though. No

### Number Systems and. Data Representation

Number Systems and Data Representation 1 Lecture Outline Number Systems Binary, Octal, Hexadecimal Representation of characters using codes Representation of Numbers Integer, Floating Point, Binary Coded

### Outline TOPIC 2 INTRODUCTION TO JAVA AND DR JAVA. What is DrJava? Dr Java

1 Outline TOPIC 2 INTRODUCTION TO JAVA AND DR JAVA Notes adapted from Introduction to Computing and Programming with Java: A Multimedia Approach by M. Guzdial and B. Ericson, and instructor materials prepared

### Useful Number Systems

Useful Number Systems Decimal Base = 10 Digit Set = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9} Binary Base = 2 Digit Set = {0, 1} Octal Base = 8 = 2 3 Digit Set = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7} Hexadecimal Base = 16 = 2

### Java Review (Essentials of Java for Hadoop)

Java Review (Essentials of Java for Hadoop) Have You Joined Our LinkedIn Group? What is Java? Java JRE - Java is not just a programming language but it is a complete platform for object oriented programming.

### Chapter 2: Elements of Java

Chapter 2: Elements of Java Basic components of a Java program Primitive data types Arithmetic expressions Type casting. The String type (introduction) Basic I/O statements Importing packages. 1 Introduction

### Translating to Java. Translation. Input. Many Level Translations. read, get, input, ask, request. Requirements Design Algorithm Java Machine Language

Translation Translating to Java Introduction to Computer Programming The job of a programmer is to translate a problem description into a computer language. You need to be able to convert a problem description

### Binary Search Trees (BST)

Binary Search Trees (BST) 1. Hierarchical data structure with a single reference to node 2. Each node has at most two child nodes (a left and a right child) 3. Nodes are organized by the Binary Search

### Example of a Java program

Example of a Java program class SomeNumbers static int square (int x) return x*x; public static void main (String[] args) int n=20; if (args.length > 0) // change default n = Integer.parseInt(args[0]);

### CSI 333 Lecture 1 Number Systems

CSI 333 Lecture 1 Number Systems 1 1 / 23 Basics of Number Systems Ref: Appendix C of Deitel & Deitel. Weighted Positional Notation: 192 = 2 10 0 + 9 10 1 + 1 10 2 General: Digit sequence : d n 1 d n 2...

### NUMBER SYSTEMS APPENDIX D. You will learn about the following in this appendix:

APPENDIX D NUMBER SYSTEMS You will learn about the following in this appendix: The four important number systems in computing binary, octal, decimal, and hexadecimal. A number system converter program

### Chapter 2: Problem Solving Using C++

Chapter 2: Problem Solving Using C++ 1 Objectives In this chapter, you will learn about: Modular programs Programming style Data types Arithmetic operations Variables and declaration statements Common

### Name: Class: Date: 9. The compiler ignores all comments they are there strictly for the convenience of anyone reading the program.

Name: Class: Date: Exam #1 - Prep True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. 1. Programming is the process of writing a computer program in a language that the computer can respond to

### Computer Science 281 Binary and Hexadecimal Review

Computer Science 281 Binary and Hexadecimal Review 1 The Binary Number System Computers store everything, both instructions and data, by using many, many transistors, each of which can be in one of two

### Summary. Pre requisition. Content Details: 1. Basics in C++

Summary C++ Language is one of the approaches to provide object-oriented functionality with C like syntax. C++ adds greater typing strength, scoping and other tools useful in object-oriented programming

### MAX = 5 Current = 0 'This will declare an array with 5 elements. Inserting a Value onto the Stack (Push) -----------------------------------------

=============================================================================================================================== DATA STRUCTURE PSEUDO-CODE EXAMPLES (c) Mubashir N. Mir - www.mubashirnabi.com

### Chapter 4 Operators & Arithmetic

Chapter 4 Operators & Arithmetic 4-1 Arithmetic in C++ Arithmetic expressions can be made up of constants, variables, operators and parentheses. The arithmetic operators in C++ are as follows + (addition)

### Introduction to Computers and Programming

16.070 Introduction to Computers and Programming March 14 Recitation 6 Spring 2002 Topics: Quick review of PS4 issues Fundamental Data types ASCII / Arithmetic Conversion Number Systems / Logical Operation

### INTRODUCTION TO FLOWCHARTING

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO FLOWCHARTING 1.0 Objectives 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Flowcharts 1.3 Types of Flowcharts 1.3.1 Types of flowchart 1.3.2 System flowcharts 1.4 Flowchart Symbols 1.5 Advantages of Flowcharts

### Language Fundamentals

Language Fundamentals 2 Exam Objectives Identify correctly constructed package declarations, import statements, class declarations (of all forms, including inner classes), interface declarations, method

### Java Basics: Data Types, Variables, and Loops

Java Basics: Data Types, Variables, and Loops If debugging is the process of removing software bugs, then programming must be the process of putting them in. - Edsger Dijkstra Plan for the Day Variables

1 2 Introduction to Java Applications 2.2 First Program in Java: Printing a Line of Text 2 Application Executes when you use the java command to launch the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) Sample program Displays

### Object Oriented Software Design

Object Oriented Software Design Introduction to Java - II Giuseppe Lipari http://retis.sssup.it/~lipari Scuola Superiore Sant Anna Pisa October 28, 2010 G. Lipari (Scuola Superiore Sant Anna) Introduction

### COMPUTER SCIENCE. Paper 1 (THEORY)

COMPUTER SCIENCE Paper 1 (THEORY) (Three hours) Maximum Marks: 70 (Candidates are allowed additional 15 minutes for only reading the paper. They must NOT start writing during this time) -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

### Computer is a binary digital system. Data. Unsigned Integers (cont.) Unsigned Integers. Binary (base two) system: Has two states: 0 and 1

Computer Programming Programming Language Is telling the computer how to do something Wikipedia Definition: Applies specific programming languages to solve specific computational problems with solutions

### Stacks. Stacks (and Queues) Stacks. q Stack: what is it? q ADT. q Applications. q Implementation(s) CSCU9A3 1

Stacks (and Queues) 1 Stacks Stack: what is it? ADT Applications Implementation(s) 2 CSCU9A3 1 Stacks and ueues A stack is a very important data structure in computing science. A stack is a seuence of

### The Fundamentals of C++

The Fundamentals of C++ Basic programming elements and concepts JPC and JWD 2002 McGraw-Hill, Inc. Program Organization Program statement Definition Declaration Action Executable unit Named set of program

### Storage Classes CS 110B - Rule Storage Classes Page 18-1 \handouts\storclas

CS 110B - Rule Storage Classes Page 18-1 Attributes are distinctive features of a variable. Data type, int or double for example, is an attribute. Storage class is another attribute. There are four storage

### Formatting Variables in C-Max 2.0

Formatting Variables in C-Max 2.0 One of the many new features in C-Max 2.0 is the enhanced formatting now available for variables. This new capability is available in two distinct areas of variable usage:

### Chapter 7D The Java Virtual Machine

This sub chapter discusses another architecture, that of the JVM (Java Virtual Machine). In general, a VM (Virtual Machine) is a hypothetical machine (implemented in either hardware or software) that directly

### The IC Language Specification. Spring 2006 Cornell University

The IC Language Specification Spring 2006 Cornell University The IC language is a simple object-oriented language that we will use in the CS413 project. The goal is to build a complete optimizing compiler

### Common Data Structures

Data Structures 1 Common Data Structures Arrays (single and multiple dimensional) Linked Lists Stacks Queues Trees Graphs You should already be familiar with arrays, so they will not be discussed. Trees

### Do not open this examination paper until instructed to do so. Section A: answer all the questions. Section B: answer all the questions.

N10/5/COMSC/HP1/ENG/TZ0/XX 88107011 Computer science HIGHER level Paper 1 Tuesday 16 November 2010 (afternoon) 2 hours 15 minutes INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES Do not open this examination paper until instructed

### Chapter 1 Java Program Design and Development

presentation slides for JAVA, JAVA, JAVA Object-Oriented Problem Solving Third Edition Ralph Morelli Ralph Walde Trinity College Hartford, CT published by Prentice Hall Java, Java, Java Object Oriented

### Object-Oriented Design Lecture 4 CSU 370 Fall 2007 (Pucella) Tuesday, Sep 18, 2007

Object-Oriented Design Lecture 4 CSU 370 Fall 2007 (Pucella) Tuesday, Sep 18, 2007 The Java Type System By now, you have seen a fair amount of Java. Time to study in more depth the foundations of the language,

### Sources: On the Web: Slides will be available on:

C programming Introduction The basics of algorithms Structure of a C code, compilation step Constant, variable type, variable scope Expression and operators: assignment, arithmetic operators, comparison,

### The PCAT Programming Language Reference Manual

The PCAT Programming Language Reference Manual Andrew Tolmach and Jingke Li Dept. of Computer Science Portland State University (revised October 8, 2004) 1 Introduction The PCAT language (Pascal Clone

### Moving from CS 61A Scheme to CS 61B Java

Moving from CS 61A Scheme to CS 61B Java Introduction Java is an object-oriented language. This document describes some of the differences between object-oriented programming in Scheme (which we hope you

### C Programming Dr. Hasan Demirel

C How to Program, H. M. Deitel and P. J. Deitel, Prentice Hall, 5 th edition (3 rd edition or above is also OK). Introduction to C Programming Dr. Hasan Demirel Programming Languages There are three types

### GETTING STARTED WITH C++ C++ BASICS - 1 -

- 1 - GETTING STARTED WITH C++ Programming is a core activity in the process of performing tasks or solving problems with the aid of a computer. An idealised picture is: PROBLEM COMPUTER SOLUTION Unfortunately

### Lecture 03 Bits, Bytes and Data Types

Lecture 03 Bits, Bytes and Data Types In this lecture Computer Languages Assembly Language The compiler Operating system Data and program instructions Bits, Bytes and Data Types ASCII table Data Types

### C++ Language Tutorial

cplusplus.com C++ Language Tutorial Written by: Juan Soulié Last revision: June, 2007 Available online at: http://www.cplusplus.com/doc/tutorial/ The online version is constantly revised and may contain

### AS-2261 M.Sc.(First Semester) Examination-2013 Paper -fourth Subject-Data structure with algorithm

AS-2261 M.Sc.(First Semester) Examination-2013 Paper -fourth Subject-Data structure with algorithm Time: Three Hours] [Maximum Marks: 60 Note Attempts all the questions. All carry equal marks Section A

### CmpSci 187: Programming with Data Structures Spring 2015

CmpSci 187: Programming with Data Structures Spring 2015 Lecture #12 John Ridgway March 10, 2015 1 Implementations of Queues 1.1 Linked Queues A Linked Queue Implementing a queue with a linked list is

### ()A Crash Course in Programming with C++ and the Ubuntu O.S. June 8, / 47

A Crash Course in Programming with C++ and the Ubuntu O.S. Dr. Daniel A. Ray MCS Dept UVa-Wise June 8, 2010 ()A Crash Course in Programming with C++ and the Ubuntu O.S. June 8, 2010 1 / 47 Outline What

### INDEX. C programming Page 1 of 10. 5) Function. 1) Introduction to C Programming

INDEX 1) Introduction to C Programming a. What is C? b. Getting started with C 2) Data Types, Variables, Constants a. Constants, Variables and Keywords b. Types of Variables c. C Keyword d. Types of C

### Data Structure [Question Bank]

Unit I (Analysis of Algorithms) 1. What are algorithms and how they are useful? 2. Describe the factor on best algorithms depends on? 3. Differentiate: Correct & Incorrect Algorithms? 4. Write short note:

### Lecture 1 Notes: Introduction

Introduction to C++ January 4, 2011 Massachusetts Institute of Technology 6.096 Lecture 1 Notes: Introduction 1 Compiled Languages and C++ 1.1 Why Use a Language Like C++? At its core, a computer is just

### 1.3 Data Representation

8628-28 r4 vs.fm Page 9 Thursday, January 2, 2 2:4 PM.3 Data Representation 9 appears at Level 3, uses short mnemonics such as ADD, SUB, and MOV, which are easily translated to the ISA level. Assembly

### Review of Number Systems Binary, Octal, and Hexadecimal Numbers and Two's Complement

Review of Number Systems Binary, Octal, and Hexadecimal Numbers and Two's Complement Topic 1: Binary, Octal, and Hexadecimal Numbers The number system we generally use in our everyday lives is a decimal

### 6.087 Lecture 3 January 13, 2010

6.087 Lecture 3 January 13, 2010 Review Blocks and Compound Statements Control Flow Conditional Statements Loops Functions Modular Programming Variable Scope Static Variables Register Variables 1 Review:

### C AND C++ PROGRAMMING

C AND C++ PROGRAMMING Bharathidasan University A Courseware prepared by University Informatics Centre Part I - Programming in C Getting Started This courseware is intended to be an introduction to C programming

### JDK 1.5 Updates for Introduction to Java Programming with SUN ONE Studio 4

JDK 1.5 Updates for Introduction to Java Programming with SUN ONE Studio 4 NOTE: SUN ONE Studio is almost identical with NetBeans. NetBeans is open source and can be downloaded from www.netbeans.org. I

### Decimal Numbers: Base 10 Integer Numbers & Arithmetic

Decimal Numbers: Base 10 Integer Numbers & Arithmetic Digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 Example: 3271 = (3x10 3 ) + (2x10 2 ) + (7x10 1 )+(1x10 0 ) Ward 1 Ward 2 Numbers: positional notation Number