1 Development of the FVE Model Curricula for Animal Welfare VlatkoIlieskiUniversity SsCyril and Methodius Skopje Faculty for veterinary medicine
2 Clear Need for Veterinary Expertise Society Increased interest in how we use and care for animals General agreement that we want good welfare, but differing opinions about what it looks like Search for trusted experts Photo: United Egg Producers Photo: Nature Photo: New York Times
3 Clear Need for Veterinary Expertise Science Questions about animals welfare have spurned research into how to measure it These multidisciplinary questions require multidisciplinary answers, including from veterinary medicine Veterinarians are on the forefront to advise, educate, and give science-based info
4 Clear Need for Veterinary Expertise Policy Demands for improvement lead to voluntary and regulatory standards with performance, ethical, economic, legal and trade implications Veterinary expertise to ensure we get it right
5 An Opportunity FVE recognize veterinary obligation and opportunity and issue statement on The Roles of Veterinarians in Ensuring Good Welfare OIE ad hoc Working Group on OIE ad hoc Working Group on Veterinary Education recognizes core importance of attention to animal welfare in the delivery of national veterinary services
6 An Opportunity for veterinarians Assessment Monitoring Advice Audit Inspection CLIENTS Animal Keepers Retailers (multi-national) Governments (National/International)
7 But FVE also recognized gaps Animal welfare education in veterinary schools appears inconsistent or lacking some aspects No cohesive expectations for what should be provided Several previous models, but insufficient uptake Need for repository of resources for faculty
8 Curriculum Planning Groups Established Involving all European veterinary umbrella associations: Federation of Veterinarians of Europe (lead) European Association of Veterinary Education Establishments European Board of Veterinary Education European Research project AWARE
9 Members of working group D.B. Morton (Chair, UK) M. Sant'Ana (Portugal) F. Ohl (Netherlands) V. Ilieski (Macedonia) D. Simonin (European Commission) L. Keeling (Sweden) A.C. Wöhr (Germany) B. Zemljic (Slovenia) D. Neuhaus (Germany) S. Pesie (Netherlands) N. de Briyne (Belgium) Also special thanks to all peer reviewers & to all FVE & EAEVE members
10 European Directive 2005/ 36/ EC
12 CURICULUM DEVELOPMENT -top down approach- Learning Outcomes Learning Objectives Statements of what a learner knows, understands and is able to do on completion of a learning process and are defined in terms of competences. Learning Objectives indicate the general content, direction and intentions behind the module from the teacher s viewpoint. Syllabus The learning contents of a curricular course.
13 Developing the Curricula: FVE Map current level of animal welfare teaching in EU (via AWARE) Describe Day One Competencies (learning objectives), topics, methods Survey proposed curriculum Peer review final report Adoption report Veterinary Profession & EU faculties To be inserted in school evaluation system
14 All EU faculties have some animal welfare teaching Bachelors/Masters levels (10->100hr) 83% compulsory into ours syllabus Focus: Ethology, legislation
15 Assessments /Information FVE, AWARE surveyed 45 European veterinary faculties Results Animal welfare consistently identified as top contemporary issue (82% very Important ) 44% have pre-existing courses at some level (undergraduate, veterinary school, graduate) that can deliver competency-related information 93% agreed with learning outcome Only 44% delivered them (73% in the next 5 year) Wide variation in core/elective, time spent, and competency assessment
16 Yes this subject is covered No this subject is not covered I don't know Looking at your present curriculum (in AW or general?) please indicate whether the following subjects are learning outcomes(day 1 skills).
17 Importance of animal welfare in the curriculum If you are not already reaching the Day 1 competences, in how many years do you thinkyoucoulddoso? If you still would like to strengthen animal welfare teaching in your curriculum, what is mainlystoppingyoutodoso? Already 1 13,6% 18,2% ,1% 18,2% 77,2% years 4 5 4,5% 13,6% Unknown 0 22,7% Lack of qualified teachers Lack of space in curriculum Low priority for AW Financial difficulties Difficulties practical sessions Other reasons Very important Important
18 Importance of animal welfare in the curriculum Looking at the Syllabus, Learning Objectives and Learning Outcomes, do you feel these would cover the important day 1 competences in animal welfare? Do you think the learning outcomes are already taught today at your faculty? Yes, certainly 26,2% Yes 44,8 % Yes 66,7% No 7,1% No 55,2 % No, certainly not
19 Importance of animal welfare in the curriculum Please rank the importance to veterinary medical education of the following contemporary issues associations with animals How important is a student s knowledge of animal welfare to your veterinary faculty? animal welfare 2, ,6% 37,1% food safety 2, ,9% 8 intensive agriculture 3, ,4% biotechnology 3,53 4 conservation 1 -VeryImportant 5 -Unimportant 3, Very important Important Moderately important Of little importance 0% Unimportant
20 Agreed Day one Competencies 1. Appraise concepts and framework of animal welfare 2. Evaluate the biological basis of welfare requirements 3. Apply an animal welfare assessment to various categories of animals 4. Formulate and communicate an informed view on AW metters 5. Place animal welfare in social and ethical context 6. Place AW in a legal and professional context
21 Examples of Topics Related to Competencies Animal welfare concepts (body, mind, nature) and frameworks (5 freedoms, 3Rs, ethical matrix) Motivation and cognition Sentience (pain, emotions) Stress (eustress, distress) Species-specific behavior of individuals and groups Genetic/environmental interactions Adaptive capacity Techniques for assessment of welfare and risk Objective observation and recording Communication strategies Housing, husbandry, and transport; facility design Handling and restraint Pain recognition and management Humane endpoints and palliative care Cultural, religious and political contexts Economic and environmental impacts Duty of care, best interests and ethical dilemmas Legal requirements and voluntary obligations Contemporary questions and emerging issues Many competences tie in with traditional Day-One competencies, e.g. clinical competence and communication, but might require novel inputs.
22 Welfare FVE News & Publications Position Papers Website for full report and also for Executive summary MS to complete please 9 th IVBM, ECAWBM Day, Lisbon, Portugal, 27 th Sept,
23 RECOMMENDATIONS 1. The FVE and EAEVE should actively encourage all European schools to implement these Day One Competences and the corresponding learning objectives, and to have them incorporated and evaluated through the EAEVE/FVE accreditation system of veterinary schools. 2. European veterinary schools should ensure adequate time, staff and practical sessions for teaching animal welfare science, ethics and law.
24 RECOMMENDATIONS 3. Animal welfare science, ethics and law teaching should be delivered in such a way that the study subject is clearly identifiable in its own right, while being integrated throughout the veterinary course. 4. Animal Welfare science, ethics and law should be a core subject, and examinable with the same pass/fail criteria as other core subjects.
25 RECOMMENDATIONS 5. European veterinary schools should encourage cutting edge animal welfare research as this will attract both students and top quality staff. 6. CPD providers should incorporate advances in welfare, ethics and law into their programmes through the principles of life-long learning. 7. All staff, as role models, should be continually updated in Animal Welfare.
26 Methodology of teaching Who teaches? Local expertise not always available Opportunity for collaboration with other departments e.g. ethology, animal science, ethics, law Who to teach? Undergraduates, postgraduates stakholders, researchers All staff, as role models, should continuously improve competence in animal welfare (per theory and application). Knowledge conveyed needs to be examined to assure competence
27 Methodology of teaching Applied Ethology Basic ethology Stress physiology Welfare assessment Legal issues of FAW 0.00 Percentage Main Focus of the course
28 Philosophy on Animal Welfare Education Photo: ViEW Comprehensive, integrated throughout curriculum, adaptable [and clearly identifiable (FVE)] Evidence-based, but recognize importance of broader social discussion Veterinarian as educator, implementer, and researcher Veterinarians key intermediaries between animals, owners, and public Veterinarians have an opportunity and obligation to provide education that promotes animal care practices that are welfare friendly Veterinarians have a duty to assist in implementing existing standards and must seek continual improvement in standards Veterinarians have an opportunity and obligation to advance animal welfare knowledge through research
29 Opportunities Beyond the Scope of Curriculum Project Extracurricular education for stakeholders Continuing education for graduate veterinarians Specialization
30 Animal welfare physical health plus mental health Dynamic Multidisciplinary