1 Abstract Shake Hands to Bedevil: Securing with Wearable Technology ers seldom encrypt, sometimes because they do not see the need to do this, and sometimes because they do not know how to or are prevented from doing so by the complexity of the facilitating interface. The reality is that encryption is effortful and has to be deliberately undertaken. We propose the use of a wearable device called a Weaver (WEArable EncrypteR). Weaver will be designed to be a mechanism for exchanging encrypted s that is as simple and effortless as possible to use. Our design philosophy was inspired by the industrial designer Naoto Fukusawa 1 who talks about design dissolving into behaviour. We want to arrive at seamless secure communication between people who initially meet in person to establish a trusting relationship by weaving their devices. This can be subsequently exploited to facilitate the exchange of secure s between the wearers of the Weavers. Keywords Tangible interaction, wearables, communications security 1 Introduction Encryption can be used to prevent casual snooping and to foil dragnet surveillance. Following the Snowden leaks about the reach of NSA surveillance , the public should now be aware that their s are no longer only read by the intended recipient. Yet very few ers encrypt their s. If people can presumably appreciate the need for encryption but do not act to encrypt, one has to examine the mechanisms for encryption to consider whether they are (1) available to the average user and (2) easy enough to use. The answer to (1) is surely that many clients do not offer this functionality in a way that is obvious to the average end user. This is especially the case with webmail clients which appear to focus on a minimalist approach to ease of use for the benefit of the large numbers of non-technical users and advertising income. However, consider a user that has the wherewithal to encrypt their s in their client. How easy is it to use such encryption? There is strong evidence that encryption mechanisms are anything but usable. This issue was first raised in the seminal study of PGP by Whitten and Tygar  Subsequent papers confirm that the usability problems still perplex , leaving personal communication open to snooping by many kinds of adversaries. If encryption is to be more widely used we have to make it (1) more widely accessible to the average user, and (2) ensure that it is easy and simple to use. Our proposal in this paper is to use wearable technology towards achieving these goals. 1
2 Figure 1: sent in the clear The approach that we take is that of tangible security, which was identified by Bødker et al. as a fruitful area for security research . We look at the possibility of integrating secure into existing social activities through wearable technology, applying human-human interaction principles to security interaciton scenarios. The proposals presented in this paper are inspired by the historical use of seal rings in securing letters with wax, a re-interpretation of the modern practice of cryptographic handshakes, and cypherpunks who walk around with their OpenPGP keys strapped around their necks in a USB SIM adapter. Our contributions in this paper are: an overview of the research into wearable security tokens; identification of handshakes and sealing as secure communication protocols; and suggestions for realising this scheme in reality. 2 Related Work Given the increased interest in wearable technology in recent years, as well as the shift to mobile technologies the area of wearable security in a interesting research area. A variety of different wearable authentication technology has been published. There is a wide variety of application domains and device architectures. Application domains range from health to fashion, in form factors like pills 2, handbags , and rings . We are not aware of any work that uses wearable technology to make security more usable for end users. Early work in the area of wearable user identification is that of radio-frequency identification (RFID). Contact wearable user identification work was done by Matsushita et al , showing that capacitative touch (explored before by Post et al ) can be used to signal a user s identify to devices that they touch. Various application areas for these kinds of technologies were explored. Ebringer et al  found that devices could be secured by putting a leash to connect the primary device to an auxilary device. If the leash broke the primary device could be locked. Another concept is the use of a wearable token for providing transparent encryption by Noble and Corner [13, 2]. The use of wearable technology for carrying messages which can also be used for contraband by Glance et al , and using wearables for transporting trust instead of content by Schneider et al  and Satyanarayanan . 2 Proteus ingestible sensor:
3 Metaphors have been long used in the human-computer area. Ishii and Ullmer  have presented phicons, which are physical icons that can represent abstract digital entities. A varied field of prototypes and products is built on these wearable authentication concepts. WearableKey  prototyped user identification through contact, based on capacitive touch and a wristwatch. Vu et al [19, 20] produced a signet ring that can serve as a personal touch-identification token by transmitting a short message to a touchscreen-enabled device, and Roth et al  did the same for an infra-red touch table. Mayrhofer and Gellersen  presented a way of pairing devices based on the entropy generated from shaking them at the same time. Doris is a cryptographic token in the shape of a bracelet meant for Singaporeans . Telebeads, by Labrune and Mackay , are a design idea for a Bluetooth ring that acts a mnemonic artifact embodying and communicating with a social media contact. MC10 is an electronic tattoo usable for contactless authentication 3, Motorola Skip is a token for quickly unlocking a phone 4, NFC Ring authenticates the wearer via near-field communication 5, and the JavaRing is an early example of a token in the form factor of a ring 6. 3 Secure Communications Interaction Protocols To make secure more usable we propose three secure communications interaction protocols: Handshake, Seal, and Unseal. The intention is to ease secure communication by building on familiarity with in-person trust establishment and the centuries-old practice of sealing letters. Handshake This is the key exchange stage. Instead of having to find a way to securely exchange keys online, this protocol requires people to meet in person, in order to establish trust. Two prospective ers will exchange an encryption key with either a metaphorical or genuine handshake. In essence, their Weavers will have to be in close enough proximity to each other, having been instructed by their owner to agree on a bespoke key for their subsequent interactions. The wearable device will store the key for use in subsequent Seal" and Unseal" steps. Exchange of keys could happen automatically, but may be user directed to prevent malicious deception. The protocol is as follows, when Tamara and Ted wish to send encrypted s: 1. Tamara and Ted meet in person; 2. They activate their Weavers and bring them close enough to each other so that the devices can communicate; 3. The Weavers generate a key for this relationship and store this key together with the identifier of the other Weaver, and the address of the other person. 3 Patent US 8,389,862 B2 and dinoj/smartcard/javaring.html
4 Figure 2: Handshake Seal Once users have woven their devices" and successfully agreed a key, the aim is to make subsequent communications as simple as possible. The mere proximity of the Weaver will be taken as an indicator that encryption should be enabled. Alternatively, sealing can be made an explicit act through a physical sealing motion, involving gestures, another device, or clicking on an icon. The metaphor of sealing does not translate one-to-one to cryptographically secured communication, but it should be understandable enough for most users. It is thought to prevent confusion about the use of signing versus encryption, as the default setting for sealing would be to encrypt and sign. When Tamara wishes to send an encrypted to Ted, she: 1. Opens the Weaver-Enabled Client; 2. Selects Ted s name as the recipient; 3. Composes the ; 4. Seals the either with a gesture, or by clicking on an icon; 5. Clicks on the Send" button. Figure 3: Seal (encrypting and signing )
5 Unseal When the user receives an encrypted message he/she will be notified, and asked to signal that decryption should occur. The unsealing motion of traditional wax based seals can be employed. Optionally, all decryption and verification of can be done automatically. Additionally, to represent the sender, an icon/symbol could be displayed on a trusted display. Tim receives an encrypted from Tamara, so he: 1. Opens the Weaver-enabled Client; 2. Clicks on the in the inbox; 3. Clicks on the unseal" icon or uses a gesture to signal that unsealing is required; 4. Opens and reads the plaintext . Figure 4: Unseal (decrypting and verifying ) 4 Physical Realisation Grosse and Upadhyay already identified the need for more appealing form-factors for authentication tokens, and highlighted jewellery as one potential candidate, possibly powered by RFCOMM/Bluetooth or NFC . In this section we propose a device that supports key exchange for bootstrapping trust for usable secure communication. It must be admitted that we do not yet know how feasible the design is with current technology, or whether the protocols and algorithms are available to fully support the proposed interactions. Design Considerations The design space and solution space for such a device is large, and includes many aspects: communication design (e.g. antenna, body, light, sound), computational power, timing, algorithms, power, storage, cost, desirability, demand, safety, size, management. In a real-world inplementation of the interaction patterns, trade-offs between all of these aspects will have to be made depending on the where and how the device will be used. Here we discuss these aspects in more detail, before describing concrete implementations proposals in the next section.
6 Model of the context of use The threat model for the device is that the internet backbone is monitored, hardware random number generators might be backdoored, and end-points could be compromised. The initial key exchange might be observed, but we see this as less of an issue. The utility model is that the device makes encryption easier and safer by performing encryption on the wearable device, by making trust verification easier, and by allowing keys to be used across end-nodes (such as phones, tables, and laptops).the usability model is a device that should make encrypted as easy to use as non-encrypted for a large classes of use cases. Form factor The size of the device can be something like a ring, a wristband, or a smart watch. When the handshaking motion is not directly observed by the device, a form factor like a pendant or even smart glasses is also possible. We think that a hand/wrist worn device is best due to communication range considerations, and for preventing observability of the handshake. Given the size of current microprocessors (e.g. low power ARM or ARV architectures) the patterns should be realisable in a ring shaped device, although power constrains will be a real concern. A wrist band will be more feasible, especially for a prototype version. Key exchange The key exchange and encryption can build on both public key cryptography and on symmetric encryption. If a secure way of sharing keys can be implemented, then public key encryption might not be necessary. Due to key sizes, power constraints, and ease of implementation protection, the use of symmetric keys seems most appropriate. A remaining issue is how to transfer keys securely. We propose transmitting them directly through some covert physical channel, possibly enhanced with input from sensors that are in similar physical locations, e.g. building on the speed with which hands are shaken. Due to privacy considerations it is important that the device not broadcast continuously, which is also important for battery savings. Communication channel The communication between the two (or more) devices could take the form of ultrasound, infrared light, radio-frequency communication, capacitive sensing, haptics (vibrations), etcetera. Physical channels that seem fit for private transfer of information are ultrasound or infrared in the cusped hands of a handshake. Another option that seems appropriate is the use of capacitive touch, although a proper way of doing multiplexing within such an application would have to be developed and tested. Issues with all of these channels are the data rate that could be supported. Additionally, there may be issues with the channel between the PC and the Weaver. Protocol For the communication protocol we propose a simple tag-length-value protocol, along with a checksum, running over a serial line. It could be that different channels are needed for PC to ring communication. For half-duplex communication some form of collision detection is necessary.
7 Device security Securing the device against theft is not the primary goal, although this would certainly be possible by using something like a smart card combined with a PIN mechanism. Alternative mechanisms for user authentication may be fingerprints or other biometrics, or device unlocking with the help of externatal input devices such as a laptop. End user interaction The interaction between the device and the user can work through different channels. One logical way of providing feedback to the user is through haptic feedback, i.e. vibrations. Another low cost and visible way would be the use of LEDs for (colour) coding, which can also support crude animation. Input from the user to the device can also take place in many different ways. The use of gesture recognition for the handshake, and automation for the decryption seems reasonable to us. To prevent decryption of messages forwarded by a malicious device, a simple pairing mechanism through a button press seems sufficient. Activation of the device might occur through an authenticated sequence from a PC, phone, or tablet, or maybe even based in a gesture by the user. Realisability Given current technology and the above considerations, it seems feasible to implement the proposed interaction patterns. A concrete description of how such a system might be implemented is given below. Note that an important aspect of the feasibility of the system is cost. We present both a system that is built on top of existing devices as a software feature, as well as an approach that involves custom hardware design. The former may be cheaper, but can lead to decreased flexibility. Proposal for the System Design Here we present and discuss a proposal for a high-level and low-level system design that implements the handshake, seal, and unseal interaction protocols. Ideally we will reuse existing projects and infrastructure as much as possible. We can build the system on top of existing cryptographic standards such as AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) and SHA (Secure Hashing Algorithm), which can be used for key derivation and message authentication codes. From a high-level perspective, two Weavers will create key material, which they exchange and use to derive a shared secret. This will be the basis for sessions keys used for encryption and authentication of . The low-level view involves specific communication methods for transferring the key between the Weavers, as well as for enabling Weaver to PC as well as PC to Weaver communication. For communication between the Weavers the observability aspect is important, while for communication with the PC interoperability is paramount. We think there are several possible candidates for that can serve as implementation of the Weaver concept. A smart watch with Bluetooth would have easy communication with PCs and phones, although observability of key exchange might be a problem. Rings with infrared are better at hiding the key exchange, but the channel to and from a PC will be more difficult. Additionally data rates might be an issue. In order to communicate with the PC the use of ultrasound is a possibility.
8 5 Discussion Like all devices, our solution is not perfect, and there are several limitations and open questions related to the realisability and usability of the protocols described in this paper. There are several specific aspects that need to be taken into account to make the tangible security patterns feasible. These can be summarised as the following questions: do users want it, can it be made, and will users buy it? We will pay special attention to these aspects in future work. User acceptance The acceptability of our proposed key management protocol and implementation is of vital importance if it is to adopted by end-users. Various facets are likely to influence the acceptability of the device. Firstly, the device needs to be considered wearable: bulkiness and attractiveness is clearly a concern. Secondly, it needs to be socially acceptable: the handshake is an interaction pattern specific to western cultures, and other cultures may not want to adopt it because of social norms (e.g. bowing is the norm in Japan, and shaking hands with the opposite sex is not the norm in many parts of the world). Thirdly, some way of dealing with lost or discharged devices may be needed, e.g. a backup solution. Users are prone to losing keys, and there is a risk that they will lose the Weaver. Additionally, a fallback may be needed when the device has no power and urgent needs to be read. Technical feasibility A big question is whether current technology allows for the interaction protocols and form factors described in previous section, and if not, when we can expect the technology to be available. Major issues in a lot of wearable technologies are processing power and battery lifetime. This is related to user acceptance: the device needs to be technically feasible from a power management perspective while at the same time falling within a comfortable size for the user. As we have described in the realisability section, a wristband form factor should be feasible for a prototype that will run for an average working day. With further improvements in technology and engineering, a ring form factor also seems feasible. Besides the issue of manufacturability, there are other technical issues that are just as important. For a security device that stores keys for long-term communication with other users, compatibility is a major concern. Additionally, given a changing security landscape, some sort of upgradeability seems wise. Deployment Academic research is generally not directly interested in the economic viability of the research, or the ability of end-users to deploy the solution themselves. While the interaction protocols might be applied in a limited contexts by individuals, for the protocols to have a bigger impact they will need to see widespread adoption. We have discussed the issue of people that do not encrypt in the introduction, and it is still a major open problem. We see this paper is one step in the direction of enabling easier secure communication. We plan to further explore the barriers towards the adoption of encrypted communication in the future.
9 6 Conclusions We have presented an overview of prior work in wearable encryption and authentication technologies, showing that it is a promising research area. We have extended this work with our proposed interaction protocols for making encryption easier to use, and have provided thoughts on how these protocols may be implemented. As described in previous sections, we intend build a prototype for the interaction protocols. We will fine-tune and test it through participatory design and enactment, inspired by . This will also contribute to the further expansion of tangible interaction protocols for making security easier for the end-user. Additionally, we are looking to explore the kinds of interactions that could be supported when users wear multiple rings, as well as looking at the associated technical challenges. Other future work may look at extending the concepts to other situations and applications, for example making the web of trust between people tangible, or tackling the problem of ATM security. References  S. Bødker, N. R. Mathiasen, and M. G. Petersen. Modeling is not the answer!: Designing for usable security. Interactions, 19(5):54 57,  M. Corner and B. Noble. Protecting file systems with transient authentication. Wireless Networks, 11(1-2):7 19,  T. Ebringer, Y. Zheng, and P. Thorne. Parasitic authentication. In Proc. Working Conference on Smart Card Research and Advanced Applications, pages , Norwell, MA, USA, Kluwer Academic Publishers.  N. Glance, D. Snowdon, and J.-L. Meunier. Pollen: Using people as a communication medium. Computer Networks, 35(4): ,  V. Gratzer and D. Naccache. Trust on a nationwide scale. Security Privacy, IEEE, 5(5):69 71,  G. Greenwald, E. MacAskill, and L. Poitras. Edward Snowden: The whistleblower behind the NSA surveillance revelations. The Guardian, 9,  E. Grosse and M. Upadhyay. Authentication at scale. IEEE Security and Privacy, 11:15 22,  H. Ishii and B. Ullmer. Tangible bits: Towards seamless interfaces between people, bits and atoms. In Proc. CHI, CHI 97, pages , New York, NY, USA, ACM.  J.-B. Labrune and W. Mackay. Telebeads: Social network mnemonics for teenagers. In Proceedings of the 2006 Conference on Interaction Design and Children, IDC 06, pages 57 64, New York, NY, USA, ACM.  N. R. Mathiasen and S. Bødker. Experiencing security in interaction design. In Proc. CHI, CHI 11, pages , New York, NY, USA, ACM.
10  N. Matsushita, S. Tajima, Y. Ayatsuka, and J. Rekimoto. Wearable key: Device for personalizing nearby environment. In Proc. ISWC, ISWC 00, pages 119, Washington, DC, USA, IEEE Computer Society.  R. Mayrhofer and H. Gellersen. Shake well before use: Authentication based on accelerometer data. In A. LaMarca, M. Langheinrich, and K. Truong, editors, Pervasive Computing, volume 4480 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages Springer Berlin Heidelberg,  B. D. Noble and M. D. Corner. The case for transient authentication. In ACM SIGOPS European Workshop, EW 10, pages 24 29, New York, NY, USA, ACM.  E. Post, M. Reynolds, M. Gray, J. Paradiso, and N. Gershenfeld. Intrabody buses for data and power. In Wearable Computers, 1997, pages 52 55,  V. Roth, P. Schmidt, and B. Güldenring. The IR ring: Authenticating users touches on a multi-touch display. In Proceedings of the 23Nd Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, UIST 10, pages , New York, NY, USA, ACM.  M. Satyanarayanan. Caching trust rather than content. In Proc. Workshop on ACM SIGOPS European Workshop, EW 9, pages , New York, NY, USA, ACM.  J. Schneider, G. Kortuem, J. Jager, S. Fickas, and Z. Segall. Disseminating trust information in wearable communities. Personal Ubiquitous Comput., 4(4): , Jan  S. Sheng, L. Broderick, C. A. Koranda, and J. J. Hyland. Why Johnny still can t encrypt: Evaluating the usability of encryption software. In Symposium On Usable Privacy and Security,  T. Vu, A. Baid, S. Gao, M. Gruteser, R. Howard, J. Lindqvist, P. Spasojevic, and J. Walling. Distinguishing users with capacitive touch communication. In Proc. Mobicom, Mobicom 12, pages , New York, NY, USA, ACM.  T. Vu and M. Gruteser. Personal touch-identification tokens. Pervasive Computing, IEEE, 12(2):10 13,  A. Whitten and J. D. Tygar. Why Johnny can t encrypt: A usability evaluation of PGP 5.0. In Proc. USENIX Sec, volume 99. McGraw-Hill,  Z. Yan, Y. Chen, and P. Zhang. An approach of secure and fashionable recognition for pervasive face-to-face social communications. In WiMob 2012, pages , 2012.
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