1 Financial performance The financial results have been presented on both an International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and a European Embedded Value (EEV) basis. Results on EEV basis The Group has achieved an EEV operating profit of 213m in the year, an increase of 45% over the 2007 figure of 147m. The 2008 result included a new business contribution of 52m, an increase of 6% on the prior year. When grossed up for proprietary tax at 28% ( %) to aid comparability with quoted companies, the new business contribution was 64m ( m). The EEV result after tax was a loss of 762m (2007 profit of 173m). However, this is excluding 198m of goodwill, intangible assets, and other items arising from the Resolution transaction generated under IFRS acquisition accounting, which are not capable of being recognised under EEV accounting, despite representing genuine economic value for the Group. The principal cause of the loss after tax on an EEV basis has been the losses experienced in the investment markets. Being a mutual our results reflect the full impact of the investment performance of our with-profits funds, as compared to a proprietary company where, typically, the impact of the investment performance of with profits funds is restricted to 10% in the shareholder results. Results on IFRS basis The IFRS result for the year was a loss after tax of 432m (2007 profit of 130m). As with the EEV results the principal driver of the result for the year is the impact of the investment markets. As with the EEV results the impact of the investment return on our with profits fund is greater than that of a comparable proprietary company. Despite the significant turmoil in the investment markets the Group has maintained a substantial unallocated divisible surplus (UDS) at the 31 December 2008 of 1.7billion ( billion). Capital management Royal London has maintained a healthy capital position throughout the year. Both our regulatory and realistic capital measures have reduced due to the falls experienced in the investment markets and from the acquisition accounting related to the Resolution transaction. Under the regulatory capital basis, goodwill and all intangible assets, including the value of in-force business (VIF) acquired under the Resolution transaction, are not capable of being recognised as admissible assets. At 31 December 2008 the Group had a regulatory surplus of 0.8 billion as compared to 1.9 billion at the end of At 31 December 2008, the Group had 1.7bn of VIF, goodwill and other intangible assets, for which no allowance is made in the regulatory valuation. Our realistic capital has reduced, reflecting the impact of the investment markets. As with our regulatory capital, our realistic capital position has also been adversely affected by the Resolution transaction. However the impact on the realistic figure is less pronounced, as the value of acquired VIF is recognised under the realistic basis. At 31 December 2008 the group had excess realistic capital of 1.2 billion ( billion).
2 Investment performance Collapses in the banking sector, significant falls in UK equity and property markets, dramatic widening in corporate bond spreads, falling interest rates and the looming fear of economic recession resulted in an unprecedented set of circumstances during These factors had a direct impact on the investment performance of the Royal London funds. The impact on UK equity markets has been particularly significant with the FTSE 100 falling by more than 30% during the year, and with financial sectors recording particularly heavy losses. Similarly, corporate bond markets were hit hard as confidence in credit worthiness and performance all but vanished. The risk of default rates rising and contracting liquidity in the market resulted in significant increases in credit spreads and substantial falls in bond values. The commercial property market continued to struggle and substantial reductions in property valuations were recorded during the second half of the year. Government bonds held up well during the year with positive returns in excess of 12% recorded as interest rates fell and investors sought out more secure investments. The table below summarises the investment mix of the Royal London Long Term Fund (RLLTF) and the Scottish Life Closed Fund (SLLTF): RLLTF % SLLTF % UK equities Overseas equities Property Bonds and other Cash Royal London Long Term Fund The Royal London Long Term Fund recorded a negative return of 29.9% (2007 positive 5.8%) on UK equities, as compared to the benchmark of 29.9% (2007 positive 5.3%). The return on UK bonds was a negative of 2.7% (2007 positive 1.9%) as compared to the benchmark of 3.1% ( %). This reflects our overweight position in financials as compared to the benchmark. Properties recorded a fall of 21.5% (2007 fall of 2.7%) reflecting the downturn in the UK commercial property market, against a benchmark of a fall of 22.5% (2007 fall of 5.5%). Overall the fund recorded a negative return of -15.2% (2007 positive 3.9%) for the year, compared to the negative benchmark return of -13.3% (2007 positive 3.2%).
3 Scottish Life Closed Fund The Scottish Life Closed Fund recorded a negative return of -30.2% (2008 positive 5.9%) on UK equities, compared to the benchmark of -29.9% (2007 positive 5.3%). The return on UK bonds was 1.0% ( %) as compared to the benchmark of 6.5% ( %). Properties recorded a fall of 18.9% (2007 fall of 2.2%) against a benchmark of a fall of 22.5% (2007 fall of 5.5%). Overall the fund recorded a positive return of 3.6% ( %) for the year against its benchmark of 0.1% ( %).
4 EEV and IFRS financial information The results for the Royal London Group for the year ended 31 December 2008 are summarised below in two sections. The first section provides an overview of the Group s EEV results for the year, whilst the second section presents the Group s statutory income statement and balance sheet on an IFRS basis. European Embedded Value supplementary information Consolidated income statement EEV basis for the year ended 31 December Notes restated m m Contribution from new business (h) (i) Profit from existing business (h) (ii) Expected return Operating experience variances 7 (12) Operating assumption changes (22) (26) Expected return on opening net worth (h) (iii) Profit on uncovered business (h) (iv) Other items (h) (v) 14 (32) Operating profit before tax Economic experience variances (h) (vi) (767) (121) Economic assumption changes (h) (vii) Movement in pension scheme surplus (h) (viii) (47) 77 Financing costs (h) (ix) (40) (25) Enhancements to policyholder benefits (h) (x) - (42) Impact of acquisition of Resolution businesses (h) (xi) (198) - Other items (h) (xii) EEV profit before tax (810) 181 Attributed tax credit/(charge) (h) (xiii) 48 (8) EEV profit after tax (762) 173
5 Consolidated Balance Sheet - EEV basis as at 31 December 2008 Assets 2008 m 2007 restated m Assets held in closed funds 7,364 7,462 Assets backing non-participating liabilities 11,453 10,253 Reinsured liabilities Assets backing participating liabilities and net worth UK equities 1,467 2,671 Overseas equities Land and buildings 811 1,092 Approved fixed interest securities 1, Other fixed interest securities 1,302 1,260 Other assets 1,398 1,141 Value of in-force business 1,231 1,006 Pension scheme surplus Total 27,195 26,856 Liabilities Liabilities in closed funds 7,364 7,462 Non-participating liabilities 11,453 10,253 Reinsured liabilities Participating liabilities 4,857 5,827 Current liabilities 1, Total 25,759 24,658 Embedded Value Net worth 115 1,055 Value of in-force business 1,231 1,006 Pension scheme surplus Total 1,436 2,198 Value of in-force business - EEV basis as at 31 December restated m m Value of in-force business before allowance for burn-through 1,266 1,111 and capital costs Burn-through cost (16) (70) Cost of capital (19) (35) Value of in-force business 1,231 1,006
6 Notes to the EEV supplementary information (a) Basis of preparation The EEV results presented in this document have been prepared in accordance with the EEV Principles and the Additional Guidance issued in They provide supplementary information for the year ended 31 December 2008 and should be read in conjunction with the Group s IFRS results. These contain information regarding the Group s financial statements prepared in accordance with IFRS issued by the International Accounting Standards Board and adopted for use in the European Union (EU). The EEV Principles and Guidance were designed for use by proprietary companies to assess the value of the firm to its shareholders. As a mutual, Royal London has no shareholders. Instead we regard our members as the nearest equivalent to shareholders and have interpreted the EEV Principles and Guidance accordingly. With-profits policies held by members do not generally contribute to the value of in-force business. However, the liabilities associated with these contracts are deducted from total assets to arrive at net worth. Hence, any movement in liabilities not matched by a corresponding movement in assets will change the net worth and flow through the income statement. The reported embedded value provides an estimate of Royal London s value to its members. The 2007 results have been restated to allow better comparability with These changes are to remove an inconsistency between the investment expenses forecast to be charged to the covered business and the related income recognised by RLAM and an adjustment to reallocate development costs between ongoing and exceptional. The impact has been to increase the value of the in-force business as at 31 December 2007 by 34m. There has been no impact on the 2007 EEV profit after tax. In addition, there have been some minor presentational changes to the 2007 consolidated income statement, which have no net impact. The values of the new businesses acquired from Resolution are incorporated into the reported embedded value as, apart from Scottish Provident International Life Assurance (SPILA), they were transferred into Royal London on 29 December 2008 under Part VII of the Financial Services and Markets Act Phoenix Life Assurance Limited (PLAL) and SPILA were acquired by Royal London on 1 August 2008 and 3 June 2008 respectively and operating experience since those dates has been incorporated into the EEV consolidated income statement. To the extent that the values of all the acquired businesses taken credit for in the EEV differs from the price paid, largely related to goodwill and other intangible assets which cannot be taken credit for under EEV principles, the impact is shown in a separate line of the consolidated income statement. (b) EEV methodology (i) Overview The EEV basis of reporting is designed to recognise profit as it is earned over the term of the policy. The total profit recognised over the lifetime of the policy is the same as that recognised under the IFRS basis of reporting, but the timing of recognition is different. For the purposes of EEV reporting, the Group has adopted a market-consistent methodology. Within a market-consistent embedded value (MCEV) framework, assets and liabilities are valued in line with market prices and consistently with each other. In principle, each cash flow is valued using a discount rate consistent with that applied to such a cash flow in the capital markets.
7 (ii) Covered business The EEV Principles require an insurance company to distinguish between covered and uncovered business according to whether the business is valued on EEV Principles. The covered business, in the case of Royal London, incorporates: life and pensions business defined as long-term business by UK and overseas regulators; and asset management business; both that derived from the life and pensions business and that arising from external clients (except that arising from cash mandates, which is treated as uncovered). This business, which represents the vast majority of the Group s total business, is valued on an EEV basis. (iii) Embedded Value The reported embedded value provides an estimate of the value of the covered business, including future cash flows expected from the existing business but excluding any value that may be generated from future new business. For covered business, it comprises the sum of the net worth calculated on an EEV basis and the value of the in-force business. For uncovered business, it comprises the IFRS net worth. The net worth is the market-consistent value of the net assets (excluding the value of inforce business and pension scheme surplus) over and above those required to manage the business in line with the published Principles and Practices of Financial Management (PPFM). It is based on the Realistic Balance Sheet (RBS) working capital in those funds within the Group that are open to new business. It also comprises the net worth of the uncovered businesses on an IFRS basis and allows for the value of the debt issued, which is valued on a market-consistent basis. The value of in-force business is the present value of the projected streams of future cash flows available from the existing business at the valuation date, on a best estimate basis allowing for risk, adjusted for the cost of holding the required capital. (iv) Allowance for risk The allowance for risk is a key feature of the EEV Principles. The table below summarises how each item of risk has been allowed for: Type of risk Market related risks Non-market risks which are symmetrical in terms of the impact on EEV Non-market risks which are asymmetrical in terms of the impact on EEV EEV methodology Allowed for explicitly in the EEV calculations Allowed for within the estimates of future operating experience Allowed for in the calculation of VIF and financial options by way of an additional margin in the estimates of future operating experience Market risk The approach adopted to calculate the MCEV combines deterministic and stochastic techniques. Deterministic techniques have been used to value non-option cash flows ; that is cash flows whose values vary linearly with market movements. Stochastic techniques
8 have been used to value cash flows with an asymmetric effect on profit, such as investment guarantees on with-profits products. In principle, each cash flow is valued using the discount rate consistent with that applied to such a cash flow in the capital markets. For example, an equity cash flow is valued using an equity risk discount rate, and a bond cash flow is valued using a bond risk discount rate. If a higher return is assumed for equities, the equity cash flow is discounted at this higher rate. In practice, it is not necessary to discount each cash flow at a different rate. For cash flows that are either independent or move linearly with the market, a method known as the certainty equivalent approach will achieve the same results. Under this method all assets are assumed to earn the risk-free rate of return and all cash flows are discounted using the risk-free rate. This approach has been adopted to value the nonoption cash flows within a deterministic model. Non-market risk In general, the allowance for non-market risk is covered by the margin incorporated into the Group s estimates of future operating experience assumptions. However, there are certain situations in which the impact of fluctuations in experience is asymmetric, namely that adverse experience can have a higher negative impact on value than the positive impact generated by favourable experience. In these cases, an additional margin over best estimate is incorporated into the experience assumptions. The methodology used to determine the appropriate allowance for nonmarket risk is based on the analyses undertaken as part of the development of the RBS and the Individual Capital Assessment. (c) Cost of capital The EEV Principles require capital allocated to the covered business to be split between required capital, the future distributions of which are restricted, and free surplus. We have defined the amount of required capital to be that necessary to meet the more onerous of the FSA Pillar 1 and Pillar 2 capital requirements, which for Royal London is currently Pillar 2. The EEV includes a deduction for the frictional cost of holding the required capital. Frictional costs, being the tangible costs of holding capital, have been allowed for on a market-consistent basis. These consist of the total taxation and investment expenses incurred on the required capital over the period it is anticipated to be required. They reflect the cost to a member of having an asset held within a mutual insurance company, rather than investing in the asset directly. No allowance has been made for any agency costs. These represent the potential markdown to value that members might apply because they do not have direct control over their capital. Any adjustment would be subjective and different members will have their own views of what adjustment, if any, should be made. (d) Burn-through cost Under adverse conditions the funds that remain open to new business may be required to make good any deficits that arise in the closed funds. The time value cost of this potential liability, known as the burn-through cost, is modelled stochastically, as it will only occur in adverse scenarios. The burn-through cost is calculated as the average value of the capital support supplied in a large number of market-consistent scenarios. Allowance has been made, under the
9 different scenarios for management actions, such as altered investment strategy, consistent with the PPFM. The stochastic model used to calculate this liability has been calibrated to market conditions at the valuation date. In addition, due to the asymmetric nature of this liability, an additional margin has been incorporated into the operating assumptions. (e) Taxation EEV profits are calculated on a net of tax basis. These are then grossed up at the appropriate rate of tax. In general, this will be 6%, the expected long-term rate of tax payable by Royal London though subsidiary companies may be subject to different rates of tax. (f) Expenses The EEV Guidance requires companies to actively review expense assumptions, and include an appropriate allowance for corporate costs and service company costs. Corporate costs Corporate costs are those costs incurred at a corporate level that are not directly attributable to the covered businesses. Future corporate costs have not been anticipated within the EEV and instead are accounted for as they arise. The impact of corporate costs in 2008 is a reduction in the EEV profit of 8m ( m). Service company costs An in-house management service company, that receives a fee in respect of each policy it administers, carries out Royal London s administration. A similar arrangement exists for asset management services, though the fee is applied as a percentage of assets. The value of the in-force life and pensions business has been calculated using the service company (including asset management) fees. Costs within the in-house administration service company have been classified as either ongoing (including an element of development expenditure) or exceptional development costs. Exceptional development costs have not been anticipated within the EEV and instead are accounted for as they arise. For 2008, 20m ( m) of development costs were classified as exceptional. The profits expected to arise from life and pensions business within the administration service company from activities related to the maintenance of existing business and within RLAM in respect of investment management services have been capitalised within the EEV. These calculations result in the recognition of further value in the in-force business. 71m (2007 restated 102m) is recognised in respect of the administration service company and 8m ( m) is recognised in respect of RLAM s business arising directly from Royal London s life and pensions business. No allowance has been made for future productivity gains. (g) New business New covered business includes: premiums from the sale of new contracts; non-contractual increments (both regular and single premium) on existing policies; premiums relating to new entrants in group pension schemes; and rebate premiums received from the Department of Work and Pensions.
10 (h) Analysis of EEV profit (i) Contribution from new business The contribution from new business is calculated using economic assumptions at the end of the period. It is shown after the effect of required capital, calculated on the same basis as for in-force covered business. New business sales are expressed on the present value of new business premiums (PVNBP) basis. PVNBP is calculated as total single premium sales received in the year plus the discounted value, at point of sale, of regular premiums expected to be received over the term of the new contracts. The premium volumes and projection assumptions used to calculate the present value of regular premiums for each product are the same as those used to calculate the new business contribution, so the components of the new business margin are on a consistent basis. The new business contribution shown in the table below represents the net contribution from new business but grossed up at 28% to make it more comparable to results published by proprietary companies. The new business margin represents the ratio of the new business contribution to PVNBP Present value of new business premiums New business contribution New business margin m m % Scottish Life 1, Bright Grey Royal London Royal London Administration Services Royal London Asset Management 1, Phoenix Life Assurance Ltd (from 1 August 2008) Total 3,
11 2007 Present value of new business premiums New business contribution New business margin m m % Scottish Life 1, Bright Grey Scottish Life International Royal London Administration Services Royal London Asset Management 2, Total 4, The result for Scottish Life illustrates the continuing relatively low new business margins currently available in the pensions market, particularly from group pensions. There has been an improvement in the margin on protection business sold under the Bright Grey brand. This is partly due to better margins being available in the market place and partly due to lower unit costs as the Bright Grey business volumes increase. Royal London 360 includes Scottish Life International (full year) and SPILA (from its acquisition on 3 June 2008). The result is depressed by SPILA s results which included an acquisition expense overrun. Going forward, the two companies have been combined into one business unit and the overrun eliminated. The Royal London Administration Services business is largely incremental income to the legacy book, with low attaching expenses of acquisition, making it a relatively profitable business. The volume of new asset management mandates reduced in 2008, due to the difficult market conditions. However, margins increased over PLAL business is sold via Abbey s retail network. During 2008, it sold investment products that generated a relatively low new business margin. That business has now ceased and the contribution from new business in 2009 is expected to increase significantly.
12 (ii) Profit from existing business Profit from existing business comprises: the expected return on the value of in-force business at the start of the period, plus profits and losses caused by differences between actual experience for the period and that assumed in the embedded value calculations at the start of the period, plus the impact of any changes in the assumptions regarding future operating experience m 2007 restated m Expected return Operating experience variances 7 (12) Operating assumption changes (22) (26) Total Experience variances include the impact of the difference between demographic, expense and persistency assumptions and the actual experience incurred in the year. Although the overall impact of experience variances is relatively small there have been adverse variances in the experience for some products. Accordingly, we have reviewed our assumptions and have taken the decision to again strengthen the operating assumption bases, for persistency and annuitant mortality in particular, to reflect this experience. (iii) Expected return on opening net worth The expected return on opening net worth represents the expected investment return on the net worth over the period. The increase in this item arises largely because of the increase in opening net worth. (iv) Profit on uncovered business Profit on uncovered business has been valued on an IFRS basis, as used in the primary financial statements. A breakdown of the profit reported on uncovered business is shown in the table below: 2008 m 2007 m General insurance 12 8 Annuity commissions 3 3 Funds direct (5) - Cash management 1 1 Total (v) Other items Other items represent a combination of: exceptional development costs, which are typically investments made to improve future EEV profits (for example by reducing on-going expense levels or increasing new business volumes); corporate costs; and other exceptional items. For example, the impact of any changes in the way the business is modelled. A breakdown of these items is shown in the table below:
13 2008 m 2007 m Exceptional development costs (20) (23) Corporate costs (8) (17) Modelling changes 42 8 Total 14 (32) (vi) Economic experience variances This shows the impact of actual investment returns relative to those assumed. Economic experience variances have an impact on the value of in-force (VIF) business and on the net worth. The economic experience variance on the VIF arises from the change in policy values in which Royal London has an interest. The economic experience variance on the net worth represents the impact that investment returns, being different to those anticipated, has on: the value of the opening net worth; the value of financial options and guarantees (*); and the value of the assets backing the financial options and guarantees (*). (*) Excluding those movements due solely to changes in the yield curve, which have been netted off against the movement in the value of assets caused by the shift in the yield curve. The value of the second and third items above is generally far more significant for Royal London, as a mutual insurance company, than would be the case for an equivalent proprietary company, whose interest in the surplus in its with-profits funds is restricted, typically to 10% of the distributable surplus. Overall, the returns achieved on the underlying assets in 2008 were considerably less than those assumed and heavily negative. Equities and Property provided large losses, while the yields available on UK government bonds reduced and the spread on corporate bonds widened considerably. As a result investment experience was the main contributor to a significant overall EEV loss reported for The 2007 contribution from investment experience was also negative, but not as large. (vii) Economic assumption changes Long term economic assumptions were revised to take into account the financial conditions at the end of the period. The changes include decreases to future interest rates used to value financial options and smoothing costs, decreases to the assumed rates of future retail price and expense inflation and increases to the implied volatilities. In addition, the smoothing formula used to derive payouts for participating business has been changed to improve solvency in light of the recent market turbulence. The combined effect of these changes contributed 18m ( m) to the pre-tax result. Further details of the economic basis used are provided in section (i). (viii) Pension scheme surplus The principal scheme is the Royal London Group Pension Scheme, a final salary scheme that is closed to new entrants. On an IAS 19 basis, the scheme had a surplus of 90m at 31 December 2008 ( m). (ix) Financing costs
14 In December 2005, Royal London raised 395m (after expenses) of subordinated debt, which carries a coupon of 6.125% per annum. The cost of servicing the debt over the year is 25m ( m) and is included as a financing cost. The PLAL business includes a block of guaranteed investment bonds which is backed by structured products. Cash collateral is held against these structured products. The interest of 15m payable on this cash collateral during the year is included as a financing cost. This cost is offset by interest income earned on the related cash deposits which is included within the investment return. (x) Enhancements to policyholder benefits The embedded value has been calculated as the value of the assets in excess of those required to manage the business in line with the PPFM. In 2007, Royal London s Board exercised its discretion to allocate investment return to certain asset shares in excess of the rate earned on the underlying assets, thereby directly increasing the value of the liabilities set aside to meet future payments to with-profits policyholders m 2007 m Additional returns credited to asset shares - (42) Total - (42) In 2008 no such additional returns were credited because of the adverse investment markets.
15 (xi) Impact of acquisition of Resolution businesses The acquisition of the Resolution businesses included a significant payment for goodwill and other intangible assets in respect of covered business which is not allowable under the EEV Principles. The difference between the price paid for the Resolution businesses and the value included under EEV Principles is 198m. (xii) Other items The Change to target maturity benefits item arising in 2007 represents the impact of exceptional changes to the basis for managing the estate as incorporated into Royal London s PPFMs in December These changes led to several categories of policy receiving discretionary enhancements to asset shares in 2007 and amendments to targeted maturity benefits m 2007 m Change to target maturity benefits - 80 Changes to smoothing formula - 32 Other 11 5 Total (xiii) Attributed tax charge EEV profits are calculated net of tax and then grossed up at an appropriate tax rate. In general, this will be 6%, the expected long-term rate of tax payable by Royal London, although subsidiary companies may be subject to different rates of tax. (i) EEV assumptions (i) Principal economic assumptions deterministic Economic assumptions are actively reviewed and are based on the prevailing market yields on risk-free assets at the valuation date % 2007 % Risk-free rate Retail Price inflation Expense inflation (ii) Principal economic assumptions stochastic The value of financial options (including premium rate guarantees and guaranteed annuity options), smoothing costs and future deductions from asset shares are calculated using market-consistent techniques. Market-consistency is achieved by running a large number of economically credible scenarios through a stochastic valuation model. Each scenario is discounted at a rate consistent with the individual simulation. The economic scenarios achieve market-consistency by: deriving the underlying risk-free rate from the forward gilt curve, with a margin of 10 basis points to reflect empirical evidence that gilt yields may understate the true risk-free rate; calibrating equity and interest rate volatility to observed market data by duration and price, subject to interpolation/extrapolation where traded security prices do not
16 exist. We attempt to achieve the best possible fit, though modelling restrictions prevent this from being perfect. The tables below show the implied volatilities used in the modelling by asset class: 2008 Term (years) year risk-free zero coupon 15.1% 13.0% 8.2% 5.4% 9.5% bonds 15-year AA-rated corporate bonds 16.9% 15.3% 11.1% 8.2% 11.2% Equities 32.3% 32.8% 31.5% 31.0% 30.9% 2007 Term (years) year risk-free zero coupon 6.0% 4.5% 3.7% 3.3% 3.9% bonds 15-year AA-rated corporate bonds 7.5% 6.5% 6.0% 5.7% 5.9% Equities 23.1% 24.8% 26.0% 26.2% 26.6% (iii) Expected return in reporting period For the purposes of calculating the expected returns over the period, allowance is made for a risk premium as set out in the following table: 2008 % 2007 % Risk premium - equities Risk premium - property All other assets are assumed to earn the risk-free rate. (iv) Other assumptions Demographic assumptions are regularly reviewed having regard to past, current and expected future experience, and any other relevant data. These are generally set as best estimate with an appropriate margin for adverse deviations.
17 (j) Sensitivity analysis The table below shows the sensitivity of the embedded value as at 31 December 2008, and the 2008 contribution from new business to changes in assumptions. Change in embedded value Change in new business contribution Notes m m 100 basis point increase in risk discount rates basis point increase in equity and property returns 100 basis point reduction in risk-free rates (242) (2) 10% increase in market values of equities and property 10% proportionate decrease in lapse and paid-up 31 7 rates 10% proportionate decrease in expenses % proportionate decrease in mortality and 3 2 morbidity 50% increase in capital requirements (10) - Notes: 1. The sensitivities presented in the table exclude the impact of stress testing the Royal London Group Pension Scheme. 2. As a market-consistent approach is used, changes in the risk discount rate would be matched by changes in the expected returns used when calculating these cash flows. Therefore, there is no overall impact on the embedded value. 3. As a market-consistent approach is used, changes in the expected returns under equity and property would be matched by changes in their associated discount rates. Therefore, there is no overall impact on the embedded value. 4. The value of new business is assessed at the point of sale. Increases in the value of equities and property at this date have no impact on the value of new business.
18 Consolidated group IFRS income statement for the year ended 31 December 2008 Revenues Notes m m Gross earned premiums Amounts paid to reinsurers 616 (162) Net earned premiums 1, Fee income from investment and fund management contracts Investment return (3,103) 865 Other operating income Total revenues (1,445) 1,666 Policyholder benefits and claims Claims paid, before reinsurance 1,526 1,409 Reinsurance recoveries (80) (35) Claims paid, after reinsurance 1,446 1,374 Decrease in insurance contract liabilities, before reinsurance (1,963) (285) Reinsurance ceded 833 (148) Decrease in insurance contract liabilities, after reinsurance (1,130) (433) Decrease in non-participating value of in-force business (Decrease) / increase in investment contract liabilities (1,707) 148 Total policyholder benefits and claims (1,315) 1,099 Operating expenses Administrative expenses Investment management expenses Amortisation charges and impairment losses on acquired PVIF and other intangible assets Investment return attributable to external unit holders (57) 7 Other operating expenses Total operating expenses Finance costs Result before tax (687) 128 Tax credit 3 (255) (2) Transfer (from) / to the unallocated divisible surplus (432) 130 Profit for the year - - As a mutual company, all earnings are retained for the benefit of participating policyholders and are carried forward within the unallocated divisible surplus. Accordingly, there is no profit for the year shown in the income statement.
19 Consolidated statement of recognised income and expenses for the year ended 31 December 2008 Group Parent company m m m m Fair value gains on revaluation of property, plant and equipment Total income not recognised in the income statement transferred to the unallocated divisible surplus Net income and expenses recognised in the income statement transferred (from) / to the unallocated divisible surplus (432) 130 (432) 130 Total transfer (from) / to the unallocated divisible surplus (432) 132 (432) 132 The fair value gains shown above are stated net of the related deferred tax as the tax is not material in either year.
20 Balance sheets as at 31 December 2008 Group Parent company Notes m m m m ASSETS Property, plant and equipment Investment property 1,868 2,485 1,783 2,395 Intangible assets Goodwill Acquired PVIF on investment contracts Acquired PVIF on insurance contracts Deferred acquisition costs on investment contracts Other intangible assets Total intangible assets 1, , Reinsurers share of insurance contract liabilities Pension scheme asset Deferred tax asset Current tax asset Financial assets Financial investments 22,734 21,075 14,539 14,213 Investments in Group entities - - 5,359 5,065 Loans and receivables, including insurance receivables Cash and cash equivalents 1,682 2,025 1,020 1,627 Total financial assets 25,027 23,336 21,425 21,087 Total assets 28,932 27,130 25,061 24,715 LIABILITIES Participating insurance contract liabilities 10,063 10,909 10,063 10,909 Participating investment contract liabilities 1,490 1,583 1,490 1,583 Unallocated divisible surplus 1,701 2,133 1,701 2,133 Non-participating value of in-force business (438) (514) (431) (514) Participating contract liabilities 12,816 14,111 12,823 14,111 Non-participating insurance contract liabilities 3,883 2,652 3,451 2,592 Non-participating investment contract liabilities 9,949 8,919 7,027 6,985 Non-participating contract liabilities 13,832 11,571 10,478 9,577 Subordinated liabilities Payables and other financial liabilities 1, , Provisions Other liabilities Liability to external unit holders Deferred tax liabilities Current tax liability Total liabilities 28,932 27,130 25,061 24,715 15
21 Cash flow statements for the year ended 31 December 2008 Group Parent company Cash flows from operating activities Notes m m m m Transfer (from)/to the unallocated divisible surplus (432) 130 (432) 130 Adjustments for non-cash items 1, (269) Adjustments for non-operating items Acquisition of investment property (37) (189) (37) (188) Acquisition of financial investments (33,652) (23,152) (20,804) (19,105) Proceeds from disposal of investment property Proceeds from disposal of financial investments 32,683 23,456 20,960 20,026 Changes in operating receivables 257 (45) 232 (30) Changes in operating payables (96) 62 Change in liability to external unit holders Net cash from operating activities before tax 719 1, Tax paid (10) (11) 7 (5) Net cash flows from operating activities 709 1, Cash flows from investing activities Acquisition of property, plant and equipment (17) (9) (10) (7) Acquisition of Group entities (1,012) (14) (1,282) (21) Part VII transfer Proceeds from disposal of property, plant and equipment Proceeds from disposal of Group entities Dividends received from Group entities Net cash flows from investing activities Cash flows from financing activities (1,016) (22) (1,272) Proceeds from issue of other debt and finance lease liabilities Repayments of other debt and finance lease liabilities (3) (3) (1) (1) Interest paid (48) (33) (28) (28) Net cash flows from financing activities (51) 8 (29) (15) Net (decrease)/increase in cash and cash equivalents 19 (358) 991 (622) 914 Cash and cash equivalents at 1 January 2,025 1,034 1, Cash and cash equivalents at 31 December 6 1,667 2,025 1,005 1,627 An integral part of the operations of the Group is the management of a portfolio of investment assets. Cash flows relating to the purchase and sale of these assets have been treated as operating cash flows for the purposes of the cash flow statements. In the Parent company, unit trusts and other investment funds that are classified for financial reporting purposes as subsidiaries are also part of this operating portfolio of investment assets and hence cash flows in relation to these assets are also classified as operating cash flows for the Parent company cash flow statement. 16
22 1. Basis of preparation The financial statements of the Group and the Parent company ( the financial statements ) have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and Interpretations issued by the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC) as endorsed by the European Union. The financial statements have also been prepared in accordance with those parts of the Companies Act 1985 applicable to companies reporting under IFRS. The financial statements have been prepared on the historical cost basis as modified by the inclusion of certain assets and liabilities at fair value as permitted or required by IFRS. The accounting policies set out below are reviewed for appropriateness each year. These policies have been applied consistently to all periods presented in these financial statements. The following standards and interpretation have been applied for the first time in these financial statements but have had no impact on the financial statements: Amendments to IAS 39, Financial instruments: Recognition and measurement and to IFRS 7, Financial Instruments: Disclosures Reclassification of Financial Assets. IFRIC 14, The Limit on a Defined Benefit Asset, Minimum Funding Requirements and their Interaction. All amounts in the financial statements are shown in pounds sterling, which is the presentational currency of the Group and the Parent company. Unless otherwise stated, amounts are shown in millions of pounds, rounded to the nearest million. 2. Segmental information No business segment information is presented as the directors consider that all of the business of the Group is within a single segment, Life and Pensions business. Also, as substantially all of the Group s business is carried on in the United Kingdom, no separate geographical analysis has been provided. 3 Tax credit Group m m Tax has been provided as follows: UK corporation tax charge - Current year Adjustments in respect of prior periods (3) (2) 28 2 Foreign tax partially relieved against UK corporation tax 8 8 Deferred tax (291) (12) (255) (2) 17
23 4. Pension scheme The Group operates one main funded defined benefit scheme, Royal London Group Pension Scheme ( RLGPS ). On 1 September 2005, this scheme was closed to new entrants. The Group has established a contributory, defined contribution arrangement for new employees joining the Group after that date. (a) Amounts recognised in the balance sheet Group and Parent company m m Fair value of plan assets 1,576 1,817 Pension scheme obligation (1,486) (1,680) Net pension scheme asset (b) Amounts recognised in the income statement Group and Parent company m m Current service cost Interest cost on pension scheme liabilities Expected return on plan assets (103) (101) Actuarial losses/(gains) 42 (77) Net expense/(income) recognised in the income statement 47 (77) The net expense recognised is included within other operating expenses. The actuarial loss of 42m in the current year arise from a reduction in the scheme assets predominately offset by an increase in the discount rate, reducing the scheme liabilities. 5. Subordinated liabilities Group and Parent company Effective interest rate m m % % Perpetual Cumulative Step-up Subordinated Guaranteed Notes Perpetual Cumulative Step-up Subordinated Guaranteed Notes On 14 December 2005 RL Finance Bonds plc, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Parent company, issued the Perpetual Cumulative Step-up Subordinated Guaranteed Notes. The issue price of the Notes was % of the principal amount of 400m. The discount and the directly related costs incurred to issue the Notes of 4m have been capitalised as part of the carrying value and will be 18
24 amortised on an effective interest basis over the period to the first possible redemption date. The Notes are guaranteed by the Parent company. The proceeds of the issue were loaned to the Parent company on the same interest, repayment and subordination terms as those applicable to the Notes. The Notes have no maturity date but the issuer has the option to redeem all of them at their principal amount on 15 December 2015 and at three monthly intervals thereafter. Interest is payable at a fixed rate of 6.125% per annum for the period to 15 December 2015, payable annually in arrears on 15 December each year. If the Bonds are not redeemed on 15 December 2015 the interest rate will be re-set on that date and at three monthly intervals thereafter, at a rate equal to the offered three month sterling deposit rate quoted on the interest re-set date, plus 2.45%. Following the first interest re-set date, interest becomes payable three monthly in arrears on 15 March, 15 June, 15 September and 15 December in each year. 6. Cash and cash equivalents The cash and cash equivalents for the purposes of the cash flow statement are shown net of bank overdrafts that are repayable on demand and form an integral part of the Group s cash management, as shown in the table below. Group Parent company m m m m Cash and cash equivalents 1,682 2,025 1,020 1,627 Bank overdrafts (15) - (15) - Cash and cash equivalents in the cash flow statement 1,667 2,025 1,005 1, Contingent liabilities Regulatory reviews During the year, the Group and Parent company continued to address issues from past inappropriate selling practices and other regulatory matters. The directors consider that they have made prudent provision for any liabilities arising and, as and when the circumstances calling for such provision arise, that the Group and Parent company have adequate reserves to meet all reasonably foreseeable eventualities. 19
25 8. Reconciliation of the IFRS unallocated divisible surplus to the European embedded value m m IFRS unallocated divisible surplus 1,701 2,133 Valuation differences between IFRS and EEV - Goodwill (310) (113) - Deferred tax valuation differences (102) 28 Add items only included on an embedded value basis - Valuation of principal subsidiaries Other valuation differences 20 (12) European embedded value 1,436 2,164 20
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