# GOAL-BASED INTELLIGENT AGENTS

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3 International Journal of Information Technology, Vol. 9 No. 1 State oriented model assumes agent lives in the state oriented domain. The agent s environment is evolved with a sequential finite set of the states. A goal of the agent is a final state that the agent tries to reach from its current state by going through a sequence of states. For example, the goal of a manufacturing design agent is to reach the final state by going through a sequence of states specified by a workflow for modifying a design file. The initial state of the design agent is waiting for an order, after receiving an order, the agent will check out the design file, lock the design file, modify the file, check in the file after modification, and unlock the design file, to reach the states showing in Figure 1 respectively. After the goal is reached, the agent returns to the initial state. As shown, both the task oriented goal and state oriented goal are modeled by a list of tasks and states respectively. The sequence of the tasks or states is fixed, and the agent s goal can only be measured by whether the goal is reached or not reached. Due to the uncertain and complex nature of the real world problems such as business forecasting processes, it is hard to represent the complex goals of an agent simply by a set of tasks list or a set of sequential states. Therefore, a new agent goal model is highly needed. 3. THE COMPOSITE STATE GOAL MODEL To overcome the limitations of the existing goal models, in this section, we propose a composite state goal model for modeling the complex goals of intelligent agents. The composite state goal model is proposed based on the Petri Net theory [6] and OO methodology. States in a composite state goal model are not necessarily modeled in a sequential order. They can reflect state changes in a real application. Tasks in the composite state goal model are used to move the agent from one set of states to the next set of states based on the goal model., Like Petri net, the model is composed of four basic objects: states, transitions, arcs and tokens. state i transition ij state j Figure 2 Basic objects of the composite state goal model As it is illustrated in Figure 2, the object states, represented by circles, are used to represent different states that agents need to go through to reach their goals. A state is connected to other states via transitions, represented by vertical bars. A transition specifies the relationships between the state objects it joins. Each transition has at least an input state and an output state. Each transition is associated with a task list that defines the tasks an agent may perform in order to fire a transition. When certain conditions are satisfied, the transition fires, and the agent will evolve from the input states to the output states. The object arcs, represented by arrows, are used to connect states to transitions and transitions to states. An arc indicates the relationships between the state and the transition it connects. The object tokens are used to present dynamic behaviors of the goal model. When a token arrives in a state, it indicates the state change on that state and the progress of the goal pursuing. The model can be formally defined as follows: 21

4 Zhiqi Shen, Robert Gay and Xuehong Tao Goal-based Intelligent Agents [Definition 3.1] The composite state goal model, Goal-net, is defined as a tuple: CSGM = {Σ, S, T, A, C, G, E, L, F, D, N, B, H, R, I, R 0 } where: Σ is a finite set of non-empty types. S is a finite set of states. T is a finite set of transitions. A S T T S is a finite set of arcs that connect states and transitions. C: S Σ is a node function for each state. G is a guard function for each transition. E is an arc function for each arc. L is a finite set of task lists. F: T L is a task function for each transition. D S is a set of composite states. N is a finite set of Goal-nets. B: D N is a net function for each composite state. H is level number of the hierarchical structure. R is a set of time values, also called time stamps. I is an initialization function for each state. R 0 R is the start time. Σ includes types that will be used in the Goal-net. It determines the types, operations and functions that can be used in the net inscriptions (i.e., arc, guard, initialization functions, etc). The node function C maps each state, s, to a set C(s) in Σ. The guard function G maps each transition, t, to an expression of type Boolean, i.e., a predicate. Moreover, all variables in G(t) must have types that belong to Σ. The arc function E maps each arc, a, into an expression which must be of type C( a) or C(a ) where a denotes the state that is connected to a transition by the arc a; a denotes the state that is connected from a transition by the arc a. L contains all the task lists that are needed for each transition. The task function F maps each task list to a transition on which the tasks need to be executed when the transition is enabled. N contains Goal-nets that are sub nets of each composite state. The function B maps each composite state of D to a Goal-net of N. The initialization function I maps each state, s, into an initial expression which must be of type C(s). [Definition 3.2] A state is a pair (os, r) where os is the state object and r R is a time stamp. The state object os defines the variables of type C(s) and behaviors on the state. [Definition 3.3] A transition is a pair (ot, r) where ot is the transition object and r R is a time stamp. The transition object ot defines the properties and behaviors on the transition. [Definition 3.4] A token is a pair (s, c) where s S and c C(s). It indicates the status of a state. When a state holds a token, the state becomes active, otherwise the state is inactive. [Definition 3.5] A composite state is a state, which can be decomposed to a Goal-net where the net starts with a start state and ends by an end state. The following rules apply: There is only one start state in a Goal-net and it is initialized to hold a token. There is only one end state in a Goal-net and it is initialized not to hold token. 22

5 International Journal of Information Technology, Vol. 9 No. 1 The transition t s of the start state s is enabled iff both the composite state and the start state start to hold tokens. The notation s represents the set of transitions each element of which is connected from state s. If the transition t s of the composite state s is enabled, both the end state and the composite state must hold tokens. The net will be reset after any transition t s of the composite state s fires. [Definition 3.6] The goal of a composite state goal model is the composite state, which is the root state of the hierarchical structure. [Definition 3.7] A sub goal of a composite state goal model is the composite state, which is not the root state of the hierarchical structure. There are two kinds of state objects in the composite state goal model: an atomic state object, represented by blank circle, accommodates a single state which could not be split any more; a composite state object, represented by shadowed circle, may be split into other state objects (either composite or atomic) connected via transitions. Figure 3 presents a hierarchical structure of the composite state goal model. The root composite state object in the highest level of the hierarchical structure represents the overall goal of the agent and the composite state object in lower levels of the hierarchical structure represents the sub goals of the agent. A higher level of composite state objects (goal or sub goals) can be split into lower-level state objects connected via transitions. There are three types of transition objects in the composite state goal model: direct_to transition object, concurrent_with transition object, and jump_to transition object. Direct_to: this type of transition objects designates a direct connection in sequence from one state to other states. It defines a successive relationship between states. For example, in Figure 3, State i is connected to State i+1 via a direct_to transition. This implies that State i+1 should be reached after State i expires, in another word, State i+1 is a continuous state of State i. Direct_to State i State i+1 Figure 3 A Direct_to relationship Concurrent_with: this type of transition objects specifies a concurrent occurrence between one state and another state. It defines concurrent relationship between states. For example, in Figure 4, State i+2 and state i+2 are two concurrent state objects. Concurent_with State i+1 State i+2 State i State i+3 State i+1' State i+2' Figure 4 A Concurrent_with relationship 23

6 Zhiqi Shen, Robert Gay and Xuehong Tao Goal-based Intelligent Agents Jump_to: this type of transition objects specifies a jump connection from one state to other states. It defines a jump relationship between states. In Figure 5, State i is connected to State j via a jump_to transition, while State i is connected to state i+1 via a direct_to transition. This indicates agent will jump from State i to State j instead of progressing from State i to State i+1 sequentially. The inhibitor C1 and C2 coordinate the behaviors. C1 Jump_to State i State i+1 State j C2 Direct_to Figure 5 A Jump_to transition For example, in Figure 6, the 3-level hierarchical composite state goal model contains 11 states, 8 transitions, and 18 arcs. Two of the states are composite states. The one in top level is the goal of agent whereas the other one composite state in the middle level is sub goal. With the concurrent_to transition objects and jump_to transition objects, the composite state goal model can model complex problems that are difficult to model using existing goal models. composite state atomic state Figure 6 Composite state goal model In the Goal-net, other than the basic types, such as ID, Description, and Status, Σ also includes type Duration to indicate the delay, type Distance to indicate state distance to the goal or sub goal, and type WorthValue to indicate the goal measurement. Both state objects and transition objects have their own properties and behaviors. Besides state Id and description, a state object has a time counter of type Duration which records the duration of a state, a local distance value and a global distance value of type Distance to indicate how close the current state is to the state of the sub goal and final goal respectively. One of the state object s behaviors is that it can compute the worth value of type WorthValue through the utility function. The utility function of the state object gives a quantitative value for specifying the partial goal that the agent has reached. With the above measurements, an agent is able to choose its next sub-goal autonomously based on its available resources. A transition object has input states and output states. It is associated with a task list and a fire condition function. The fire condition function specifies the fire condition of progress from the input states of a transition to its output states. The most important behavior of a transition is when the fire condition is satisfied, it can fire to remove the tokens from its input states and add tokens to its output 24

7 International Journal of Information Technology, Vol. 9 No. 1 states. Therefore, the evaluation of the fire function enables the agent to decide its behaviors autonomously. Apart from defining the states and the transitions, the model also defines a set of firing rules, which provides a mechanism for capturing and denoting dynamic characteristics of the goal model. In particular, firing rules of the model can be summarized as follows: 1) A transition is enabled when all the input states are active, i.e. hold tokens; 2) A transition fires as soon as the agent has successfully carried out the tasks specified in the task list; 3) When a transition fires, its input states become inactive, and its output states are activated; 4) A jump_to transition is enabled when certain conditions are met; The goal pursuing of an agent starts from the top state which represents the goal of the agent; then goes through the hierarchical model; and finally goes back to the top state. The goal of the agent is said to be reached at this time. Then the agent will start from the top state again for the next time pursuing. With different combination of direct_to, concurrent_with and jump_to transitions, a wide range of complicated relationships between states can be represented, which could accommodate various complex goals of the intelligent forecasting agents. 4. GOAL-BASED INTELLIGENT AGENT MODEL The composite state goal model defines intelligent behavior of an agent. States represent the goal, sub goals and transit states. Transitions represent the dynamic behaviors. The tasks being fulfilled in each transition consist of functionalities of the agent application, which include agent basic functions and application specific functions. The goal-based intelligent agent model is presented in Figure 7. Interface Application Functions and Logic Agent Functions and Logic Figure 7 Goal Model Execution Plan Environment The goal-based intelligent agent model In this model, the environment layer defines the agent running environment including system environment (system architecture, operating system, network, knowledge base, etc), communication mechanism (communication method, communication language, etc) and agent development environment (development language, agent framework, etc). The goal-model layer defines the goal model of agent. The goal model is derived based on the business processes, work flow and business logic of the application. The goal model will become the execution plan of agent when the agent is running. 25

8 Zhiqi Shen, Robert Gay and Xuehong Tao Goal-based Intelligent Agents The function layer includes application functions and logic component and agent function and logic component. Application functions and logic component consists of application specific functions and business logic. They are application dependent. Agent functions and logic component consists of agent basic functions and working logic. They are application independent. The transition objects will invoke both application functions and agent functions during task fulfillment according to the goal model. The interface layer facilitates the agent to interact with users, other agents and the running environment. The agent communicates through the interface layer either by application functions or agent own functions. 5. CASE STUDY: AN INTELLIGENT BUSINESS FORECASTING AGENT The composite state goal model provides an efficient means for denoting the complex goals of intelligent agents. An example is given in this section to illustrate how the goal of a business forecasting agent can be represented by the composite state goal model. As shown in Figure 8, assuming that S 1, the composite object in the root of the hierarchical model, represents the overall goal of an intelligent forecasting agent: S 1. id = 1, S 1. description = forecasting The overall goal of the agent is split into a set of sub-goals connected via transitions: S 10. id = 10, S 10. description = initialized S 11. id = 11, S 11. description = data collection S 12. id = 12, S 12. description = data preparation S 13. id = 13, S 13. description = forecasting model training S 14. id = 14, S 14. description = forecasting result reasoning S 15. id = 15, S 15. description = forecasted 26

9 International Journal of Information Technology, Vol. 9 No. 1 S1 C2 T14 S10 T10 S11 T11 S12 T12 S13 T13 S14 S15 C2 T15 S111 S112T112 S113 T113 S115 S116 C1 S118 S132 T134 S134 T135 T111 S114 T114 S117 T115 S131 T131 T132 S133 C3 T133 C4 S135 Figure 8 An example of composite state goal model As shown in the level 2 of the hierarchical model, state S 11 and S 12, S 12 and S 13, S 13 and S 14 are connected by direct-to transitions, which indicates the agent can go through these states sequentially to reach the goal. A jump_to transition joins S 12 and S 14, which implies that when certain conditions (C 2 ) are satisfied, the agent may jump to the S 14 directly from S 12. For example, if the forecasting model has been trained, after the data is well prepared, agent can make inference without re-training the model. Similarly the sub goals can be further split into a set of state objects connected via transitions. For instance, S 11 is split into a set of state objects {S 111, S 112, S 113, S 114, S 115, S 116, S 117, S 118 }: S 111. id = 111, S 111. description = initialized S 112. id = 112, S 112. description = collecting data from source A S 113. id = 113, S 113. description = collecting data from source B S 114. id = 114, S 114. description = collecting data from source C S 115. id = 115, S 115. description = new data collected from source A S 116. id = 116, S 116. description = new data collected from source B S 117. id = 117, S 117. description = new data collected from source C S 118. id = 118, S 118. description = new data collected Another composite state S 13 is split into a set of state objects {S 131, S 132, S 133, S 134, S 135 }: S 131. id = 131, S 131. description = initialized S 132. id = 132, S 132. description = collecting data from database S 133. id = 133, S 133. description = computing forecasting result S 134. id = 134, S 134. description = checking error and adjusting parameters S 135. id = 135, S 135. description = trained 27

10 Zhiqi Shen, Robert Gay and Xuehong Tao Goal-based Intelligent Agents As shown in the level 3 of the hierarchical model, there are three concurrent_with transitions among S 112 to S 115, S 113 to S 116 and S 114 to S 117 which imply the concurrent relationships among them i.e. the agent collects data from the data source A, B, C concurrently. Some elements of the goal model CSGM are as following: Σ = {ID, Description, Status, Duration, Distance, WorthValue}; S = {S 1, S 10, S 11, S 12, S 13, S 14, S 15, S 111, S 112, S 113, S 114, S 115, S 116, S 117, S 118, S 131, S 132, S 133, S 134, S 135 }; T = {T 10, T 11, T 12, T 13, T 14, T 15, T 111, T 112, T 113, T 114, T 115, T 131, T 132, T 133, T 134, T 135 }; A = {S 10 ToT 10, T 10 ToS 11, S 11 ToT 11, T 11 ToS 12, S 12 ToT 12, T 12 ToS 13, S 13 ToT 13, T 13 ToS 14, S 12 ToT 14, T 14 ToS 14, S 111 ToT 111, T 111 ToS 112, S 112 ToT 112, T 111 ToS 113, S 113 ToT 113, T 111 ToS 114, S 114 ToT 114, T 112 ToS 115, S 115 ToT 115, T 113 ToS 116, S 116 ToT 115, T 114 ToS 117, S 117 ToT 115, T 115 ToS 118, S 131 ToT 131, T 131 ToS 132, S 132 ToT 132, T 132 ToS 133, S 133 ToT 133, T 133 ToS 134, S 134 ToT 134, T 134 ToS 132, S 134 ToT 135, T 135 ToS 135 }; D = {S 1, S 11, S 13 }; N = {S 1 S 10 S 15, S 11 S 111 S 118, S 13 S 131 S 135 }; B(S 1 ) = S 1 S 10 S 15 ; B(S 11 ) = S 11 S 111 S 118 ; B(S 13 ) = S 13 S 131 S 135 ; B(others) = 0; H = 3; Other elements of the goal model need to be decided in real application design. As we can see, the goal and the sub-goals of the forecasting agent for carrying out various business forecasting processes, such as data collection, data preparation, model training, reasoning etc., can be well modeled by the composite state model. Moreover, as each state also has a worth value and a distance value to the sub goal and final goal, the partial goal that the agent has reached at each stage can be quantitatively measured. The measurement of the partial goal also enables the agent to evaluate, report its progress and choose the next sub goal autonomously for reaching its final goal. 6. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS A prototype of intelligent business forecasting agents has been developed. It is based on the proposed goal model, goal-based agent model and our earlier work on business forecasting agent framework [7]. The agent is constructed using the Java based agent toolkit we developed earlier for building business forecasting agents. In order to design and implement the proposed goal-based agent model, we modified the business forecasting agent framework [7] accordingly. The proposed composite state goal model is designed in the process unit of the framework and model data will be stored in the knowledge base. The control unit will read the goal model data from the knowledge base and interpret them to conduct the execution of the agent. The business forecasting model is still implemented by the knowledge unit and the model data and parameters are stored in the knowledge base as before. All the application functions and agent functions are defined in the action unit. 28

12 Zhiqi Shen, Robert Gay and Xuehong Tao Goal-based Intelligent Agents The composite state goal model decomposes a complex goal of intelligent agent into sub goals by which the modeling complexity is reduced; By modeling the goal using the composite state goal model, the agents are able to present not only behavior autonomy but also goal autonomy; The composite state goal model supports partial goal by which the flexibility of the agent is increased; The quantified goal measurement enables the agent to reach its goal efficiently. It has been shown that the agent model proposed in this paper not only overcomes the drawbacks of existing goal models but also enables agents to present both behavior autonomy and goal autonomy. An illustration of the practice of using the goal model is also given by the case study which also demonstrates the proposed goal model can well model the complex goals of business forecasting agents for managing various business forecasting processes in a whole life cycle of business forecasting. REFERENCES 1. H. Nwana and D. Ndumu, A Perspective on Software Agents Research, Knowledge Engineering Review, 14(2), 1, J. S. Armstrong, Standards and Practices for Forecasting, Principles of Forecasting: A Handbook for Researchers and Practitioners, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, MA, B. Küsters, The Forecasting Report: A comparative survey of commercial forecasting systems, IT Research, November, Z. Q. Shen and R. Gay, Agent Oriented Business Forecasting, The Pacific Asian Conference on Intelligent System 2001, Seoul, Korea, November 16-17, J. S. Rosenschein and G. Zlotkin, Rules of Encounter: Designing Conventions for Automated Negotiation among Computers, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, J. L. Peterson, Petri Net Theory and the Modeling of Systems, Prentice-Hall, N.J., Z. Q. Shen, R. Gay, X. Li and Z. H. Yang, An Agent Approach for Intelligent Business Forecasting, Intelligent Systems: Technology and Applications. Leondes, C. T., Ed., CRC Press LLC,

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