# Big Data Analytics CSCI 4030

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2 High dim. data Graph data Infinite data Machine learning Apps Locality sensitive hashing PageRank, SimRank Filtering data streams SVM Recommen der systems Clustering Community Detection Web advertising Decision Trees Association Rules Dimensional ity reduction Spam Detection Queries on streams Perceptron, knn Duplicate document detection 2

3 Many algorithms are today classified as machine learning ones. These algorithms extract information from data. Produce summary of data, from which decision is made. Machine learning algorithms learn a model (or classified) from the data. Discover something about data that will be seen in the future.. 3

4 E.g., the clustering algorithms allow us to classify future data into one of the clusters. Machine learning enthusiast call it unsupervised learning. Unsupervised means that the input data does not tell the clustering algorithm what the clusters should be. 4

5 In supervised machine learning: The available data includes information about the correct way to classify at least some of the data. The data classified already is called the training set. This is the main subject of today s lecture. 5

6 Would like to do prediction: estimate a function f(x) so that y = f(x) Where y can be: Real number: Regression Categorical: Classification Complex object: Ranking of items etc. Data is labeled: Have many pairs {(x, y)} x vector of binary, categorical, real valued features y class ({+1, -1}, or a real number) X Y X Y Training and test set Estimate y = f(x) on X,Y. Hope that the same f(x) also works on unseen X, Y 6

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8 Plot the height and weight of dogs in three classes: Beagles, Chihuahuas, and Dachshunds. Each pair (x, y) in the training set consists of: Feature vector x of the form [height, weight]. The associated label y is the variety of the dog. An example of a training-set pair would be ([5 inches, 2 pounds], Chihuahua). 8

9 9

10 The horizontal line represents a height of 7 inches and separates Beagles from Chihuahuas and Dachshunds. The vertical line represents a weight of 3 pounds and separates Chihuahuas from Beagles and Dachshunds. 10

11 The algorithm that implements function f is: Is it supervised on unsupervised learning? 11

12 The algorithm that implements function f is: Is it supervised on unsupervised learning? Here, we are performing supervised learning with the same data (weight and height) augmented by classifications (variety) for the training data. 12

13 y is a real number. ML problem is called regression. y is a boolean value true-or-false (+1 and 1). The problem is binary classification. y is a member of some finite set (classes). The problem is multiclass classification. y is a member of some potentially infinite set. 13

14 Assume four data points: (1, 2), (2, 1), (3, 4) and (4, 3). 14

15 Let these points be a training dataset, where the vectors are one-dimensional. i.e., (1,2) can be thought as a pair ([1], 2), where [1] is feature vector x and 2 is the associated label y. The other points are interpreted, accordingly. 15

16 Suppose we want to learn the linear function f(x) = ax + b That best represents the point of the training set. What is the appropriate value of a and b? A natural interpretation of best is root-meansquare error (RMSE). the value of f(x) compared with given value of y. 16

17 That is we want to minimize RMSE: This sum is: Simplifying the sum is: 17

18 If we then take the derivatives wrt a and b and set them to 0, we get: Therefore, a = 3/5 and b = 1, i.e., f(x) = (3/5)x + 1. For these values the RMSE is

19 We will talk about the following methods: Decision trees Perceptrons Support Vector Machines Neural nets (Neural Networks) Instance based learning Main question: How to efficiently train (build a model/find model parameters)? 19

20 The form of function f is a tree. Each node of the tree has a function of x that determines to which child or children the search must proceed. Decision trees are suitable for binary and multiclass classification. Especially when the dimension of the feature vector is not too large. Large numbers of features can lead to overfitting. 20

21 Perceptrons are threshold functions applied to the vector x = [x 1, x 2,..., x i,, x n ]. A weight w i is associated with the i-th component and there is a threshold θ The output is +1 if and the output is -1 otherwise. Suitable for binary classification. 21

22 Neural nets are acyclic networks of perceptrons the outputs of some perceptrons are used as inputs to others. These are suitable for binary or multiclass classification. since there can be several perceptrons used as output, with one or more indicating each class. 22

23 Uses the entire training set to represent the function f. An example is k-nearest-neighbor. For instance, 1-nearest-neighbor classifies data by giving it the same class as that of its nearest training example. 23

24 Support-vector machines are an advance over the algorithms traditionally used to select the weights and threshold. The result is a classifier that tends to be more accurate on unseen data. 24

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26 A decision tree is a decision support tool that uses a tree-like graph. 26

27 The formal measure of how concentrated into relatively few documents are the occurrences of a given word is called TF.IDF (Term Frequency times Inverse Document Frequency). Suppose we have a collection of N documents. Define f ij to be the frequency (number of occurrences) of term (word) i in document j. 27

28 Then, define the term frequency TF ij to be: Suppose term i appears in n i of the N documents in the collection. Then, TF-IDF is defined as: 28

29 Suppose items are news articles, and features are the high-tf.idf words in those documents. Also suppose there is a user who likes articles about baseball, except articles about the New York Yankees.. The row of the utility matrix for user has 1 if he has read the article and is blank if not. We shall take the 1 s as like and the blanks as doesn t like. Predicates will be boolean expressions of words. 29

30 YES NO YES NO 30

31

32 Example: Spam filtering Instance space x X ( X = n data points) Binary or real-valued feature vector x of word occurrences d features (words + other things, d~100,000) Class y Y y: Spam (+1), Not Spam (-1) 32

33 Binary classification: f (x) = { +1 if w 1 x 1 + w 2 x w d x d -1 otherwise Input: Vectors x (j) and labels y (j) Vectors x (j) are real valued Goal: Find vector w = (w 1, w 2,..., w d ) Each w i is a real number Decision boundary is linear w x = w

34 (very) Loose motivation: Neuron Inputs are feature values Each feature has a weight w i Activation is the sum: f(x) = i w i x i = w x If the f(x) is: Positive: Predict +1 Negative: Predict -1 x 1 x 2 x 3 w 1 w 2 w 3 0? w x

35 Perceptron: y = sign(w x) How to find parameters w? Start with w 0 = 0 Pick training examples x (t) one by one (from disk) Predict class of x (t) using current weights y = sign(w (t) x (t) ) If y is correct (i.e., y t = y ) No change: w (t+1) = w (t) If y is wrong: adjust w (t) w (t+1) = w (t) + y (t) x (t) is the learning rate parameter x (t) is the t-th training example y (t) is true t-th class label ({+1, -1}) y (t) x (t) w (t+1) w (t) x (t), y (t) =1 35

36 Perceptron Convergence Theorem: If there exist a set of weights that are consistent (i.e., the data is linearly separable) the Perceptron learning algorithm will converge How long would it take to converge? Perceptron Cycling Theorem: If the training data is not linearly separable the Perceptron learning algorithm will eventually repeat the same set of weights and therefore enter an infinite loop How to provide robustness, more expressivity? 36

37 Separability: Some parameters get training set perfectly Convergence: If training set is separable, perceptron will converge 37

38 Perceptron will oscillate and won t converge When to stop learning? (1) Use fixed (2) Slowly decrease the learning rate A classic way is to: = c 1 /(t + c 2 ) But, we also need to determine constants c 1 and c 2 (3) Stop when we reached some maximum number of passes over the data 38

39 What if more than 2 classes? Weight vector w c for each class c Train one class vs. the rest: Example: 3-way classification y = {A, B, C} Train 3 classifiers: w A : A vs. B,C; w B : B vs. A,C; w C : C vs. A,B Calculate activation for each class Highest activation wins w C x biggest w C w A x biggest w A w B w B x biggest 39

40 We want to classify Web pages into a number of topics, such as sports, politics, medicine, and so on. We can represent Web pages by a vector with 1 for each word present in the page and 0 otherwise. Each topic has certain words that tend to indicate that topic. For instance, sports pages would be full of words like win, goal, played, and so on. The weight vector for that topic would give higher weights to the words that characterize that topic. 40

41 A new page could be classified as belonging to the topic that gives the highest score when the dot product of the page s vector and the weight vectors for the topics are computed. 41

42 Overfitting: Regularization: If the data is not separable weights dance around Mediocre generalization: Finds a barely separating solution 42

43 Idea: Pretend we do not know the data/labels we actually do know Training Build the model f(x) on set X the training data Validation See how well f(x) does on set the test data Test X set If it does well, then apply it also to X Refinement: Cross validation Splitting into training/validation set is brutal Let s split our data (X,Y) into 10-folds (buckets) Take out 1-fold for validation, train on remaining 9 Repeat this 10 times, report average performance Y 43

44 Perceptron Online: Can adjust to changing target, over time Advantages Simple Guaranteed to learn a linearly separable problem Advantage with few relevant features per training example Limitations Only linear separations Only converges for linearly separable data Not really efficient with many features 44

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46 New setting: Online Learning Allows for modeling problems where we have a continuous stream of data We want an algorithm to learn from it and slowly adapt to the changes in data Idea: Do slow updates to the model Perceptron makes updates if they misclassify an example So: First train the classifier on training data. Then for every example from the stream, if we misclassify, update the model (using small learning rate) 46

47 Protocol: User comes and tell us origin and destination We offer to ship the package for some money (\$10 - \$50) Based on the price we offer, sometimes the user uses our service (y = 1), sometimes they don't (y = -1) Task: Build an algorithm to optimize what price we offer to the users Features x capture: Information about user Origin and destination Problem: Will user accept the price? 47

48 Model whether user will accept our price: y = f(x; w) Accept: y =1, Not accept: y=-1 Build this model with say Perceptron The website that runs continuously Online learning algorithm would do something like User comes She is represented as an (x,y) pair where x: Feature vector including price we offer, origin, destination y: If they chose to use our service or not The algorithm updates w using just the (x,y) pair Basically, we update the w parameters every time we get some new data 48

49 For a major website where you have a massive stream of data then this kind of algorithm is pretty reasonable Why? 49

50 For a major website where you have a massive stream of data then this kind of algorithm is pretty reasonable Why? Don t need to deal with all the training data 50

51 An online algorithm can adapt to changing user preferences For example, over time users may become more price sensitive The algorithm adapts and learns this So the system is dynamic 51

52

53 Want to separate + from - using a line Data: + + Training examples: + (x 1, y 1 ) (x n, y n ) Each example i: - x i = ( x (1) i,, x (d) i ) + - x (j) i is real valued - - y i { -1, +1 } - - Inner product: d w x = j=1 w (j) x (j) Which is best linear separator (defined by w)? 53

54 A B C Distance from the separating hyperplane corresponds to the confidence of prediction Example: We are more sure about the class of A and B than of C 54

55 Margin γ: Distance of closest example from the decision line/hyperplane The reason we define margin this way is due to theoretical convenience and existence of generalization error bounds that depend on the value of margin. 55

56 w Prediction = sign(w x + b) Confidence = (w x + b) y For i-th datapoint: γ i = w x i + b y i Want to solve max w, s. t. i, y ( w x b) i i 56

57 Maximize the margin: Good according to intuition, theory (VC dimension) & practice max w, s. t. i, y ( w x b) i i w x+b= γ is margin distance from the separating hyperplane Maximizing the margin 57

58 Want to estimate w and b! Standard way: Use a solver! Solver: software for finding solutions to common optimization problems, e.g., WEKA Use a quadratic solver: Minimize quadratic function Subject to linear constraints Use Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) 58

59

60 Example: Reuters RCV1 document corpus Predict a category of a document One vs. the rest classification n = 781,000 training examples (documents) 23,000 test examples d = 50,000 features One feature per word Remove stop-words Remove low frequency words 60

61 Questions: (1) Is SGD successful at minimizing f(w,b)? (2) How quickly does SGD find the min of f(w,b)? (3) What is the error on a test set? Standard SVM Fast SVM SGD SVM Training time Value of f(w,b) Test error (1) SGD-SVM is successful at minimizing the value of f(w,b) (2) SGD-SVM is super fast (3) SGD-SVM test set error is comparable 61

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63 Instance based learning Example: Nearest neighbor Keep the whole training dataset: {(x, y)} A query example (vector) q comes Find closest example(s) x * Predict y * Works both for regression and classification Collaborative filtering is an example of k-nn classifier Find k most similar people to user x that have rated movie y Predict rating y x of x as an average of y k 63

64 To make Nearest Neighbor work we need 4 things: Distance metric: Euclidean How many neighbors to look at? One Weighting function (optional): Unused How to fit with the local points? Just predict the same output as the nearest neighbor 64

65 Distance metric: Euclidean How many neighbors to look at? k Weighting function (optional): Unused How to fit with the local points? Just predict the average output among k nearest neighbors k=9 65

66 Distance metric: Euclidean How many neighbors to look at? All of them (!) Weighting function: w i = exp( d x i,q 2 K w ) Nearby points to query q are weighted more strongly. K w kernel width. How to fit with the local points? Predict weighted average: i w iy i i w i 66

67 Given: a set P of n Goal: Given a query point q NN: Find the nearest neighbor p of q in P Range search: Find one/all points in P within distance r from q q p 67

68 Main memory: Linear scan Tree based: Quadtree Hashing: Locality-Sensitive Hashing Secondary storage: R-trees 68

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70 Consider training data for spam s +1 indicates spam Apply Perceptron algorithm with learning rate η = ½ and we shall visit each training example a-f once (stopping criteria) What is the precision of the algorithm given computed weights w? 70

71 Nearest-Neighbor Learning: In this approach to machine learning, the entire training set is used as the model. For each ( query ) point to be classified, we search for its k nearest neighbors in the training set. The classification of the query point is some function of the labels of these k neighbors. The simplest case is when k = 1, in which case we can take the label of the query point to be the label of the nearest neighbor. 71

72 Perceptrons: This machine-learning method assumes the training set has only two class labels, positive and negative. Perceptrons work when there is a hyperplane that separates the feature vectors of the positive examples from those of the negative examples. We converge to that hyperplane by adjusting our estimate of the hyperplane by a fraction the learning rate of the direction that is the average of the currently misclassified points. 72

73 Support-Vector Machines: The SVM improves upon perceptrons by finding a separating hyperplane that not only separates the positive and negative points, but does so in a way that maximizes the margin the distance perpendicular to the hyperplane to the nearest points. The points that lie exactly at this minimum distance are the support vectors. Alternatively, the SVM can be designed to allow points that are too close to the hyperplane, or even on the wrong side of the hyperplane, but minimize the error due to such misplaced points. 73

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