Securities Clearance and Settlement Systems

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1 Public Disclosure Authorized POLICY RESEARCH WORKING PAPER 2581 s TasI Public Disclosure Authorized Securities Clearance and Settlement Systems A Guide to Best Practices How to asses securities clearance and settlement systems, based on international standards and best practices. Public Disclosure Authorized Mario Guadamillas Robert Keppler Public Disclosure Authorized The World Bank Latin America and the Caribbean Region Finance Cluster and Financial Sector Development Department Financial Sector Infrastructure April 2001

2 POLICY RESEARCH WORKING PAPER 2581 Summary findings As an essential part of a nation's financial sector infrastructure, securities clearance and settlement systems must be closely integrated with national payment systems so that safety, soundness, certainty, and efficiency can be achieved at a cost acceptable to all participants. Central banks have paid considerable attention to payment systems, but securities clearance and settlement systems have only recently been subjected to rigorous assessment. The Western Hemisphere Payments and Securities Clearance and Settlement Initiative (WHI), led by the World Bank and in cooperation with the Centro de Estudios Monetarios Latinoamericanos (CEMLA), gave Guadamillas and Keppler a unique opportunity to observe how various countries in Latin America and the Caribbean undertake securities clearance and settlement. To do so, Guadamillas and Keppler developed a practical and implementable assessment methodology covering key issues that affect the quality of such systems. In this paper they discuss the objectives, scope, and content of a typical securities system, identify the elements that influence the system's quality, and show how their assessment methodology works. They focus on the development of core principles and minimum standards for integrated systems of payments and securities clearance and settlement. Their paper fills a gap by providing an evaluation tool for assessors of such systems, especially those who must assess evolving systems in developing and transition economies. Essentially, an assessment involves a structured analysis to answer four related questions: * What are the objective and scope of a securities clearance and settlement system? * Who are the participants, what roles do they play, and what expectations do they have? * What procedures are required to satisfy the participants' needs? * What inherent risks are involved, and how can they be mitigated at an acceptable cost? This paper-a product of the Finance Cluster, Latin America and the Caribbean Region, and Financial Sector Infrastructure, Financial Sector Development Department-is part of a larger effort in the Bank to assess payment systems and securities clearance and settlement systems in Latin America and the Caribbean. Copies of the paper are available free from the World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW, Washington, DC Please contact Helena Issa, room , telephone , fax , address Policy Research Working Papers are also posted on the Web at The authors may be contacted at or April (34 pages) The Policy Research Working Paper Series disseminates the findings of work in progress to encourage the exchange of ideas about development issues. An objective of the series is to get the findings out quickly, even if the presentations are less than fully polished. The papers cariy the names of the authors and should be cited accordingly. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this paper are entirely those of the authors. They do not necessarily representhe view of the World Bank, its Executive Directors, or the countries they represent. Produced by the Policy Research Dissemination Center

3 SECURITIES CLEARANCE AND SETTLEMENT SYSTEMS SECURITIES CLEARANCE AND SETTLEMENT SYSTEMS A guide to Best Practices Mario Guadamillas Financial Economist Finance cluster, LCSFP Latin America and the Caribbean Region The World Bank Robert Keppler Senior Adviser Financial Sector Infrastructure Financial Sector Development Department The World Bank

4 SECURITIES CLEARANCE AND SETTLEMENT SYSTEMS ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The ideas presented in this paper are a by-product of our involvement in the WHI, although they are ours and therefore do not represent the WHI position or the position of any institution participating in the WHI. However, we are grateful for the contribution of our colleagues in the core team of the Initiative, the International Advisory Council (IAC) members, country authorities (central banks and securities regulators) representatives from the Latin American and Caribbean Region and staff of private institutions visited in the context of the Initiative. We want to thank our colleagues in the World Bank, Massimo Cirasino, Fernando Montes-Negret and Augusto de la Torre for their valuable comments. We are also gratefil for the contribution of our colleagues in the field, Iniigo de la Lastra (Comisi6n Nacional del Mercado de Valores, Spain), Ester Saverson (US Securities Commission), Eija Holtinnen (Finland Securities Regulator), and Andrea Salas (Comisi6n Nacional de Valores, Argentina) that contributed to the development of the methodology and provided specific comments on several aspects covered in the paper. ii

5 SECURITIES CLEARANCE AND SEITLEMENT SYSTEMS GLOSSARY OF ACRONYMS BIS CEMLA CNMV CNV COSRA CPSS CSD DvP ESCB FDvP FIBV FRBNY IAC IADB ICSD iosco ISIN ISSA OECD OTC RTGS SADC WB WHI Bank for International Settlements Centro de Estudios Monetarios Latinoamericanos Comisi6n Nacional del Mercado de Valores, Spain Comision Nacional de Valores, Argentina Council of Securities Regulators of the Americas Committee on Payment and Settlement Systems Central Securities Depository Delivery versus Payment European System of Central Banks Final Delivery versus Payment International Federation of Stock Exchanges Federal Reserve Bank of New York International Advisory Council Inter-American Development Bank International Central Securities Depository International Organization of Securities Commissions International Securities Identification Number International Services Securities Association Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Over the Counter Real Time Gross Settlement System Southern African Development Community World Bank Western Hemisphere Payments and Securities Clearance and Settlement Initiative iii

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7 SECURITIES CLEARANCE AND SETTLEMENT SYSTEMS SECURITIES CLEARANCE AND SETTLEMENT SYSTEMS A Guide to Best Practices TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION... I OBJECTIVE, SCOPE, AND ELEMENTS... 1 PARTICIPANTS IN SECURITIES CLEARANCE AND SETTLEMENT SYSTEMS SECURITIES CLEARANCE AND SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES... 5 EXPOSURE TO RISK WITHIN THE SYSTEM A METHODOLOGY TO ASSESS COUNTRY SYSTEMS BASED ON INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS Clearing and Settlement Process Settlement Risks Legal issues Regulatory Oversight Issues Clearing and settlement institutions and their participants Safeguard Policies System capacity GOVERNMENT SECURITIES CLEARANCE AND SETTLEMENT COOPERATION IN THE PAYMENTS SYSTEM CROSS-BORDER SECURITIES CLEARANCE AND SETTLEMENT CONCLUDING REMARKS REFERENCES ANNEX I. SECURITIES CLEARANCE AND SETTLEMENT MATRIX ANNEX II: LIST OF STANDARDS AND BEST PRACTICES Boxes: 1. Securities Clearance and Settlement Procedures Trade Confirmation/Comparison/Affirmation Example of Gross versus Net Settlement Systems TheWHI Figure 1. Number of CSD Organizations Tables: 1. Number of Settlement Operations and Liquidity Needs by Settlement Type Number and Value of Transactions Affected by a Settlement Fail Risk Management Tools for Securities Clearance and Settlement Systems iv

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9 SECURITIES CLEARANCE AND SE7 LEMENTSYSTEMS INTRODUCTION This paper presents a methodology to assess securities clearance and settlement systems based on international standards and best practices. The first part of the paper discusses the major components of a typical system and identifies those issues that determine the extent to which the system satisfies the critical needs of all stakeholders for safety, soundness, certainty and efficiency at an acceptable level of cost. The issues identified during this discussion provide the foundation upon which the assessment methodology is constructed. Although clearance and settlement systems in all countries have a range of common features and functions, it is also clear that local realities stemming from historical developments as well as legal and cultural precedents can have a significant influence on the specifics of a particular national system. With this in mind, the assessment methodology described in this paper should be applied in a way that takes account of both international standards and local realities as it is evident that no specific common system can satisfy the total needs of all countries. The primary policy, organizational, and operational facets of securities clearance and settlement systems can be identified through a structured analysis of the answers to four distinct but interconnected questions: * What is the objective and scope of a securities clearance and settlement system; * Who are the participants, what roles do they play, and what expectations do they have; * What procedures are required to satisfy participant needs; and * What inherent risks are involved and how can they be mitigated at an acceptable cost. OBJECTIVE, SCOPE, AND ELEMENTS' A payment system can be defined as the collection of institutions, instruments, rules, procedures, standards, and technical means used to exchange financial value between two parties discharging an obligation. 2 A securities clearance and settlement system can be considered as part of the overall payment mechanisms of a country in that it satisfies the main features of this overall definition. In this case the exchange of financial value consists both of the exchange of securities (equity, fixed income, or derivatives) and the exchange of liquid funds (usually cash or sight deposits). Regulation and oversight of payment services have traditionally been viewed as one of the three pillars of central banking. The other two are the conduct of monetary policy and active prudential supervision 3 of deposit taking institutions. In terms of securities, government securities have traditionally received close attention from the central banks due to the role that they play as the government's bank as well as the agent of the government in regard to public debt management. Many central banks have enlarged their role in the payments systems field beyond the regulatory and supervisory aspects and provide operational services that supplement or complement services provided by the private sector. The specific role filled I This section benefits from the presentation of Keppler, R.H., 1999, Transforming Payment Systems: The Building Blocks and the World Bank's Role, World Bank/Federal Reserve Bank of New York (FRBNY) Seminar held at FRBNY, April 13-16, Vid. Listfield, R. and F. Montes-Negret, Modernizing Payment Systems in Emerging Economies, August 1994, Policy Research Working Paper #1936, The World, Bank, Financial Sector Development Department. 3 Vid. Padoa-Schiopa, 1992, La Moneta e it Sistema de Pagamenti. 1

10 SECURITIES CLEARANCE AND SETTLEMENT SYSTEMS by central banks differ from country to country and can include the provision of special purpose large value, time-critical, funds transfer systems, bulk low value electronic systems, including automated clearing house services, and government securities clearance and settlement services. The private sector, on the other hand, has traditionally provided most of the services for clearance and settlement of non-government securities. Moreover, in some countries, especially those in the early stages of capital markets development, comprehensive and rigorous attention to regulatory issues is sometimes lacking as initial major emphasis is placed, quite naturally, on matters relating to operational efficiency and cost. Today, securities clearance and settlement systems are recognized as having the same inherent risks as those associated with systemically important payment mechanisms. Both the efficiency and the safety 4 and soundness aspects of these systems are now receiving closer attention from domestic securities regulators as well as international organizations. In essence, the initial prominent role played by the private sector in the implementation and operation of securities systems is now being replaced by a combination of roles shared between the private and public sectors with specific and well defined roles being assigned to the securities regulator. The key attributes of a securities clearance and settlement system can best be illustrated by examining each of the elements contained in the definition of a payments system presented above, i.e., institutions, instruments, rules, procedures, standards, and technical means. Institutions provide the infrastructure to clear and settle securities transactions. Two types of institutions are involved and include "participants" that participate directly or indirectly in the clearance and settlement process (clearinghouses, settlement agents, service providers) or regulatory bodies that provide the regulatory framework to clear and settle securities in an orderly and safe way as well as providing overall oversight for the entire system. Instruments are the vehicles used for transferring value. Two types of instruments are used. On the one hand, there are the securities which, in a broad sense, include equity, fixed income and derivatives. On the other hand, there is the payments instrument which is used to transfer funds from the buyer of the securities to the seller. 'rhe specific instrument used to discharge the payment leg of the obligation varies and it is dependent on the participants to the transaction and the value of the associated payment. This relationship underscores the importance of an efficient and safe payments clearance and settlement system and its interconnectivity with the efficiency and safety of the securities clearance and settlement system. This interdependence will be discussed again in several sections of this paper. Rules refer to the required legal and administrative framework including statutory, regulatory, and contractual rules that govern the rights and obligations of parties to a transaction. A fumdamental ingredient of any efficient clearance and settlement system is a clear, comprehensible, sensible and enforceable (at low cost) legal regime. Technological innovation is having a major impact on the legal, regulatory and administrative arrangements; for example, on the need to ensure that the judicial system 4 These concepts include: speed of settlement, certainty of settlement (correct amount, correct party, correct date, clear understanding when finality occurs), reliability (availability, in accordance with rules and regulations), safety and soundness (to ensure againstfraud, credit and systemic risk, privacy), convenience (easy access, consistent with technological capabilities), cost (realistic, consistent with the service provided), universality (equitable basis by allfinancial institutions, interface with other systems). 5 This paper is not focused on the specific details of derivatives clearance and settlement. For a detailed analysis of these issues vid BIS, September 1998, OTC Derivatives: Settlement Procedures and Counterparty Risk Management, and March 1997, Clearing Arrangements for Exchange-Traded Derivatives. 2

11 SECURITIES CLEARANCE AND SETTLEMENT SYSTEMS accept electronic records as evidentiary material and that digital signatures have the same attached rights and obligations as physical written signatures. The securities clearance and settlement procedures vary significantly from one country to another. In some cases, the domestic procedures will differ depending on the specific nature of the securities that are being traded. Typically, procedures have evolved over time and reflect market practices, conditions, tradition and culture. Today, there is a clear trend towards the use of electronic clearance and settlement mechanisms. A cornerstone of such systems is the role played by central securities depositories (CSDs). Establishing a CSD results in increases both in efficiency and safety through the immobilization of securities and their safe storage in the CSD as contrasted with the old arrangements in which the "scrip" was actually held by the investor. Another benefit usually relates to the issue of securities in a dematerialized or book-entry form. Despite this common evolutionary path, there are still many variations in the way in which CSDs operate at the detailed level. The most recent factor that has been introduced into the world of clearance and settlement concerns the role of standards. Standards are required to facilitate the efficient exchange of data between computer systems and also underpin the drive towards straight-through-processing in which the entire end-to-end or customer-to-customer transaction flow can be computerized. The use of a common set of standards is also essential in facilitating the integration of national systems into efficient and closely integrated international systems. Today, a wide variety of international institutions and organizations6 are involved with the development of standards. In some cases, these standards have been established to realize specific purposes and relate primarily to a specific system or group of systems and thus may not be applicable to all systems. In addition, it should be noted that not every system, especially during the early evolution of securities markets in a country, can or must satisfy all of the standards that have been promulgated. From a practical perspective, the primary need is the availability of a set of standards and implementation guidelines that have applicability to securities markets at different stages of development in mature, transitional, and developing economies. To achieve this end, substantial work is now underway at the international level regarding standards development. It is worth noting that this work, quite appropriately, reflects the close interrelationship between securities transfer systems and funds transfer systems. 7 Finally, the technical means provide the tools, and operational infrastructure for transmitting financial value between participants and intermediaries throughout the processing cycle. As mentioned above technological innovation is providing significant opportunities to reduce operational costs and improve the speed and the security with which information can be processed. However, technological innovation is also introducing new challenges, especially in regard to the need for appropriate legislative changes. PARTICIPANTS IN SECURITIES CLEARANCE AND SETTLEMENT SYSTEMS A broad range of institutions and entities are involved in securities clearance and settlement systems. Regulatory authorities (mainly central banks, superintendencies of banks and securities regulators) create the legal and oversight environment within which the procedures are carried out. Sometimes they also provide clearance and settlement services, mainly in the case of government securities. Participants are those institutions that send/receive orders directly to/from the system or which are directly bound by 6 Box 4 present a list of some of the standards and best practices issued by international institutions and organizations. 7 The CPSS (BIS) and IOSCO have initiated a joint effort to develop a comprehensive list of standards with applicability to all critical aspects of securities clearance and settlement systems. 3

12 SECURITIES CLEARANCE AND SETTLEMENT SYSTEMS the rules governing securities transfer systems. Direct participants directly exchange transfer orders with other participants in the system on behalf of themselves, their customers or on behalf of indirect participants. Indirect participants are distinguished from direct participants by their inability to perform certain activities such as input of transfer orders or acting as a settlement agent. The typical participants are described below along with a note of the functions that they perform and the services they provide. However, as will be noted, the roles of participants are not unique and do vary from country to country and from system to system. For example, some of the services/functions undertaken by a specific participant could be provided/performed by separate entities, or some of the services/functions provided/performed by several participants could be provided/performed by a single participant. Final investors are the individual economic agents in an economy (households and firms) that invest surplus funds or savings with the objective of earning an attractive return on their investment. They normally trade in securities markets through an intermediary, broker/dealer or an institutional investor. Institutional investors (mainly, banks, mutual funds, pension funds, and insurance companies) are playing an increasingly important role in securities markets. The high volume and value of transactions carried out by these institutions place them in a pivotal role in the clearing and settlement processes. International standards recognize the importance of their role and recommend that although they usually are not direct participants in the trading mechanisms, they should have direct participation in the confirmation/comparison/affirmation processes. Both, final and institutional investors are customers of the securities clearance and settlement system. They are buyers, sellers or holders of securities and funds. However, they do not participate directly in the clearance and settlement arrangements. Issuers are institutions that seek financing via the securities markets; thus, are obliged to pay interest or dividends and redeem the principal on securities issued by them. They are normally classified as public or private issuers. This distinction is important as countries often have different systems for processing trades in the public and private securities markets. In addition, the public securities market is normally regulated by the central bank whereas private securities markets are regulated by a separate securities regulatory authority. However, in some countries, where securities regulators do not exist, central banks typically assume the overall regulatory responsibility. Broker-Dealers undertake the primary intermediation role in securities market trading. For this reason they also have a primary role in the clearance and settlement procedures. It is worth mentioning that the evolution and automation of the securities clearance and settlement systems is deeply affecting this segment of the industry. In particular, the design of the system, especially its impact on the liquidity needs that must be funded by these institutions, constitute sometimes a significant operational constraint. This can present particular difficulties for broker-dealers that focus on the retail sector. Custodians are entities that undertake the safekeeping of securities and other financial instruments on behalf of others. They may provide other services such as clearance and settlement, securities lending, etc. A Global Custodian provides those services in respect of securities traded and settled not only in the country where the custodian is located but also in other countries throughout the world. Central Securities Depositories (CSDs) provide-facilities for holding securities in either immobilized or book-entry form. In addition to providing this safekeeping role, a CSD may provide trade comparison services, and clearing and settlement services. International Central Securities Depositories (ICSDs) are institutions that settle trades in international securities and in various domestic securities. They usually settle the trades in their own books or through 4

13 SECURITIES CLEARANCE AND SErTLEMENTSYSTEMS direct or indirect links (through local agents) to domestic CSDs. Exchanges and Over the Counter (OTC) markets are the mechanisms for trading activity carried out by broker-dealers. Prices are determined by auction bidding on the floor of an exchange or by negotiation (through telephone communications, computer-controlled networks of quotation terminals, etc.) between buying and selling broker-dealers in the case of OTC markets. The key factor from a clearing and settlement perspective is the way in which trading information is transmitted rather than on the way in which trading takes place. The clearing agent is the entity that carries out the procedures of trade capture, matching, confirmation and calculation of obligations relating to securities transfer instructions prior to settlement. These functions are normally provided by CSDs together with the depository function or by the exchange where the trading takes place. Sometimes the clearing agent assumes counterparty risk by netting the aggregate positions of the participants in a process referred to as "novation". In this case, the clearing agent also performs the settlement function. A settlement agent manages the settlement process, determines the settlement positions and monitors the exchange of securities and payments. Again, this function is sometimes provided by CSDs or exchanges. The payment of funds is usually done through a settlement bank (private bank or central bank), although in some situations is directly done by the broker/dealer or its paying agent through a means of payment such as a check or a certified check. A correspondent bank provides payments and other services to another bank. Such services are primarily provided across intemational boundaries. It is included in this list because of its relevance to cross-border securities transactions and especially in regard to the role it plays in the payments leg of the transaction. SECURITIES CLEARANCE AND SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES After a trade is executed in an exchange or an OTC market there are still a number of stages to be followed in order to achieve an effective transfer of value (securities vs. payment) between the counterparties. These procedures can be quite different from one country to another and even in the way that different securities are traded within a country. This section describes the key aspects of this process. An exhaustive treatment of the many variations and local conditions embedded in such systems around the world is not attempted. The primary purpose is to illustrate the key issues that authorities should consider when striving to achieve an appropriate balance between safety and efficiency. To cover the full range of unique characteristics encountered in specific countries is beyond the scope of this paper. This task is being performed by intemational organizations that have published or are in the process of publishing reports describing the specific operational and regulatory mechanisms embedded in specific national systems. 8 8 The Committee on Payment and Settlement Systems (CPSS) of the central banks of the Group of Ten countries periodically publishes - under the aegis of the Bank for International Settlements (www.bis.org)- reference works on payment systems in various countries, the so-called Red Books. Volumes that are similar to the Red Book format have also been issued by the European Monetary Institute (for the European Union countries) and by the Executives' Meeting of East Asia and Pacific Central Banks and Monetary Authorities (for the EMEAP member countries). "The Green Book", covering the countries of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) has been produced by the SADC Payment System Project Team under the auspices of the SADC Committee of Central Bank Governors. The WHI S

14 SECUPJ TIES CLEARANCE AND SETTLEMENT SYSTEMS Box 1 presents the typical procedures that are undertaken in a securities clearance and settlement system. The lifecycle of a securities transaction involves three phases: trade execution, trade clearance, and trade settlement. 9 These procedures should be designed and developed to work within a specific legal and operating environment and thus take account of local regulatory and oversight arrangements. An understanding of these latter factors is essential as they influence the way in which the procedures are used and thus contribute to any inherent risks embedded in the system. The nature of the operational environment is assuming increasing importance in most countries as technological innovation is changing the way that information is processed and managed and thus has an impact on all other factors. The way the authorities adapt to the new operational conditions is critical to maintaining efficient and safe systems. It is thus clear, that both the legal and regulatory oversight arrangements need to evolve in line with technology driven changes in operational procedures. inttbuying t i Buying tex Chon A Selling ini Selling r Books", Cusering both payments and securities clerance and s ebroker f Ln Customer a Emerging Market Economies World Bank Discussion Pap, N. 3 Pay;0 ing00 7 ' A gent'6 9 Vid., Apri tehm, 1996,Clearace andsettlement SsesfrScrte:Ciia eincocsi 2.iei te client's<:t.* ffw tae dtail of trnation ex aeted. f fww.iphe-whpf.org) seords nato C d by hearn Agetrad BrnkanCEML,wtrstiiaino bodrneo intitten thradoeeugitineationcubonal Advisrety between thec isnerlabratieng asaitiaeorts, b Yelleen Bok" coveringse bothrog payentscupoc seuiiscommranicatnd and s se5ttement foais comerocn tatd Caribbean Region. 9 Vid. Stehm, J., April 1996, Clearance and Settlement Systems for Securities: Critical Design Choices in Emerging Market Economies, World Bank Discussion Papers, No

15 SECURITIES CLEARANCE AND SETTLEMENTSYSTEMS TRADE CLEARANCE, Trade CaptureM:atchimg/ConfirmatbofComparisou and Affirmation 4. Brkers, both buying and selling. semd to the Clearing Ae-t a details Broke deliver a c5 The to their custers co ghe detail O custome?s ex cited orders. S. The Clring Agent com each side of the trade and trep vaq brq., 6. For lare itutd iesrthe confirnation is nrall direted td an it ry such as a custodian acing as agent "for he investor in the cleaing proces During tht phae the inftmadonflow continues untii there are nw msae Jn trade deta. In some cases those procses m y occur outsid of the lewing- ee Irad executonprocess When the trd are *4.nsmited as 'oked-lw itwactliw y$e r sstems;qf the echnge or r market, the d f e es hw t*ed Id&,-all cemp"in of trades bedween matii key tw. *mw br Calculatilo of settlemet oblgatio 7. The Clearing Aget sends to the brokes, custo4ianad a sede FiJd s (gross, bilatal net or multiea net) and the fnd b :i l1 lm t at(gross, or net). In case ofmiakes, t inormation fo continues nil the besare coe The selling broker must provide aiaility of securities befoe the ttime,t ad he buying broke must provide availabiliy of funds befor the -im ---. Avaiaility of securities * &ecurities in book-entfm:.mmobilzed and demaeriaized serities are availe throuh the broker's acconts in the 4iotory Normally, Ie :w- se*it -trf trade are bloced unil the rade is setd4e and cann be used for other trads hse days. 2 e T2WJhm:Yhe brokersholdmakethemavaiable. : the ett..:e. da. Availabiy of funds * Pamen hgh asetm agent In this care brokr or it -yn genaha. an account at the settlement gnt *ualy a b aand t learing balances to the settlement agewnt fore setalme day. &Oker%, pyta t b.azks or custodiansendthefinus bore eement t- -. * Diec PaMe by t &k. In this case buying brker 4irecty povide thends at settlementime by a n&ns of payment (e.g., acheck, ceitifled a direc paymen through its paying agent to the selling broker. In some occions the dearing agn guarantees the trade netng he d wiy ad recet of settleet obligations. This is referred to as "novadon"w or t oe parfor ano (the clearng agenbecomethe -rto ev sreler nd theselerto eer b-w)y4 ht most markets trade clkaae &pkshy rangesfrm T+l to T+S. TRADE SETTLEMENr 8. Securities are delivered in exchange of finds. Delivery of securities * Through a Depository (securities ar previously immobzized in the depository or issu in a dematerialized form) * Diectly between the brokens (physicai form of securities) 7

16 SECURITIES CLEARANCE AND SETTLEMENT SYSTEMS of scurthe frog a certainmeunt Agefntso atclrstlmn ae h rnato eal ol be agreddirectly between the brokersntbypartiestanso aym ( iont ete.g,c enk bertiferdcek)saeomal 9.rThed olutin ar exhanagl oregitemrkedntheenra Boxk aicountrtes the se ofd trasaciona wil urolessethog aexhneinte seteds1 by and 3ia Frscleaion ceadstlmn.upsstefc htataei xctdi Snexcuratie OTCarkferred are nthroighnihclarignttwt.itscldlvr o hog ok Taecearntcssem. reer the laht case, durtes depository is o determninstttin the obliations ogen dinsructmre paticpet dboepsorydeales,d t. thmovdem ienroh securities takeuns polachouigh thae dxepository I inccunts trd Fcpure, smttlcheng,cnt ulcb ain, o mpadreityon ane bffrokers/delrsoyc edurs (stpsymento6i thr box agh the cacuaymen o gnf o cnrlze obiainage nesettlement 7i o ) ta nen t raeeies andcupay the inexse disectly reod(athroug the brkers inormaits peaying aeto thetrpaye oandciv the monuey oha the counticrpaties bgehalfo allof eias the anyi of casen phurnscinan r blct seuiies, fod bothfecritiese tandfud,te settilemethnt isd in exchane in sstep 2 3 ian orceane af n settl ademe purpoesthel sa a ta t dofnntone. trug the Cexhntraor OaTk accounts tdeanlsecuitis shouled-n teades,veraed m,athnd sl done Thjpocessy weinswihhh trade execution adllteephase.dthes tou parutisagreeul wtoxhange aelcertai aounth inofscrmatiefon inofscriatiefor by therti ay ecanount ecange.t of fundsion foreigon inetr anetr particulate participate settlementddate.ctheotransbactio intthemtrading;.custodiansbankso detmailsy normailly actul acul be as agreeds agrents forethese directlye bnestoreenth inestorsen the two clenterpaties.etransactionscestween clearouncerandtses.tlementtprocess.win sromer/casers, broker/dalers, indrec andrec nomallyt nomarket carriiedaots (instanuexchalngestors atd markt.dianb)x 1u ilutoae the casvlue ofa theransacationprcsse pathroughe ane exlchlangen or settlemaretsnot sbigainiscant. oeo rs,2 iaea e,1 r utltrlnt1 joithe weiths andinsedits execution trade pracedures o oofth siutaneously th the del ieryt the Itra calculation sde ffculeaat of settlement rfr to thedscoue obligations proceduarkes caep7 necessaryins n beone 1.Onc thos gross, deterin a biateraltd,th othie ob rlgtos net,xoutilatera ofd diectanmarket ne to prticogipantst(boker/dealgers, etc. otoheier securnitiesad fundsrefolltowng maktrande bdexeuto. Tit icludtesa participants trdeffcapture (is macing,h tutonal confirmatcfeuion,s ienveto and cuditsetod cmparasnc due entioe and afftlrmantio the hh procemsdures(tp4 olme off thder opertions, to inablt 6h participantues box mondto thencalulationl ofrettlrements obligation (stepd7rin box 1).One beavo tradie wisxcted the dofonexct, sepsto. records (capse) the koeytinom atio re lating to e thra tradess andg oasr.ht h oneptiareuo cothisrpaseisn.i smtimes referrede tora OTradket Procesming. okdi"trdsrd athn sdn joitl wth sete tae entocursioandivdallyo anes ordr-yoreduesocr bsis. tnosy ihtedlieyo h inor3 T to deitxadcranedits yhe betweegn anyetw oprtcpns partiiae se offn;cstda th ak nralc secogd stock exchangesnorm other recognized selfre and oditesathies bn cgreates a 'Eahparticipant's (nttotioal deinetor and cretditns)du to entir the systmuae offst theaing thertos participantewt single dllofilthe nraet inrms pospaition of the performansceio inyeltion toithe secuarites enstire aleaoran system.to and ftaedtis settl t ssthemsdue tohe itabilit (atog mni Th clultinofsetemntoliatos anb dn o agos,' iltea nt73ormutlaerln8'

17 SECURITIES CLEARANCE AND SETTLEMENT SYSTEMS basis for both the securities balances and the funds balances. The choice is not irrelevant. On the contrary, it impacts very importantly the efficiency and risk exposure of the system. In addition, this choice is influenced by market characteristics, especially those relating to the availability of liquidity. As it will be made clear later in this section, the principle strengths and weaknesses of the two methods require careful study and always result in tradeoffs between liquidity requirements and risk mitigation, especially those risks relating to settlement failure. Gross settlement systems eliminate risk, but require more liquidity than net settlement systems. However, net settlement systems have increased risk due to the deferred nature of the settlement process. Box 2. Trade confirmation/comparison/affirmation Trade comparison type i Description Locked-in Matched.The Exchange or OTC market deliver trades of its participants on a locked-in basis, ta is, the trades are already matched. Theinformation on securities traded by its participants is submitted to the clearing agent by the excharge or OTC market, which compares and matches I the buy and sell sides of Xt trades.comparison members subriit the trade dat and the clearing agent send confinnation reports to comparison members that validat the compason of the trade data. Finally, settlement involves the discharge of settlement obligations through the final transfer of securities from the seller to the buyer, and the final transfer of funds from the buyer to the seller. Again, this could be done by a variety of procedures but two elements represented by the concept of Final Delivery versus Payment (FDvP)' 5 are critical. This means that securities should be delivered if, and only if, there is payment and vice versa, i.e., on a Delivery versus Payment (DvP) basis. But as important as the previous concept is that transactions are final, i.e., that the securities and funds legs cannot be reversed, it should also be noted that finality is affected by the particularities of legal and judicial systems. Thus, legal issues such as the concept of nominee or the provisions embedded in bankruptcy laws should be seriously considered by the authorities to ensure consistency with securities laws, regulations and operational procedures. Clearly, securities clearance and settlement systems are characterized by many features and functions. Experience indicates that three features are especially significant when designing a country assessment methodology as they represent core system design issues with varying solutions each having associated strengths and weaknesses. They are: (a) the instruments themselves which can be either paper-based or held solely as computer records, (b) the role of CSDs, and (c) the use of gross versus net settlement schemes. Systems typically evolve from an initial use of paper-based instruments with physical delivery of certificates between counterparties to computer-based transfer mechanisms in which records of ownership are held in so-called book-entry form. Evolution usually takes place in two steps. The initial step comprises immobilization in which the paper instruments are stored in a secure location or locations rather than being held by the individual investors. The second step is concerned with dematerialization in which paper instruments are replaced by computer records. Clearly the pace of evolution is heavily dependent on the availability of appropriate technology, and the size of the market in terms of both volume of securities issued and traded and the number of active investors. Technological innovation has 5 This concept is referred sometimes as true DvP or real DvP. 9

18 SECURITIES CLEARANCE AND SETTLEMENT SYSTEMS reduced equipment and telecommunications costs and has facilitated the trend to move away from the physical delivery of instruments. This is not only a more efficient mechanism but also a safer one as it eliminates the movement of paper and thus reduces associated risks such as those relating to lost, stolen, or altered documents In an immobilized system, physical certificates are held in secure vaults and provide the essential support for book-entry maintained ownership positions of market participants. In a dematerialized system, physical securities do not exist as they are replaced by book-entry records. In such systems the individual investor has an interest right in a pool of fungible securities. Key issues to be addressed when contemplating the elimination of physical delivery relate to the legal framework and the attitudes of investors. A legal framework which is appropriate for paper-based systems does not readily accommodate immobilization or dematerialization. Normally, amendments to laws are required, and depending on the legal system of the country, this can take a long time and should be taken into account. In many situations, individual investors have more confidence in a system which allows them to hold physical securities despite the associated risks. In moving to book-entry based systems, it is frequently necessary to wean investors away from this practice by providing an initial option to hold securities in either format as well as the option to change from one fornat to the other. A market strategy based on incentive pricing coupled with the dematerialization of all new issues can then be used to progressively move toward full dematerialization. Figure 1. Number of CSD Organizations ~~~~~~~~~~~~2 100 x - : , * * Includes 20 operational and/or planned CSDs. Source: Thomas Murray, "Evaluating Local Market Custody Arrangements" A second important improvement initiative, closely related to that described above, is the establishment of central securities depositories/registries (CSDs) (see Figure 1). These institutions are created to facilitate the smooth and efficient operation of book-entry systems. CSDs provide key services including securities ownership recordkeeping and custody of physical certificates in irnmobilization regimes. However, in some systems there are still requirements for post-settlement processing such as the updating of share registers and the issue of replacement certificates. CSDs usually perform the clearing agent function and sometimes they also provide dividend and interest payments services. These institutions are normally private firms with a non-profit objective and are constituted as Self Regulatory Organizations (SROs) under the oversight of the securities market regulator. The use of the word "central" can be misleading, as there can be several depositories in a country rather than only one. The number of depositories depend on the complexity and size of the market. Nevertheless, today there is a trend towards centralizing all the securities clearance and settlement activity of a country in one single CSD with possibly a number of linked sub-depositories. A gross settlement system requires a critical mass of marketable securities and system-wide liquidity for its efficient operation. Systemic risk in gross settlement systems is low as transactions are not executed unless there are securities and funds in the accounts of the counterparties. The relatively recent and 10

19 SECURITIES CLEARANCE AND SE7TLEMENTSYSTEMS rapidly growing use of real time gross settlement systems' 6 reduces credit and liquidity risk in comparison with batch processing systems. 1 7 However, the associated liquidity needs may represent a significant constraint to the adoption of these systems in securities markets, as participants are mainly broker/dealers that typically lack the amount of liquidity required for the smooth operation of such systems, unless they are owned by or have a close relationship to a commercial bank. For this reason, the choice of settlement mechanism is not straightforward. It could affect the evolution of the market in terms of the dominant institutions (banks vs. non bank dependent broker/dealers) and the pattern of the market towards a retail or wholesale dominance.'8 As a consequence, gross settlement systems are more frequently used to remove the risks embedded in large-value funds transfers systems in which the main participants are banks that have access to intraday liquidity provided by the central bank within carefully controlled arrangements. Well designed gross settlement systems typically include queue management procedures and other mechanisms such as bilateral and multilateral offset arrangements to mitigate against the impact of so called gridlock' 9 in the system. Net systems, because of the deferred nature of settlement, avoid the need for large amounts of intraday liquidity, however the specific volume and value of transactions flows should be studied to determine the potential for risk. By reducing the overall value of the final funds transfers that have to be made between participating financial institutions, netting can enhance the efficiency of national payments systems. But netting can also contribute to an increase in systemic risk. This may be the case if, instead of achieving reductions in participants' true exposures, it merely obscures the level of these exposures. The true position becomes apparent only when the net positions are identified at the end of the clearing cycle. At this point, shortages of either securities or funds are identified. Should appropriate cover not be available, then in the simple case, transactions have to be unwound with the obvious negative impact on system participants and market confidence. Well designed netting systems can mitigate against these implications by invoking previously agreed settlement assurance procedures. Such procedures can be quite costly and are sometimes quite difficult to put in place. In some system arrangements, the clearing agent guarantees settlement and in effect becomes the counterparty to each trade. This mechanism is referred to as novation and requires that a supporting legal environment is in place. Operational systems, especially those in transition, often exhibit a combination of gross and net schemes. For example, it is not uncommon to see systems that combine securities gross settlement with funds net settlement. The BIS made an effort to categorize the range of existing systems 20 using different flavors of the concept of DvP, already mentioned. It should also be noted that the boundaries between real time gross settlement systems and net settlement systems are becoming blurred. An increasing number of net settlement systems now settle periodically during the day rather than solely at the end of the day. This reduces the potential for settlement failure by reducing the progressive build-up of credit exposures between participants. Also, as noted earlier, gridlock busting routines in gross settlement arrangements make use of embedded net settlement off-set concepts. This trend is continuing and it is likely that some form of final convergence between these mechanisms will take place. 16 A gross settlement system in which processing and settlement take place in real time (continuously). 17 Processing of a group of securities transfer instructions and/or payment orders at a set of discrete intervals of time. 18 The debate about this issue is broader and covers other areas such as equal regulatory treatment. 19 Situation in which the failure of some transfer instructions to be executed prevents a substantial number of instructions from other participants from being executed 20 BIS (CPSS), September 1992, Delivery versus payment in securities settlement systems. 11

20 SECURITIES CLEARANCE AND SE7TLEMENT SYSTEMS In order to clarify and quantify the points previously developed, let's assume a market with k broker/dealers and only one traded security. Matrix T represents the transactions carried over by broker/dealers in this market. An item in the matrix, tj, represents the value of securities bought by broker/dealer i from broker/dealer j. 21 In a gross seftlement system, matrix T represents the number and value of transactions as well as the number and value of settlement operations. If transactions are settled on a bilateral basis, the number and net value of settlement operations are represented by Matrix N. In this case, n 1 j, represents the net position of broker/dealer i against broker/dealer j. If the net system uses a multilateral basis, the number and value of settlement operations is represented by matrix M, in which each element of the matrix, mi, represents the multilateral net position of each broker/dealer. Matrix T Matrix N Matrix M O tf2 t1 3.. tlk 0 ni2 n,3 nik m t21 0 t23... t2k 0 0 n 2 3 n2k?2 t31 t t3k k tkl tk2 tk O m3 ni = tij-tiil mij = t ti-e tij }=1 11 Table I shows the type of settlement in combination with the number and value of settlement operations. 22 In a gross settlement system the number and value of settled operations is higher than in net systems, i.e., the liquidity needs of the system is potentially higher. The analysis could be made more exhaustive by assuming a combination of different types of settlement for the securities leg and the payments leg, but it would complicate the exposition without affecting the conclusions. However, as mentioned earlier, it is not uncommon to see systems that combine securities gross settlement with funds net settlement or other type of combinations. Table 1. Number of Settlement Operations and Liquidity Needs by Settlement Type Settlement Type Number of Settlement Value of Settlement Settlement Type ~Operations Operations Gross k (k-i) E iti i=l j=1 Bilateral Net k (k-1)/2 E E n Multilateral Net k mi i=l k k i=l k k j=l 21 For simplicity purposes, it is assumed that each item in the matrix, ty, represents a single operation, thus, matrix T provides the information about the number of operations (one per item) and the value. It is assumed, also for simplicity purposes, that there are no transactions within a broker. 22 Note that in this case, the number and value of transactions is the same as the number and value of settlement operations, unlike the case of net systems. 12

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