PREPARING ELEMENTARY EDUCATION MAJORS TO TEACH SCIENCE USING AN INQUIRY-BASED APPROACH: THE FULL OPTION SCIENCE SYSTEM

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1 PREPARING ELEMENTARY EDUCATION MAJORS TO TEACH SCIENCE USING AN INQUIRY-BASED APPROACH: THE FULL OPTION SCIENCE SYSTEM FRED R. MANGRUBANG R FDiiCATiON traditionally has received insufficient attention. As a literature review shows, teacher preparation in science will be best served by improvements in pedagogy and in the content of required undergraduate science courses. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (1993, 1995) and the National Research Council (1993, 1995) have addressed this need in advocating a "science for all" that is highly significant for diverse learners. The No Child Left Behind Act emphasizes that reform of teacher preparation is part of an urgent national commitment to bring high-quality teacher candidates into the classroom. The Gallaudet University undergraduate teacher education program has developed an inquiry-based course that emphasizes integration of the sciences. Acquisition of the Full Option Science System, and its adaptation to and integration into the course, has resulted in specific curricular changes and positive results. MANGRUBANG is AN ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, GALLAUDET UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, DC. Publications such as Science for All Americans (Rutherford & Ahlgren, 199) and The Sciences: An Integrated Approach (Trefil & Hazen, 1998) underscore the need for better science education for all atiults. This inclutles prospective elenientarv" school teachers. Most students who earn an education degree in elementary school teaching are extensively trained in forma! classroom teaching methodology, pedagogy, ant! concepts and theories, and they experience field wt)rk ant! student teaching. But they get littie if any opportunity for inquiry-baseti training that emphasizes integration of the sciences. Integration of the sciences is an effort to encapsulate the "big ideas in science" approach to teaching. A big idea is one that: (a) "represents central scientific ideas and organizing principles," (b) "has rich explanatory and predictive power," (c) "motivates the formulation of significant questions," and (d) "is applicable to many situations anc! contexts comnit)n to everyday experiences" (National Research Council, 1993, p, 4). Tobias (1997) observed that teacher preparation in science wil! best served by improvements in pedagogy and in the content of the required undergraduate science courses for prospective teachers, ant! bv the reform tif VouME 149, No. 3, 24 A.MER1C\.\.\.\N.\LS OF THE DE.\F

2 itiethod.s courses. Bur.science teaching has not received the attention it deserves. TyiJicaily, ajntent specialists such as professors who teach science courses are out of toucli with elementaiy and secontiar\' classrooms. The same holds true for edutation faculty who teach die generic education courses: They are likewise out of touch with advances in science. Cauj^ht in the middle are prospective teachers, who must get a hachelor's degree and meet expectatit)ns of the state credentiaiing agency. Moreover, according to the National Science 'Ic-achers Association (23), adminis- U'ative support in grades K-12 is the key to systematic science education reform, in the ai'eas of science teaching and leai"[iing. [irofessitmal devel- {ipment. science t urrit ulum, antl assessment, the full support of the key players in the reform process^ the superintendent, the board of education, and the chief.state school officer is rec uired to shape policy and promote collaboration among the science leadership in the schools. Traditional approaches to teaching have not taken into account diverse learning styles. Even the hest and brightest students have difficulties grasping many ideas that are covered in the science textbooks using the traditional approaches to teaching. I'sing lecture as the only method of educating students fails to C(.)nvey the big ideas (Amedcan Association for t!ie Advancement of Science. 2). On the other hand, students who are taught hands-on science doing e.\- [leriments or discussing [U'ohlems have a better attitude toward science than tho.se who are taught b\' means of the more traditional combination of lectures and textbook reading assignments {The Bayer Facts. 199"^), A review nt the literature illustrates the need for reform in science teaching, Hffecti\'e teaching strategies are needed to enable students to learn.science in a more authentic manner and obtain efficient strategies foracquidng, transforming, organizing, and ap!")lying information useful in [problem solving (Roth. McGinn, ^S; Howen, 199H). 'llvo major national efforts to reform science teaching have been initiated: Project 261, by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, antl the National Science Education Stantlards, by the National Research C^^ouncil. Project 261 began in 19HT with the goal of helping all,\mericans become literate in science, tnatheniatics, and technology. It set out rei-ornniendations for what all stlidents should know and he able to do in science, mathematics, and technology'by the time they gratluate from high school (Amedcan Association for the Advancement of Science, 1993, 2). The National Science Edutation StantSards are designed to guide the United States towarti becoming a scientihcalk' literate society. The underk'ing goal of the National Science Htliication Standards is the education of students who are able to (a) experience the richness antl excitement of knowing about anti untlerstantling the natural wt)rld, (b) use af)prt)priate scientific proces.ses and principles in making personal decisions, (c) engage intelligently in public discourse and debate about matters of scientific and techntilogical concern, antl, (tl) increase their economic [irotluctivity through the use of knowledge, untlerstanding, and skills that scientifically literate people employ in their careers (National Research Council, 1993, 1995). Both the American Association for the Advancement of Science antl the National Research Council emphasize a commitment to "science for all" that is highly significant ft)r diverse learners. In the National Science Ktlutation Stantiartis, the National Researth C'ountil (1995) asserts: The intent of the Standards can he expressed in a single phrase: Science Stantiartis for all students. The jihrase c'mbddics both excellence anil c't]uity. The Standartis uppw to all students. regartuess of age. gentler, cultural or ethnic background, tlisabilities, aspirations, or interest antl motivation in science. Different students will achieve understanding in tiifferent ways, antl tiifferent stutienss will achieve different degrees of tlepth antl breatlth of untierstanding tlepentiing on interest, ability, and context. BLU all stutlents can tle- \elop the knowletlge and skills descrihed in the Stantiartis, even as some students go well beyond these levels, (p, 2) In atitlition to their diverse backgrounds, deaf chiltlren have unit ue learning needs and styles, Moores and Meadow-Orlans (199) tjbserved that t hiltiren who are deaf or harti of hearing are [ilacetl in a mainstreamed setting with a seeming tlisregartl for their linguistic background, language tievelopment. and communication need.s. According to Moores and Meadow- (3rlans. teacbers can meet these needs by working with parents in tiesigning an intlivitlualized education program (IEP), The IEP can be used tt) guide the child's education and tietermine hi.s or her [ilacement. In the areas of teaching, Jodi Peterson (23), director of legislative affairs for the National Science 'leachers Asst> ciation, stated that the No Child Left Behind Act, signetl into law by President George W Bush on January 8, 22, elevates the fetleral role in K-12 education anti [iromises significant changes in the way schools educate chiltiren. A ret]uirement for teachers in the No Child Left Behind Act is that all teachers in core academic areas be "highly c]ualified" no later than the end of the school year. In K 149, No. 5, 24 AMKHICAN ANNAIJS or

3 THE FULL OPTION SCIENCE SYSTEM schools receiving Title I funds for the education of disadvantagecl children, newly hired teachers in core academic subjects must already meet Congress's definition of Iiiglily qualified" prior to entering the classroom. The core academic subjects are defitied as English, reading tir language arts, mathematics, science, foreign language, civics and government, economics, arts, histoiy, antl geography (Office of Policy Planning and Innovation, 23). Under the terms of the No Child Left Behintl Act, to be "highly qualified," teachers must hold at least a bachelor's degree from a 4-year institution, hold full state certification, and demonstrate competence in their subject area. Newly hired elementary school teachers working in core academic areas must pass a rigorous state test of subject knowledge and teaching skills in reading-language arts, writing, mathematics, antl other areas of the basic elementary school curriculum. Newly hired middle school and high school teachers in core academic areas can demonstrate their subject-matter competence by passing a rigorous examination of their content knowledge, majoring in their subject as an undergraduate, earning a graduate degree in their subject, accumulating the course-work et uivalent of an undergraduate major, or attaining an advanced certificate or credential (K-16 Teacher Education Task Force, 2). The No Child Left Behind Act emphasizes that reform of teacher preparation is part of an urgent national commitment to bring high-quality teacher candidates into the classroom. Teacher preparation programs must reconsider tratlitional models in schools of education and seek innovative ways to improve their programs in order to produce high-quality teachers {Office of Policy Planning and Innovation, 23). Teacher preparation programs must blend current research on teaching and learning with what actually goes on in schtiols. To meet these challenges and, in particular, to accomplish the goal of having a highly qualifictl teacher in every classroom, starting in the academic year the Gallaudet Universit)' undergraduate teacher education program began using an inquiiy-based approach that emphasizes integration of the sciences into the Methods of Teaching Klemcntaiy Science course. This curricular innovation broadens and enriches the study of science by exploring the links among the various scientific disciplines and these disciplines" connections to the external world. Traditionally, prospective elementary school teachers have taken only one or two science courses as undergraduates, BLit this does not give them a sufficiently broad background in the sciences they will be required to teach. More important, accommodating diverse learners in teaching an inciuir\'-based course promtites cultural pluralism and social equality by reforming the curriculum to make it reflect diversity Elementary school teachers assume responsibility for introtlucing children to language arts, social studies, mathematics, and science. It has been documented that of those four areas, science gets the least attention (Tilger, 199), According to Tilger, elementary school teachers especially avoid teaching science because of their inadequate preparation in this area thrtjughout their own education. The outcome from a lack of science education in the elementar\' years is that students will demonstrate a low level of science proficiency throughout their school years, A review of instruction-related articles published in the American Annals of the Deaf from 1996 to 2 showed that not one was concerned with science (Moores, Jathro, & Creech, 21). Moores and colleagues intiicated that science represents a significant gap in the deaf education literature. Science instruction at the college or university level is frequently "distasteful," even for diverse learners (Tobias, 199). In Tobias's study, science was presented through the use of expository teaching techniques with little student-professor interaction, A well-established hierarchy within the classrt^om placed students at the lowest level and instructors at the upper level. Interactions between students and instructors rarely occurred, either within or outside the classroom. In Tobias's study, when students had difficulty with course content, they were referred to former students or to graduate students instead of being allowed to interact directly with the instructor. Participants in Tobias's study described their college-ieve! or university-level science classes as devoid of human contact; individual students worked akme without support from their instructors, or even human interaction with them. Moreover, the environment of science classrooms and laboratories was hostile. Students were physically isolated from each other by the seating arrangements in the classrooms, and sat in rows in large lecture rooms, usually with empty seats on either side of them. Furthermore, the students found their science courses dull, dry, overly factual, and too quantitatively oriented. The problems of science instruction Tobias described have been reported by other researchers and are typical of elementary and secondan' schools as well as college and university science classrooms. Lohmann and Stacy (1992) demonstrated that colleges and universities Voi,rM!: 149. No, A.MERICAN ANNALS OP THR DFAF

4 mtist prepare students to become lifelonj^ learncns capable of adapting to a changitig ptxifessiotial workplace. 'In meet thi^ re,spo[i,sil>ilit\', C(>llege and tini\'et".sities neetl to reflect a similar type t)f collaboration and integration t>f the curricula they offer students. Many undergraduate science students view the separate disciplines of mathetnatics, biology, anti physics as unrelated and with little to offer each other, Ftir example, undergraduate biology students tto not become skilled in mathematics anti pliysics, and few mathematics (jr [ihysit.s.sttidents exploi-e application of their stuclies in the life scietices. Although college atnl university ctirricula provitle students with excellent training in a.science distiplinc. few curriclila offer science majors adet]uate opporttmities lo de\el<) i many of the skills on which their professional success will depend (National Science Foundation, 1996). An iik]uii"y-based course that emphasizes integration of the sciences has consistently been shown t(j develop skills in students by stimulating them to Ljuestion conce it.s anti ideas (Klein ik Doty, 1994). These skills are a )propriately tieveloped in the context of designing and performing open-endetl investigations, an activity in which man\' tindergraduates receive little op iorttinity to pai'ticipate. As a result, many pros[)ei.tive tea<. hers first develop these skills, sometimes uncomfortably, when they etiter stutlent teaching or the professional workforce. The Full Option Science System Course Development 'li) broatlen the scictitihc knowledge of non-.science majors, partictilarly future elemental")' school teachers Lit Gallaudet L'niversity. an inquiry-basetl course that emphasizes integration of the sciences was offered for the first time in the acatiemic year. In the Oeparttiient of Kducation, tile Bachelor of Arts in Initial 'leacher Preparation prt)gram, which trains deaf studetits to work with hearing students, currentk enrolls only deaf undergraduates. Most of the students go on to gfaduate school and become teachers of the deaf (The information [ )ro\idetl in the iresent article is a]i]ilicable to all (programs in the Department of Edtication at Gallaudet.) In 21, Gallaudet enacted a policy that allows ti[i to 1O'\> of untlergraduates to be hearing students enrolled in professional preparation programs. Prior to this, all Gallaudet tmtiergraduates were either tleaf or harti of hearing. In addition to the pt"ogram E"ec uirements anil the course of sttnly leading to teacher certifitation. all canditlates in the eiementaiy education [irogram are required to take a one-semester course in methods t)f teaching elemental' S( hool science. The act Uisition of the Full Option Science System (FOSS) and its adaptation to and integration into EDU 43^ (Methotis of Teaching Elementary Science) was done to achieve specific CLirrictilar changes. FOSS is a com- ilete, modlilar science curricukini developed at the Uiwrence Hall of Science. University of California, Herkele\. atid futided in part by the National Science Foundation, FOSS combines research with inijtilry-based learning to jiromote scientific literacy and student achievement. FOSS incorporates time-honored methoclologies such as hands-on incjuiry and interdiscijilitiary projects with contemjiorary methotlologies slicii as niultisensor\' observation and collaborative learning grou[xs. FOSS is a collection of stand-alone modules on different ttjpics. The science activities are organized into four strands:, Physical Science, Earth Science, and Scientific Reasoning and Technology. Five themes unify the progratii modules: pattern, structtire. interaction, change, and.system. FOSS employs cogtiitive and socialconstructivist approaches to science instruction. Stutlents in the elementary education progratn work in collaborative ge"oups to maximize effective u.se of inaterials and promote studentsttttlent and sttident-instrtictor interactions. Fundamental acadetnic skills in literacy and mathematics are integratetl into all activities. As a tool for the teaching and learning of science. FOSS is an attempt to achieve ilii'ee goals:.strengthening Methotls of Teaching Elementan' Science " increasing the quality of student teaching in science for preservice teachers ' enhancing student teachers' self- [lerceptions as scientists The FOSS modules tiiat make up the features of elementary science methfids are described in Table 1. Course Format During the initial offering of the FOSS-enhanced Methods of Teaching Elementary Science, in the 1999 fall.semester, the class met once weekly for 3 hours over 14 weeks. The methods cotirse i^irovides an overview of the current materials, contents, and methodologies used by educators in the eletnentary science curriculum. 'leacher candidates explore methodological [principles and apply them by developing thematic tmit plans, activities, and teaching aides, with the use of techntilogy. Science classroom obsenations in a regular public or private school, laboratory activities, and participation in a field experience are included in the course. I sing FOSS, candidates learn science h\- doing science. K 149. No. 3, 24 ASSAIS OF Till- DllVE-

5 THE FULL OPTION SCIENCE SYSTEM Table 1 Full Option Science System Modules Kit name Strand Science concepts Kit overview Animals Two by Two animal behavior, fish, habitat. aquarium, structure, hatch, Students observe, compare, and describe the structures of a variety of animals, including goldfish incubate and guppies, sow bugs and pill bugs, land snails and water snails, night crawlers and red worms. They may also observe eggs in an incubator. Trees tree, living, shape, branch. Students observe, compare, and describe the leaf, root, trunk properties of trees and parts of trees- Paper and Wood Earth Science materials, structure Students observe, compare, and describe wood and paper, and find out what happens when these materials interact with other materials. Students discover applications for the materials in the real world. Air and Weather Earth Science air, gas, life, pressure. Students study the properties of air. They examine its propulsion, temperature, effects on other materials and use basic tools to weather, wind gather information about air and weather. Balance and Motion Physical Science balance, balance point. mobile, stability, motion. Students explore stable (balanced) and unstable systems, use counlerweighting to manipulate center rotate, disk, wheel, slope, of gravity, and investigate two classes of motion: spin, axle, sphere spinning and rolling. Insects adult, insect larva, pupa Students study some of the diversity of form in stage, habitat, nymph, egg, insects. They observe and compare the differences in growth, metamorphosis, the life cycles and behavior of insects, and organize chrysalis, butterfly, caterpillar and communicate their observations on a calendar and in a journal. New Plants life cycle, germination, growth. plant structures, node, stem, Students study some of the diversity of new plants. They observe and compare the differences in the life bulb, root, seed cycles of new plants, and organize and communicate their observations on a calendar and in a journal. Pebbles, Sand, and Silt Earth Science earth material, rock, mixture. Students study the properties of rocks and soil. They particles, soil group and seriate rocks on the basis of single. observable properties, learning simple ways by which earth materials can be organized. Solids and Liquids Physical Science crystal, dissolve, solution. property, solid, foam, liquid. evaporation, layer, mixture. Students are introduced to two fundamental states of matter: solid and liquid. They investigate and describe the properties of solids and liquids and discover some viscous ot the things that happen when solids and liquids interact. To accompli.sh the three goals concerning the teaching and learning of science, all candidates first must complete the prerecjuisite course and preprofessional comptjnent courses, Teacher candidates in the elenientar)' education program must have a grade of B or better in all professional education courses in order to remain in the program. At the initial level, candidates who receive a grade below a C are placed on probation and allowed to retake the course. If they receive a second C, they art; dismissed from the program. The lecture topics presented during the course are chosen to adhere to state-level (i.e.. District of Columbia Public Schools Office of Academic Credentials) and national standards. In addition to using the national standards, the teacher preparation program has aligned course content with the Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium principles and institutional standards for the pur ioses of candidate assess- VoiuMK 149, No AMERICAN ANNALS OF THE DEAF

6 15 Kit name Strand Science concepts Earth Materials Earth Science earth material, crystal, geology, mineral, rock, property Kit overview Students examine rocks in detail, discovering that they are made ot combinations of minerals. Students identify rocks and minerals by observing their properties: color, hardness (scratchability), reaction with acid, and luster. Human Body human skeleton, joint, bone Students observe and investigate the human skeletal function, contraction, and muscular systems. They observe and compare articulation, movement, the bones and muscles in their own bodies, compare muscle structure/function, them to photographs, and build models tor comparison. coordination, reaction time, stimulus/response Magnetism and Electricity Physical Science attract, force, magnet, repel, closed circuit, open circuit, switch, conductor, electric circuit, insulator, electromagnet, technology, telegraph code Students explore permanent magnetism, electrical circuits, and electromagnetism. They observe and compare electrical and magnetic phenomena, and organize their observations as graphs. Their accumulated knowledge is applied to make a telegraph. Measurement Scientific length/distance, meter/ Students learn metric measurement. They observe, Reasoning centimeter, gram/kilogram, quantify, compare, and record length in centimeters, liter/milliliter, standard weight (mass) in grams, voiume in milliliters and liters, weight, volume, degree and temperature in degrees Celsius. Celsius, temperature Physics of Sound Physical Science sound discrimination, code sound receiver, sound source, vibration, sound travel, pitch Students investigate sound as a property of a vibrating object. They observe and compare how sound travels through different media, how the pitch of sound can be altered, and how sound can be amplified. Structure of Life fruit, seed, property, growth, Students observe, compare, and describe the organism, crayfish, structure, properties of seeds and fruits and the structures and behavior, habitat, territory behaviors of crayfish. They organize their observations through writing, drawing, and graphing. Water Earth Science change cycle, condensation, earth material, evaporation, liquid property, surface tension Students examine the properties of water in its three common states: solid, liquid, and gas. They discover what happens to water as it is heated, cooled, frozen, evaporated, and allowed to interact with other materials. Environments environment, organism, Students gain experience with the major environmental environmental factor, factors in terrestrial and aquatic systems. They preferred environment, organize and analyze data from cause-and-effect optimum tolerance, range experiments and investigations with plants and animals, of tolerance and relate laboratory studies to natural systems. Food and Nutrition acid, nutrient, nutrition, carbohydrate indicator, fat, calorie, metabolism, chemical Students investigate properties of foods. They conduct investigations to determine the amount of certain nutritional chemicals in foods, and think about relation- reaction ships between the foods they eat and personal health. Landforms Earth Science contour, erosion, deposition, elevation, landform, map, model, point of view, slope, topography Students use stream tables to investigate the variables (amount of water, steepness of slope, etc.) that influence erosion and deposition of earth materials and the subsequent creation of landforms. Topographic maps are devised and are used as a means of representing landforms. (Table continues on the next page).mk H9, No AMERICAN ANNALS OF THE DE.\F

7 THE FULL OPTION SCIENCE SYSTEM Table 1 (continued) Kit name Strand Science concepts Kit overview Levers and Pulleys Physical Science advantage, effort, fulcrum, lever, load, class-1 lever, class-2 lever, class-3 lever, fixed pulley, movable pulley, simple machine Students explore mechanics and simple machines using levers and pulleys- They observe, measure, and diagram lever-and-pulley systems. They then relate the force needed to lift a load to the advantage resulting from the use of various lever-and-puhey systems. Solar Energy Earfh Science absorb, energy transfer, heat, insulation, orientation, reflect, shadow, solar energy, surface area Students study the relationship between a light source {the sun), an object, and the shadow the object casts. They set up experiments to discover which variables influence the transfer of energy from the sun to air, water, and earth materials. Students conduct experiments to discover the best passive solar water-heater design. Variables Scientific Reasoning controlled experiment cycle, pendulum, variable, capacity, system Students identify and control variables and conduct controlled experiments using several multivariable systems; pendulums, airplanes, boats, and catapults. They observe and compare the outcomes of 3 experiments, identify relations between independent and dependent variables, and make predictions using the results of their experiments. Models and Designs Scientific Reasoning black-box model, design engineer, wheel-and-axle engineering, technology, variable Students create scientific models to help them think productively about complex problems. They create models to explain the relationships of parts in black boxes and a whimsical device called a humdinger. Later in the module, students design and build model carts that respond to a series of engineering challenges. Mixtures arid Solutions Physical Science crystal, dissolve, mixture, evaporation, property, solution, saturation, volume, solubility, concentration, gas, chemical reaction, precipitate Students learn basic concepts of chemistry: mixture, dissolve, solution, concentration, saturation, reaction, evaporation, and crystal. They measure, mix, and compare solids and liquids, and observe and describe the interactions that result from their experiments. ment. Some oi' the areas covered are Addressing Diversity, Cdn.structing a Knowledge of Science. Developinj^ Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Teaching Through Thematic Units, and Science/Technology/Stxiety in the imulticuitliral Classroom. The instructor lectures on these topics for approximately half of the class meeting time each week, encouraging discussion and student participation. Web links and handouts are shared as reference materials. Candidates work in small grt)ups and are assigned to lead discussions based on information in articles on science teaching. These discu.ssions are related to information presented during the lecture and are used to expand the information to include current ajiplications. For example, articles on the integration of mathematics and science instruction and its potential benefits arc discussed after the lecture presentation on Teaching Through Thematic Units. The remaining half of the class meeting time is devoted to hands-on learning using the FOSS modules in a laboratory setting. The class parrici ;)ation rubric is shown in 'I'able 2. 'Vhc use of FOSS modules in the teaching of science gives the science methods class an experiential understanding of the learning of science that they will be able to apply with their own students during their student teaching practicum. Findings from several studies of the FOSS program (Allard ik Robardy, 1991; Choo, 1993; Clementson, 1991; F.ckelmeyer. 1998; Robartiy & Allard, 1992; Robardy, /Mlard, & Brown, 1994; Stohr, 1996; Tolley, 1991) show that students learn and retain more content knowledge, gain confidence in their ability to do science anti solve problems, improve their literacy skills, and retain a highly positive attitude toward science; in addition, female students have as much success as male students. In addition to learning the FOSS H 149. No AMRRIC.^N ANNAI.S OF THI-: DEAF

8 Table 2 Class Participation Rubric Contribution Student contributes effectively and appropriately to a variety of topics in class. Student sometimes contributes to the class discussion in an effective and appropriate manner. Student contributes very little. Student contributions are inappropriate or nonexistent. (3 points) (3 points) (2 points) Collaboration Student willingly enters into a supportive/collegial role with other members of the learning community, offering well-thought-out, positive critiques; and helpful ideas. Student sometimes enters into a supportive/collegial rote with other members of the learning community. offering well-thought-out, positive critiques; and helpful ideas. Student does not engage in supporting other members of the learning community by offering helpful ideas. Student offers negative critiques. (2 points) (2 points) (1.5 points) (.5 points) Meclianics Student uses professional vocabulary effectively and appropriately Student sometimes uses appropriate professional vocabulary. Student use of professional vocabulary is nonexistent or inappropriate. {.5 point) (.1 point) Relevance Student remarks, questions, input, and examples are relevant to the discussion. Student remarks, questions, and examples are mostly relevant to the discussion. Student remarks, questions, input, and examples are not related to the discussion. (.5 point) (.5 point) Sensitivity Student responses, remarks, and input show an awareness of the feelings of others. Student responses, remarks, and input sometimes show an awareness of the feelings of others. Student responses, remarks, and input do not show an awareness of the feelings of others. (.5 point) (.1 point) Actions Student fully and willingly participates in all class exercises. Student sometimes participates in all class exercises. Student has to be coerced into participating in class exercises. Student does not participate in class exercises- {1 point) (.5 point) (.1 point) Ideas Student presents thorough ideas and gives complete responses. Student makes well-organized and coherent points. Student makes points that are not organized or clear. Student sometimes presents organized and coherent points. Student does not present thorough ideas or does not give complete responses. Student makes unorganized points that are not coherent. (.5 point) (.1 point) ni(k.[iilc.s. c:i[uiid;itcs nia[<l- weekly entries in a i"fht'cti\e jiiufnal. Kcefiing the journal is a proccs.s that enables candidates to become reflective teachers. The journal is parallel to ihe Heki book tir lahiiracoi^y notes of (he scientist. Canditiates not only note what happened or what was obsen'cci lint record a tencati\e hyjiothesis or the develocinient of new iintlerstantiint^ relating to the ilass content each week. Reflecti\'e wilting has tlie potential to provide candidates with a systeinatic approach to their development as reflective, critical, and constructive learners. A reflective journal can be structured in several ways: (a) as a pei'sonal learning journey, tracking and documenting an evolving understanding tif teaching and learning: (b) in tei'ms of issues, forexam[ile. the integration of one's own learning into a personal teaching and learning strateg\'; or (c) a,s a critical reflection on an acti\ity. The journal needs to demonstrate active and reflective engagement in issues and ideas (Brotjkfield, 1995). The reheeti\'e journal rubric is shown in Table 3. Throughout the semester, candidates work independently on weekly literatlu'e reviews of articles from Scici/ce a)ul Children. The Science E 149, Ni). 3, 24 AMHKICAIV ANN.M.S OF III!'

9 THE FULL OPTION SCIENCE SYSTEM Table 3 Reflective Journal Rubric Content Highly effective, well- Some ideas elaborated; some Many details present but little No elaboration. Displays selected details, vivid and lack elaboration. Effective elaboration. Displays little no analysis of ideas. No expressive responses. responses. Some ideas are analysis of ideas. Minimal development of ideas. Demonstrates a deep analyzed. Explores ideas development of ideas. analysis o1 ideas. Explores adequately ideas thorougtily and clearly. (4 points} (4 points) (2-3 points) ( point) Organization Strong opening and closing. Generally has an opening Weak opening and closing. May or may not have an Paragraphs are well and closing. Paragraphs are Paragraphs are somewhat opening and closing. developed. Use transitions developed adequately developed. Lack of coherence Paragraphs not developed ettectively. Structure is Ideas are clustered. Structure and transitions. adequately. Disorganized effective and clear to the generally apparent. and difficult to follow. Totally reader. incoherent. (3 points) (3 points) (2 points) { point) Sentence Variety of sentence structures Some variety of structure. Excessive monotony in Incomplete and/or incoherent Structure that is appropriate and Few errors and no structure. Numerous errors. sentences. Contains severe Spelling effective. Minimal errors. consistent pattern. errors that detract from Mechanics meaning. Usage (3 points) (3 points) (2 points) { point) Teacher, and Teaching Pre K-8. In discussions with peers, the candidates relate the articles to nati(.>nal science educational reform agendas. They also present critiques while evoiving some of their own ideas about current professional issues in science. Candidates are asked to work in pairs and participate in an out-of-classroom experience in which they visit a facility that may later serve as a field tiip destination or field study site (e.g., an arboretum, science museum, planetarium, nature center, /oo, industry' site, t>r science-related business). On the basis of this field experience, they choose a topic on which they develop a 3-minute laboratory demonstration and PowerPoint presentation. In the course of preparing this assignment, each group meets with the instructor to discuss its progress on gathering and organizing information. The finished prociuct is peer-reviewed by the entire class, and later the instructor meets with each group to review the evaluations and suggest ways to improve future presentations and laboratory demonstrations. In the last half of the semester. candidates (Observe other elementaiy school science classes in metropolitan NX^ashington, DC, The experience enables the candidates to observe and interact with teachers and support personnel in a diverse school setting. Extensive structured observations provide a meaningful developmental transition from theory to student teaching. As they interact with education professionals, the candidates acquire greater content knowledge, deeper professional and pedagogical knowledge, stronger skills, and a more professional disposition. The candidates have opportunities to implement theories in realistic settings and reflect on their imi)act on student learning. Furthermore, candidates receive guidance on what they are observing, and why Each candidates is also asked to submit a professional science portfolio reflecting his or her participation in the course and the growth that has resulted from this participation. The portfolio is a purposeful sample of the candidate's work; it is not intended to be a notebook or resource file including all of what the candidate has accomplished or experienced. The science portfolio should include A written statement reflecting the candidate's philosophy of science education based on journal entries, past education courses, present beliefs and values, and personal experiences. V()M:.\ih 149, No. 3, 24 A.V1EEUC\N ANNAIJS OF THK

10 The portfolio should contain documentation aligned with the science education com[k"tencies and rchectin^ the philosophy sujipoi'ting these comik'tencies. A resume showing (a) where the candidate was, (b) evidence of growth, and (C) a plan for futui'e devehjpment in science teaching at the elementary' school level. Portfolio items can include dialogue with a classmate relating to science education, an e\eni[>lary science lesson plan, reflective analysis about science education, anonymous student works and assessments, videotape depicting a candidate's most worthwhile teaching experience, phott)graphs anti video.s of the candidate actually teaching, and professional growth experiences such as Earth Day and Project Wild. The key is foi- candidates to inckitie meaningful items that paint a picture of their science education [lortfolio. Evaluation of the Students Throughout the semestei' the candidates are continuously evaluatect, primarily on the basis of their class participation, out-of-classroom experiences, [^recourse teaching, weekly reflective journals, laboratory activities (['(!)SS mollules), literature reviews. obser\'atioris, and science portfolios. In addition, one final exam is given during the semester. The candidates develop a thematic unit plan in science using the ASSURE model (Carey, 21). The ASSURE model is an instructional system design process that was modified for use by teaehers to tiesign and develop the most appropriate learning environment for their students. The ASSl!RF- motiel incorporates Gagne's (I9HS) events of itistruction to assure effective teaching in the classroorn. The model emphasizes (a) teaching to students with different learning styles and (b) re- ([uiring stutlents to interact with their environment, tn)t passi\'e!y receive information. Karly in the semester, candidates develop a 4-week thematic Linit plan using a iiy]iothetical classroom with 1 students. Themes must relate to science. The thematic tinit iilan must be an integrated utiii atldressing four content areas (science, mathematics, language arts, and social studies) and be appropi'iate for elementaiy school students. The thematic utiit jilan must include state science standards, a list (.)f concepts to be taught, rest)urces from which these concepts are drawn, goals, behavioral objectives, instructional objectives, student learning activities, materials, and assessment and evaluation strategies. The thematic unit must involve instruction for a diverse population of elementary school stutlents {on the basis, e.g., of gentler, ethnicity, ability, or disabilitv') and be expected to demonstrate h(3w it addresses diversity-related issues. (Candidates must demtinstrate how they wctuld revise their thematic unit or selection t)f materials to accommotlate the intellectual, social, anti emotional needs of these elementary school stlidents. The thematic unit evaluation form is shown in Table -t. Course Evaluation The class has evolvetl twer 4 years. Each time the course is taught. nev\' ideas and technitjues emerge. The first time the course was taught, it became clear that cantlidates enjoyetl tloing research anti using hantls-on experimental learning technit]ues in teathing science to eleiiientaiy school students. Over the \'ears. cantiitlates have retjuested fiekl trips to observe jiublic and [irivate elemental^' schtiols in the Washingtcjn metropolitan area where teachers demoristrate best practices in teaching science. The field trip is a valuable opportunity for cantiidates to observe other teachers and to look broadly at the strut ture anti o]ieration of schools in diverse settings. The syllabus is arrangeti to inciutle field trips and since the initial offering of the course has inclutietl out-of-classroom experiences anti jirecourse teaching; in the latter, candidates have the opportunity to a[")ply theories in realistic settings and reflect on their im iat t on stuticnt learning. Each semester since fall 1999, new itieas have been incorjiorated into the course thi'ough the addition of reflective journals, literature reviews, science portfolios, and laboratory- activities. The full acc]uisition of FO.SS modules has had ihe greatest impact on the course because it has impr)ved the candidates' teaching of science tt) elemental' school children during thcii" stlident teaching ]")racticum. 'I'he course has been asscssctl each fall semester since 1999 as part of the Department t)f Education's evaluation program. The department facultv' performance evaluation cjuestionnaire is used to (.ollett data. I-orty-fi\e cantiitiates (94%) have completed the evaluation, and the results listetl in Table 5 indicate their general satisfaction with the course tiesign and theii" involvement i[i the learning jirotess. All of the respondents intlicated that the course was challenging, with 84% saying the level of difficulty was "adequate/satisfactoiy." 11% saying it was "very got)d," and 4% saying it was "excellent." Ninety-five percent of the respontlents gave a res[)on.se of "excellent" or "vei7 good" when asked a question about whether the insti'uctor listened to their t Liestions anti o iinions. Eightytwo [percent of respontlents ratetl the course "excellent," 13% "ver\' good," anti 4% "atiet]uate,satisfactorv'." Cantiitiates have alstj pttivided written comments about the course. A few 149, No. 3, 24 A.\NAIS

11 THE FULL OPTION SCIENCE SYSTEM Table 4 Thematic Unit Plan Evaluation Form Assignment components Inadequate Adequate Exceptional Content Knowledge Explanation of content is incorrect or not adjusted for age of students. Explanation of content is correct and appropriate for age and maturity level of students. Explanation of content is correct, appropriate, and made analogous to a concept students currently know from science or some other venue. (4 points) (-19 points) (2-39 points) (4 points) Introductory Activity Introductory activity includes oniy statement of goal or objective. introductory activity Includes statement of goal or objective and involves learners in a meaningful way. introductory activity includes statement of goal or objective, involves learners in meaningful way, connects. the lesson to previous learning. (25 points) (-1 points) (11-24 points) (25 points) Instructional Strategies Lesson reiies on one instructional strategy (i.e., lecture only) to the detriment of the learners. No learning aids are involved. Varying group composition is not presented. Lesson includes at least two instruciionai strategies and the use of at least one visual or other supplementary item to enhance student learning. Students are grouped, but grouping may not match activity or learning goais. Lesson includes at least two instructional strategies and the use of at least one teacher constructed visual or other supplementary item to enhance student learning. Students are grouped appropriately with the grouping matching and enhancing the activity and learning goals. (25 points) (-1 points) (11-24 points) (25 points) Accommodations for Special Needs and Diversity Students Oniy one accommodation is mentioned; tfie pian lacks detail or strays from learning goais and objectives. More than one accommodation is mentioned; the plan is consistent with learning goals. More than one accommodation is mentioned; the plan contains supplementary materials and items developed by the teacher to reach the learning goals. (15 points) (-6 points) (7-14 points) (15 points) Assessment Activities Activities do not match stated goais and objectives Activities match stated goais and objectives. Assessments provide a clear picture of the student learning the content. Activities match stated goafs and objectives; options exist for learners with special needs. (15 points) (-6 points) (7-14 points) (15 points) Closure Activities and Reflections Closure and Reflections are limited to a single statement or restatement of the lesson goais or objectives. Closure and reflections include some explanation, summary of learning experience, and major concepts. Closure and reflections involve students in activities, summary of learning experiences, and major concepts. (1 points) (-4 points) (5-9 points) (1 points) Lesson Plan Format Pian is missing one of the six elements in the assignment description. Text contains. grammatical or other communications errors, Pian includes all elements detailed in the assignment description without grammatical or communication errors. Plan includes all elements in the assignment description and is organized in such a way that another teacher could deliver the lesson clearly. (1 points) (-4 points) (5-9 points) (1 points) Written Answers Written answers are not in complete sentences, dc not use correct grammar. Written answers are relatively clear and are expressed in complete sentences. Written answers are clearly written and expressed in complete sentences so that another teacher could deliver the lesson clearly. (1 points) (-4 points) (5-9 points) (1 points) ic 149, No. 3, 24 AMKKICAN A.MNAI_S OF THE DEAF

12 Table 5 Course Evaluations "A" Excellent "B" Very good "C" Adequate/ satisfactory "D" Less than adequate "E" Poor 1. Does the instructor seem Interested in the subject matter? , Does the instructor seem knowledgeable about topics in the course? Are the instructor's lectures/explanations clear and understandable? Are the instructor's lectures/classroom presentations interesting? Are the instructor's classroom presentations informative? Are the instructor's classroom presentations well organized? How well does the instructor use demonstration and visual aids? Does the instructor encourage questions and discussions? Is the instructor interested in helping you learn the subject matter? Is the instructor available outside of class? , How well do you understand the instructor's Simultaneous Method of Communication? , How well does the instructor understand you? Were the evaluation procedures appropriate? Do you feel that your grade in this course correctly shows how much you know about the subject? In general, how do you rate the quality of your instructor's teaching? In general, how do you rate this course? , Overall, how do you rate the difficulty level of this course? Note. Course evaluations were completed by 45 candidates enrolled since fall asketi for more nexibility on the homework assignments frtim the textbook because they were clialienging, whereas tithers viewed the le\-el of tiifficulty as a plus. The instructor believeti that these responses retiecteci the need tt) have some background information on specific tofiics in the textbt)ok before assignments were given. In a further indication tjf success, the class as a wlit^le has received a mean ct^urse evaluation score t)f 4.62 out t)f a possilile 5.. Obtaining feedback fi'om the candidates in order to evaluate the course has merit, and the instructor will continue to seek input each time the course is taught. Even though the instructor will continue ttj make mtitlifications in the fliture, the feedback frtim candidates, tht>ugh it ct)mes fn)m a small sample, ntjnetheless suggests that the course is meeting the gt)al t>f acctmimtjdating diverse learners. Conclusion An int uiry-based ct)urse that emphasizes integration t)f the sciences and accommt)tlatint^ di\'t'rse learners with 149, No. 3, 24 MiKHICAN A.\N,\LS OF TilH

13 THE FULL OPTION SCIENCE SYSTEM various assignments in the science methods ct)urse is an effective means of preparing future elementary schotil teachers. Integt-ating activities itito the course gives candidates time to reflect, react, and explore their models of successful teaching and learning. Many times, when candidates experience science in a tratlitional setting, they view it as body of kntiwledge. ready made and complete.,\s a result, the ojiptirtunity to get them into the spirit of the process of incjuirv' and challenging questions is lost. The strategies for teaching deaf students in Methods of Teaching Elementary' Science exjilaineci in the present article appear to be highly appropriate pedagogieal approaches because they (a) provide multiple means of evaluating cantiidates' strengths and weaknesses, (b) allow for peer tuttiring, (c) allow candidates to bring examples and elaborate t>n them in the classrtiom for discussion, (d) encourage candidates to work cooperatively, anti (e) integrate or fit with what is known of the learning/'teaching process. The recjuirements and expectations for EDU 437 (MethtKls of Teaching ElementaiT Science) anti EOU 487 (Metht)ds nf leaching Secondary Science) are parallel in nature. All of the undergraduate teacher preparatitjn programs have received state-level approval from the Bt)ard of Examiners of the District of Ct)lumbia Public Schotils anti accreditation from the National Ct)uncil for Accreditation of Teacher Education. This apprtjval means that graduates of the programs will qualify for a prt)fessiona! teaching cretiential in regular education in the District of Columbia and tht^su states with which the District of Columbia schtx)ls have signed a interstate reciprocity agreement. When developing models or approaches for teaching science methods ctjurses, instructtsrs need to share power with teaching candidates. Cantiitiates in the teacher educatit)n program need opportunities to both experience and evaluate methodologies, in groups and as individuals. Teaching mt)dels need to be changed from teacher centered tt) student centered, especially in the science ct)ntent area. Dt)ing science, rather than hearing and seeing about science or reading about science, needs to be central tti the educational process. The "big ideas of science" inquiry can be appliet! tt) any dtjmain tof study. Science methods instructors must builtl untlerstanding by showing the strategies in problem solving, including examples t)f ct^mmtjn misconceptions, and providing relevant experiences. Diverse learners who receive instruction in biolog)' as described in the present article may nt)t become expert biologists, but they will be able to explain scientific principles and concepts to their elementary schotjl students tiuring their student teaching practicum. The role of science methods instructors is to design their methods courses as incjuiries into the teaching and learning of science. Science methods instructors must design and create the needed missing compt)nents in order to accommodate diverse learners and, most impt)rtant, to meet the challenge t^f having highly qualified teachers to teach science in the elementaiy school classroom. Note Reatlers interested in learning more about the prt)gram described in the present article, the development of the course, and the various types of assignments given throughout the semester can contact the author tiirectly at Fred. References.Mlard. I),.i Holxudy, C, (1991). Ft)SS iraining for third- and fourth-f^radc Arkansas and Texas teachers; Attitude change and other results, Texarkana, TX: Texarkana College. American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1993), Benchmarks For science liierdcy: prijetl 261. Washlnj^tun, DC; Author, Amcrii.-an A.s.s(K'iation for the Advancement of Science. (2). Big biology btroks fail tu convey big ideas, reports AAASs Project 261, Washington, DC; Author. Brookfield, S. D. (1995) On becoming a critically reflective teacher. San Francisco; Jos,sey-Bass. Carey, J. O. {21). The sy.stematic design of instruction (5th cd.). New York; Longman. Ch(H). J. Y (1993)- An mrestigaiinn ofgirh'atiitiicles toward science: Are attitudes influenced by the type of science currictihmi fejnale students experience in elementary schoop Unpublished master's project, University of California, Berkeley, Clementson. J. (1991). A qiialitatire study of elementary teachers' and students' interaclions tilth the FOSS. Unpiiblislied ckx-toral dissertation, tiniversit\'of Nebrask;i-Lincoln, Kckelnieyer, K, H, (\S^S). Stttdy of bartds-on science. Albuquerque, NM: Sandia National Lahoratories, Gagne, R, M. (t9s5). The conditions of learning (4th ed.). New York; Holt. Rinehart, & Winston. Klein, J. T, & Doty, W G. (1994). Interdisciplinary studies ttxlay. San Francisco; Jossey-Bass. K-16 Teacher Education Task Forte. (2). Building a paifession; Strengthening teacher preparation and induction. Washington, DC; American Federation of Teachers. I^awrence Hail of Science, University of California, Berkeley, ( ). Full option science system series, Hudson, NH; Delta Education. l,c)hmann. J, R., & Staa; A. M. Ct992). America's academic future; A report of the Presidential Young Investig;itor Colloquium on U.S. Bngineering, Mathcniatics, and Science Education for the Year 2tO and Beyond. Wa-shington, DC; National Science Foundation, Directorate for Education and Human Resources. Moores, D., Jathro, J., & Creecb, B. (21), Issues and trends in instructk>n and deafness; American Annals of the Deaf 1996 to 2, American Annals of the Deaf, 146(2), Moores, D,, ik Meadow-Orlans, K. (199). Educational and developmental aspects of tieafness. Washington, DC; Cjailaudet t'niversity Press. National Research Council. (1993). National science education standards, Washington, DC; National Academy Press. National Research Council, (1995). National science education standards, Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Science Foundation. (1996). Shaping the future; New expectations for undergraduate education in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (National Sci- Vou'MK 149, No. 3, 24 AMKRICAN ANNALS OF TUK DFAF

14 encc FoLitidaiiiin Report No. %-I.W)- Arlington, VA: Author. National Scieme Teachfis Association. I2i. F(^bruar\'). NSTA po.sition statement: Leadership in science education. Retrieved June,'>. 24, from position.st;itement&psid=3ti Office of Policy Planning antl lnno\:ition. (23). Meeting ihe highly tiualifiwl teltchers challengl-: The setretary'.s secoiui annual report on teacher quiiliiy. VC'ashiiigton, DC; VS. Department of Education. Peterson, j. (23. March). No Child Uh Behind Act. Pyper pre.sented at the meeting of the National Science 'Ic'achers Association, Philadelphia. Rohardv, C, «; Aliard, D. (1992). A slii^y of teacher aitiindes ami coiificiciice after being trained to leach the FO.SS prof^ram. Texarkana, 'Di. Easi Texas State University. Robardy. C, AllanJ. D., ik Brown, D. (1994). An assessment tif effectiveness (tf the Full Option Science System training for Thirdthrough sixth-grade teachers, Joiiriial of Ek'inenlaryScienceliducation. h. I. Roth, W M., McGinn, M., & Bowen, G. M. (1998). How prepared are preservice teachers to teach scientihc iniiiiin? Levels o{" performance in sdeniitic repre.sentation pnictices. Journal of Science 'Ic'acher K<lucati(in =i-48. Rutherford, F. J.. & Alilgreii, A. (199). Science for all.americans. New York: Oxford University Press. Stohr. P M, (199ti). An analysis of hands-on e>:- perience and science achievement, / of Research in Science Teaching. 11)1-19, The Bayer facts of science education III: A I'.S. student report card on science education. (199^1. i'ittshlhjih, PA: iiayer Corporation Tilger, P J. (199). Avoiding science in ihe elementary.school. Science F.ducatifin, IM^), ]. Tobias, S. (199). They re not dumb, they're different: Stalking the second tier. Tucson..AZ. Re.search (Corporation. Tobias, S. (1997). Some recent developments in teacher education in mathematics and.science; A review and commentarv'. Madison. W[; Liniversity of Wiseonsin- Matlison, National Institute for Science Kducation. lolley, B. (1991). Sun ey of the Science I'pclate i'roject. I'npublished master's projeit. University of C;ilif(>rnia. Berkeley. Trefil. J., & Hazen, R. M, (199H). The sciences; An integrated approach. New York: John Wilev ik Sons. 149, No ANN.M.S OF TIIK DiLM-

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