# FINANCIAL PLANNING ASSOCIATION OF MALAYSIA

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1 FINANCIAL PLANNING ASSOCIATION OF MALAYSIA MODULE 4 INVESTMENT PLANNING Course Objectives To understand the concepts of risk and return, the financial markets and the various financial instruments available, financial mathematics and statistics, the analysis of financial statement, the basic concepts and tools of asset valuation, asset pricing models and portfolio management. The aim is for candidates to gain the knowledge to evaluate alternative investments, the advantages and disadvantages, and to make suitable investment recommendations to clients. Topic 1: Basic Concept of Investment Investment Investment Funds (Portfolios) Risk and Expected Return Expected Return (Required Rate of Return) and Real Rate of Return Relationship between Risk and Return Capital Asset Pricing Model Types of Assets Ways of Investing in Financial Assets Diversification in Investments Correlation between Assets Risk and Return Return Method of Annualizing the Holding Period Return The Measurement of Historical Rate of Return Expected Rate of Return with Probabilities Risk, Types of Risk, Total Risk Sources of Total Risk The computation of Total Risk, Systematic Risk and Unsystematic Risk Risk Measurement Measuring Risk on Historical Return and Expected Return Risk Profile of Investors Candidates should be able to understand the concepts of risk and return with regards to investment, holding period return, direct and indirect investments, the various types of investments according to the general degree of risk and to evaluate return on investments in relation to their composition of risks. 1

2 Topic 2: Financial Mathematics and Statistics Time Value of Money Computation of Value of Money Simple Interest Compounding Interest Future Value Present Value Present Value Annuities Present Value Annuity (PV O ) Ordinary Annuity Present Value Annuity (PV A ) Annuity Due Future Value Annuity (FV O ) - Ordinary Annuity Future Value Annuity (FV A ) - Annuity Due Perpetuities The Quotation of Interest Rates Effective Annual Rates (EAR) Loan Amortization Schedule Missing Cash Flows Basic Statistical Concepts Sampling Techniques Variables Measures of Central tendency Singled Data Measures of Spread of data (Variability / Dispersion) Singled Data Probability Continuous Probability Distribution Probability : Continuous (Normal Distribution) Candidates should be able to understand and compute simple interest, compound interest, present values, future values and annuities. Candidates should have knowledge of elementary statistics, sampling techniques, data collection and analysis, mean and standard deviation, probability theory and distributions. Topic 3: Financial Statement Analysis Accounting Concepts and Principles The Financial Statements Categories of Financial Ratios Activity Ratios Debt Ratios Profitability Ratios Market Ratios DuPont Analysis Common Size Analysis Cautions about using Ratio Analysis 2

3 Candidates should be able to understand the major accounting concepts and principles and to read and interpret the financial statements. Candidates should also be able to calculate and analyze the various key financial ratios and know how to use these ratios to ascertain financial condition of companies and to make comparison between companies, perform common size analysis and note the limitations of financial ratios. Topic 4: Securities Market and Investment in Shares The Importance of Financial Markets The Primary Markets The Investment Banker The Secondary Markets Over the Counter (OTC) Market Overview of Malaysia Financial Market Bursa Malaysia Regulators of Malaysia Financial Market Regulatory Structure of Malaysia Capital Market Capital Market Efficiency Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) Weak-form EMH Semistrong-form EMH Strong-form EMH Market Anomalies Temporal Anomalies Financial Instruments Traded on Bursa Malaysia Fixed Income Securities Exchange-Traded Fund ETF) Warrants or Transferable Subscription Rights (TSRs) Call Warrants Property Trusts Close-end Funds Stock Market Indices Index Methodology Market Capitalization Weighted Method Unweighted Method Shares Price Adjustment Types of Orders used by Investors The Top 20 Major Stock Exchanges: By Market Capitalization 3

4 Candidates should have a comprehensive knowledge on the importance of financial markets, primary markets, secondary markets, capital market, Malaysia stock market, financial instruments traded on Bursa Malaysia and the effect of rights issue and bonus issue on stock price. Candidates should also have a reasonable understanding of efficient market hypothesis, the use of market indices and the various methods of constructing market indices. Topic 5: Basics of Equity valuation Fundamental Analysis Company Analysis and Stocks Valuation Present Value Methods Discounted Dividend Model (DDM) Constant Growth Non Constant Growth Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) Method Relative Valuation Method Price Earnings Ratio (PER) (x) Price Book Value Ratio (PBV) (x) Price Sales Ratio (P/S) (x) Price NTA Ratio (P/NTA) (x) Candidates should have a comprehensive knowledge on concept of fundamental analysis, the valuation of securities according to the Present Value Methods and Relative Valuation Methods. Present Value Methods consist of Discounted Dividend Model (DDM) constant and non constant growth and Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) Method. Price Earnings ratio, Price Book Value ratio, Price Sales ratio and Price NTA ratio are covered under the Relative Valuation Method. Topic 6: Investment in Bonds Bonds Types of Bonds Bonds Rating Bonds Total Return (Yield to Maturity) Yield to Call (YTC) Factor Affecting Bond Prices Interest Rates Risk Price-Interest Rates (Yield) Curve Determinants of Price Volatility for Bond 4

5 The Duration Measure Modified Duration, Approximation of Price Volatility and Bond New Price Bond Convexity and Convexity Effect Convexity Effect and New Bond Price Candidates should be able to understand bonds as fixed income securities, bond valuation and bonds rating. Candidates should also have knowledge on how bond value and yield are calculated, the effect of interest rates and coupon on bonds, factors affecting bond prices and determinants of price volatility. Topic 7: Derivatives and Structured Products Derivative Uses of Derivatives Types of Derivatives Common Derivative Instruments Malaysian Derivative Contracts and Exchange The Basics of Futures Contract Futures Contracts Available in Malaysia Crude Palm Oil Futures A Stock Index Futures (SIF) Single Stock Futures (SSF) Interest Rate Futures The concept of Margin Standardization of Futures Contract The Basics of Options Contract Determinant of Option Pricing Warrants as an Embedded Option Main Features of Typical Structured Products Structured Products Utilizing Various Asset Classes Risks Associated with Structured Products Documentation and Other Legal Aspects of Structured Products Candidates should have comprehensive knowledge of derivatives and structured products, its uses and the types of derivatives contracts and structured products available in Malaysia. Candidate should also understand the determinants of option pricing, the valuation of options and warrants as an embedded option. Candidates should also have an understanding of structured products and its features, risks and documentation and legal aspects. 5

6 Topic 8: Unit Trusts Regulation of the Unit Trust Industry in Malaysia Statistics on Unit Trust Funds in Malaysia Concepts of Unit Trusts, Structure of Unit Trusts Dollar Cost Averaging, Types of Unit Trusts Equity Funds Fixed Income Funds Money Market Funds Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) Exchange Traded Funds (ETF) Balanced Funds Syariah Funds Risk Classification, Benefits of Unit Trusts Investment Pricing and Costs of Unit Trusts Investment Performance Measurement (Evaluation) Sharpe Measure, Information Ratio, Treynor Measure, Jensen Measure Risk Adjusted Performance (RAP) Measure Syariah Compliance Unit Trusts, Appointment of the Syariah Committee (Syariah Adviser) Distribution of Returns, Unit Splits Employees Provident Fund (EPF) Withdrawal for Investing in Unit Trust Funds Criteria in Selecting Unit Trust Funds Tax Benefits from Unit Trust Investment Code of Ethics and Standard of Professional Conduct for the Unit Trust Industry Servicing and Marketing Unit Trust Funds Candidates should be able to understand the benefits of investing in unit trusts, the different types of unit trusts available, how to analyze, compare and choose unit trusts considering investor s objective, risk tolerance and time horizon. Candidates will also be exposed to Syariah compliance unit trusts and the code of ethics and standard of professional conduct for the unit trust industry. Topic 9: Real Estate Investment Basic Characteristics of Real Estate as an Investment Sources and Acquisition of Investment Property Three Approaches in Valuing Real Estate Real Estate Businesses Service Income Real Estate Construction Real Estate Development 6

7 Real Estate Investment Valuing Real Estate Sources and Management of Cash Flows Discounted Cash Flow Valuation Real Estate Cycles Real Estate Investment Trust Risks Factors in Real Estate Investment Candidates should have an overview of the characteristics of real estate investment, the risk and return, approaches in real estate valuation, real estate cycles, the concept of property trusts, so that they can advise clients considering including real estate in their investment portfolios. Topic 10: Concepts of Portfolio Management Portfolio Management Steps in Portfolio Management Process The construction of policy statement Studies and evaluation of current and forecasted scenarios and its impact Portfolio Construction Portfolio Monitoring Asset Allocation Asset Allocation Process in Investment Strategy Approaches in Asset Allocation Decision Theory of Portfolio Management Computation of Expected Return and Risk on Expected Return of Portfolio Expected Return of Portfolio Risk on Expected Return of Portfolio (2 Assets Portfolio) The Effect of Coefficient Correlations (r) between Two Assets (Stocks) on Portfolio Risk Risk on Expected Return of Portfolio (3 Assets Portfolio) Computation of Covariance, Correlation Coefficient and Variance using raw data (stock prices) Efficient Frontier for Alternative Portfolios Computation of Portfolio Risk (using different Weights and Correlation Coefficients) and Portfolio Expected Return Asset Pricing Models Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Arbitrage pricing Theory (APT) Performance Attribution Analysis Allocation Effect Selection Effect Tracking 7

8 Candidates should be able to have understanding on portfolio management process, the importance of diversification among different asset classes, the effect of coefficient correlations on portfolio risk, assets pricing model, characteristics of the efficient frontier, the different investment styles of professional fund managers and how to evaluate performance. 8

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