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1 1 10 JavaScript: Arrays

2 2 With sobs and tears he sorted out Those of the largest size... Lewis Carroll Attempt the end, and never stand to doubt; Nothing s so hard, but search will find it out. Robert Herrick Now go, write it before them in a table, and note it in a book. Isaiah 30:8 Tis in my memory lock d, And you yourself shall keep the key of it. William Shakespeare

3 3 OBJECTIVES In this chapter you will learn: To use arrays to store lists and tables of values. To declare an array, initialize an array and refer to individual elements of an array. To pass arrays to functions. To search and sort an array. To declare and manipulate multidimensional arrays.

4 Introduction 10.2 Arrays 10.3 Declaring and Allocating Arrays 10.4 Examples Using Arrays 10.5 Random Image Generator Using Arrays 10.6 References and Reference Parameters 10.7 Passing Arrays to Functions 10.8 Sorting Arrays 10.9 Searching Arrays: Linear Search and Binary Search Multidimensional Arrays Building an Online Quiz Wrap-Up Web Resources

5 Introduction Arrays are data structures consisting of related data items (sometimes called collections of data items). JavaScript arrays are dynamic entities in that they can change size after they are created.

6 Arrays An array is a group of memory locations that all have the same name and normally are of the same type (although this attribute is not required in JavaScript). Each individual location is called an element. Any one of these elements may be referred to by giving the name of the array followed by the position number (an integer normally referred to as the subscript or index) of the element in square brackets ([]).

7 Arrays (Cont.) The first element in every array is the zeroth element. In general, the ith element of array c is referred to as c[i-1]. Array names follow the same conventions as other identifiers. A subscripted array name is a left-hand-side expression it can be used on the left side of an assignment to place a new value into an array element. It can also be used on the right side of an assignment operation to assign its value to another left-hand-side expression. Every array in JavaScript knows its own length, which it stores in its length attribute and can be found with the expression arrayname.length.

8 8 Fig Array with 12 elements.

9 9 Common Programming Error 10.1 It is important to note the difference between the seventh element of the array and array element seven. Because array subscripts begin at 0, the seventh element of the array has a subscript of 6, while array element seven has a subscript of 7 and is actually the eighth element of the array. This confusion is a source of off-by-one errors.

10 10 Fig Precedence and associativity of the operators discussed so far. Operators Associativity Type () []. left to right highest ++ --! right to left unary * / % left to right multiplicative + - left to right additive < <= > >= left to right relational ==!= left to right equality && left to right logical AND left to right logical OR?: right to left conditional = += -= *= /= %= right to left assignment 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

11 Declaring and Allocating Arrays JavaScript arrays are represented by Array objects. The process of creating new objects using the new operator is known as creating an instance or instantiating an object, and operator new is known as the dynamic memory allocation operator.

12 12 Common Programming Error 10.2 Assuming that the elements of an array are initialized when the array is allocated may result in logic errors.

13 Examples Using Arrays Zero-based counting is usually used to iterate through arrays. JavaScript automatically reallocates an Array when a value is assigned to an element that is outside the bounds of the original Array. Elements between the last element of the original Array and the new element have undefined values.

14 1 <?xml version = "1.0" encoding = "utf-8"?> 2 <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" 3 " 4 5 <!-- Fig. 10.3: InitArray.html --> 6 <!-- Initializing the elements of an array. --> 7 <html xmlns = " 8 <head> 9 <title>initializing an Array</title> 10 <style type = "text/css"> 11 table { width: 10em } 12 th { text-align: left } 13 </style> 14 <script type = "text/javascript"> 15 <!-- 16 // create (declare) two new arrays 17 var n1 = new Array( 5 ); // allocate five-element Array 18 var n2 = new Array(); // allocate empty Array // assign values to each element of Array n1 21 for ( var i = 0; i < n1.length; ++i ) 22 n1[ i ] = i; // create and initialize five elements in Array n2 25 for ( i = 0; i < 5; ++i ) 26 n2[ i ] = i; outputarray( "Array n1:", n1 ); 29 outputarray( "Array n2:", n2 ); 30 Operator new allocates an Array called n1 with five elements Fig Initializing the elements of an array (Part 1 of 3). Operator new allocates an empty Array called n2 Zero-based counting used in for loop to set each element s value equal to its subscript Five elements added and initialized in n2, which dynamically expands Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

15 31 // output the heading followed by a two-column table 32 // containing subscripts and elements of "thearray" 33 function outputarray( heading, thearray ) 34 { 35 document.writeln( "<h2>" + heading + "</h2>" ); 36 document.writeln( "<table border = \"1\"" ); 37 document.writeln( "<thead><th>subscript</th>" + 38 "<th>value</th></thead><tbody>" ); // output the subscript and value of each array element 41 for ( var i = 0; i < thearray.length; i++ ) 42 document.writeln( "<tr><td>" + i + "</td><td>" + 43 thearray[ i ] + "</td></tr>" ); document.writeln( "</tbody></table>" ); 46 } // end function outputarray 47 // --> 48 </script> 49 </head><body></body> 50 </html> Fig Initializing the elements of an array (Part 2 of 3). Outputs the subscript and value of every array element in a table Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

16 16 Fig Initializing the elements of an array (Part 3 of 3).

17 17 Software Engineering Observation 10.1 JavaScript automatically reallocates an Array when a value is assigned to an element that is outside the bounds of the original Array. Elements between the last element of the original Array and the new element have undefined values.

18 18 Common Programming Error 10.3 Referring to an element outside the Array bounds is normally a logic error.

19 19 Error-Prevention Tip 10.1 When using subscripts to loop through an Array, the subscript should never go below 0 and should always be less than the number of elements in the Array (i.e., one less than the size of the Array ). Make sure that the loopterminating condition prevents the access of elements outside this range.

20 Examples Using Arrays (Cont.) Arrays can be created using a comma-separated initializer list enclosed in square brackets ([ and ]). The array s size is determined by the number of values in the initializer list. The initial values of an array can also be specified as arguments in the parentheses following new Array. The size of the array is determined by the number of values in parentheses.

21 1 <?xml version = "1.0" encoding = "utf-8"?> 2 <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" 3 " 4 5 <!-- Fig. 10.4: InitArray2.html --> 6 <!-- Declaring and initializing arrays. --> 7 <html xmlns = " 8 <head> 9 <title>initializing an Array with a Declaration</title> 10 <style type = "text/css"> 11 table { width: 15em } 12 th { text-align: left } 13 </style> 14 <script type = "text/javascript"> 15 <!-- 16 // Initializer list specifies the number of elements and 17 // a value for each element. 18 var colors = new Array( "cyan", "magenta","yellow", "black" ); 19 var integers1 = [ 2, 4, 6, 8 ]; 20 var integers2 = [ 2,,, 8 ]; outputarray( "Array colors contains", colors ); 23 outputarray( "Array integers1 contains", integers1 ); 24 outputarray( "Array integers2 contains", integers2 ); // output the heading followed by a two-column table 27 // containing the subscripts and elements of thearray 28 function outputarray( heading, thearray ) 29 { 21 Fig Declaring and initializing arrays (Part 1 of 3). Creates an array with four elements, all of which are defined Creates an array with four elements, all of which are defined in an initializer list Creates an array with four elements, two of which reserve space for values to be specified later 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

22 30 document.writeln( "<h2>" + heading + "</h2>" ); 31 document.writeln( "<table border = \"1\"" ); 32 document.writeln( "<thead><th>subscript</th>" + 33 "<th>value</th></thead><tbody>" ); // output the subscript and value of each array element 36 for ( var i = 0; i < thearray.length; i++ ) 37 document.writeln( "<tr><td>" + i + "</td><td>" + 38 thearray[ i ] + "</td></tr>" ); document.writeln( "</tbody></table>" ); 41 } // end function outputarray 42 // --> 43 </script> 44 </head><body></body> 45 </html> 22 Fig Declaring and initializing arrays (Part 2 of 3) Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

23 23 Fig Declaring and initializing arrays (Part 3 of 3).

24 Examples Using Arrays (Cont.) JavaScript s for in statement enables a script to perform a task for each element in an array. This process is known as iterating over the elements of an array.

25 1 <?xml version = "1.0" encoding = "utf-8"?> 2 <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" 3 " 4 5 <!-- Fig. 10.5: SumArray.html --> 6 <!-- Summing elements of an array. --> 7 <html xmlns = " 8 <head> 9 <title>sum the Elements of an Array</title> <script type = "text/javascript"> 12 <!-- 13 var thearray = [ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 ]; 14 var total1 = 0, total2 = 0; // iterates through the elements of the array in order and adds 17 // each element's value to total1 18 for ( var i = 0; i < thearray.length; i++ ) 19 total1 += thearray[ i ]; document.writeln( "Total using subscripts: " + total1 ); // iterates through the elements of the array using a for... in 24 // statement to add each element's value to total2 25 for ( var element in thearray ) 26 total2 += thearray[ element ]; Fig Summing elements of an array (Part 1 of 2). Sums the values of all the elements in thearray by iterating through the elements in order Sums the values of all the elements in thearray by having JavaScript automatically iterate over its elements Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

26 27 28 document.writeln( "<br />Total using for...in: " + total2 ); 29 // --> 30 </script> 31 </head><body></body> 32 </html> Fig Summing elements of an array (Part 2 of 2) Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

27 27 Error-Prevention Tip 10.2 When iterating over all the elements of an Array, use a for in statement to ensure that you manipulate only the existing elements of the Array. Note that a for in statement skips any undefined elements in the array.

28 1 <?xml version = "1.0" encoding = "utf-8"?> 2 <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" 3 " 4 5 <!-- Fig. 10.6: RollDie.html --> 6 <!-- Dice-rolling program using an array instead of a switch. --> 7 <html xmlns = " 8 <head> 9 <title>roll a Six-Sided Die 6000 Times</title> 10 <style type = "text/css"> 11 table { width: 15em } 12 th { text-align: left } 13 </style> 14 <script type = "text/javascript"> 15 <!-- 16 var face; 17 var frequency = [, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 ]; // leave frequency[0] 18 // uninitialized // summarize results 21 for ( var roll = 1; roll <= 6000; ++roll ) 22 { 23 face = Math.floor( 1 + Math.random() * 6 ); 24 ++frequency[ face ]; 25 } // end for document.writeln( "<table border = \"1\"><thead>" ); 28 document.writeln( "<th>face</th>" + 29 "<th>frequency</th></thead><tbody>" ); Fig Dicerolling program using an array instead of a switch (Part 1 of 2). Creates a frequency array with each element s index corresponding to a face value (we leave index 0 uninitialized because the lowest face value is 1) Randomly picks a face of the die and increments the value of the element with the corresponding index in the frequency array 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

29 31 // generate entire table of frequencies for each face 32 for ( face = 1; face < frequency.length; ++face ) 33 document.writeln( "<tr><td>" + face + "</td><td>" + 34 frequency[ face ] + "</td></tr>" ); document.writeln( "</tbody></table>" ); 37 // --> 38 </script> 39 </head> 40 <body> 41 <p>click Refresh (or Reload) to run the script again</p> 42 </body> 43 </html> Outputs results in a table 29 Fig Dicerolling program using an array instead of a switch (Part 2 of 2) Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

30 10.5 Random Image Generator Using Arrays 30 We create a more elegant random image generator than the one in the previous chapter that does not require the image filenames to be integers by using a pictures array to store the names of the image files as strings and accessing the array using a randomized index.

31 1 <?xml version = "1.0" encoding = "utf-8"?> 2 <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" 3 " 4 5 <!-- Fig. 10.7: RandomPicture2.html --> 6 <!-- Random image generation using arrays. --> 7 <html xmlns = " 8 <head> 9 <title>random Image Generator</title> 10 <style type = "text/css"> 11 table { width: 15em } 12 th { text-align: left } 13 </style> 14 <script type = "text/javascript"> 15 <!-- 16 var pictures = 17 [ "CPE", "EPT", "GPP", "GUI", "PERF", "PORT", "SEO" ]; // pick a random image from the pictures array and displays by 20 // creating an img tag and appending the src attribute to the 21 // filename 22 document.write ( "<img src = \"" + 23 pictures[ Math.floor( Math.random() * 7 ) ] + ".gif\" />" ); 24 // --> 25 </script> 26 </head> 27 <body> 28 <p>click Refresh (or Reload) to run the script again</p> 29 </body> 30 </html> Fig Random image generation using arrays (Part 1 of 2). Creates an array with the names of the images to choose from Randomly selects an element from the array and appends its value to.gif\ to create the src attribute s value Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

32 32 Fig Random image generation using arrays (Part 2 of 2).

33 10.6 References and Reference Parameters 33 Two ways to pass arguments to functions (or methods) in many programming languages are pass-by-value and pass-by-reference. When an argument is passed to a function by value, a copy of the argument s value is made and is passed to the called function. In JavaScript, numbers, boolean values and strings are passed to functions by value. With pass-by-reference, the caller gives the called function direct access to the caller s data and allows it to modify the data if it so chooses. Pass-by-reference can improve performance because it can eliminate the overhead of copying large amounts of data, but it can weaken security because the called function can access the caller s data.

34 10.6 References and Reference Parameters (Cont.) 34 In JavaScript, all objects (and thus all Arrays) are passed to functions by reference. Arrays are objects in JavaScript, so Arrays are passed to a function by reference a called function can access the elements of the caller s original Arrays. The name of an array is actually a reference to an object that contains the array elements and the length variable, which indicates the number of elements in the array.

35 35 Error-Prevention Tip 10.3 With pass-by-value, changes to the copy of the called function do not affect the original variable s value in the calling function. This prevents the accidental side effects that so greatly hinder the development of correct and reliable software systems.

36 36 Software Engineering Observation 10.2 Unlike some other languages, JavaScript does not allow the programmer to choose whether to pass each argument by value or by reference. Numbers, boolean values and strings are passed by value. Objects are passed to functions by reference. When a function receives a reference to an object, the function can manipulate the object directly.

37 37 Software Engineering Observation 10.3 When returning information from a function via a return statement, numbers and boolean values are always returned by value (i.e., a copy is returned), and objects are always returned by reference (i.e., a reference to the object is returned). Note that, in the pass-byreference case, it is not necessary to return the new value, since the object is already modified.

38 Passing Arrays to Functions To pass an array argument to a function, specify the name of the array (a reference to the array) without brackets. Although entire arrays are passed by reference, individual numeric and boolean array elements are passed by value exactly as simple numeric and boolean variables are passed. Such simple single pieces of data are called scalars, or scalar quantities. To pass an array element to a function, use the subscripted name of the element as an argument in the function call. The join method of an Array returns a string that contains all of the elements of an array, separated by the string supplied in the function s argument. If an argument is not specified, the empty string is used as the separator.

39 1 <?xml version = "1.0" encoding = "utf-8"?> 2 <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" 3 " 4 5 <!-- Fig. 10.8: PassArray.html --> 6 <!-- Passing arrays and individual array elements to functions. --> 7 <html xmlns = " 8 <head> 9 <title>passing arrays and individual array 10 elements to functions</title> 11 <script type = "text/javascript"> 12 <!-- 13 var a = [ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ]; document.writeln( "<h2>effects of passing entire " + 16 "array by reference</h2>" ); 17 outputarray( "Original array: ", a ); modifyarray( a ); // array a passed by reference outputarray( "Modified array: ", a ); document.writeln( "<h2>effects of passing array " + 24 "element by value</h2>" + 25 "a[3] before modifyelement: " + a[ 3 ] ); modifyelement( a[ 3 ] ); // array element a[3] passed by value document.writeln( "<br />a[3] after modifyelement: " + a[ 3 ] ); 30 Fig Passing arrays and individual array elements to functions (Part 1 of 3). Passes array a to function modifyarray by reference Passes array element a[3] to function modifyelement by value Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

40 31 // outputs heading followed by the contents of "thearray" 32 function outputarray( heading, thearray ) 33 { 34 document.writeln( 35 heading + thearray.join( " " ) + "<br />" ); 36 } // end function outputarray // function that modifies the elements of an array 39 function modifyarray( thearray ) 40 { 41 for ( var j in thearray ) 42 thearray[ j ] *= 2; 43 } // end function modifyarray // function that modifies the value passed 46 function modifyelement( e ) 47 { 48 e *= 2; // scales element e only for the duration of the 49 // function 50 document.writeln( "<br />value in modifyelement: " + e ); 51 } // end function modifyelement 52 // --> 53 </script> 54 </head><body></body> 55 </html> Creates a string containing all the elements in thearray, separated by Multiplies each element in thearray by 2, which persists after the function has finished Fig Passing arrays and individual array elements to functions (Part 2 of 3). Multiplies the array element by 2, but only for the duration of the function Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

41 41 Fig Passing arrays and individual array elements to functions (Part 3 of 3).

42 42 Software Engineering Observation 10.4 JavaScript does not check the number of arguments or types of arguments that are passed to a function. It is possible to pass any number of values to a function. JavaScript will attempt to perform conversions when the values are used.

43 Sorting Arrays Sorting data (putting data in a particular order, such as ascending or descending) is one of the most important computing functions. The Array object in JavaScript has a built-in method sort for sorting arrays. By default, Array method sort (with no arguments) uses string comparisons to determine the sorting order of the Array elements. Method sort takes as its optional argument the name of a function (called the comparator function) that compares its two arguments and returns a negative value, zero, or a positive value, if the first argument is less than, equal to, or greater than the second, respectively. Functions in JavaScript are considered to be data. Therefore, functions can be assigned to variables, stored in Arrays and passed to functions just like other data types.

44 1 <?xml version = "1.0" encoding = "utf-8"?> 2 <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" 3 " 4 5 <!-- Fig. 10.9: Sort.html --> 6 <!-- Sorting an array with sort. --> 7 <html xmlns = " 8 <head> 9 <title>sorting an Array with Array Method sort</title> 10 <script type = "text/javascript"> 11 <!-- 12 var a = [ 10, 1, 9, 2, 8, 3, 7, 4, 6, 5 ]; document.writeln( "<h1>sorting an Array</h1>" ); 15 outputarray( "Data items in original order: ", a ); 16 a.sort( compareintegers ); // sort the array 17 outputarray( "Data items in ascending order: ", a ); // output the heading followed by the contents of thearray 20 function outputarray( heading, thearray ) 21 { 22 document.writeln( "<p>" + heading + 23 thearray.join( " " ) + "</p>" ); 24 } // end function outputarray Fig Sorting an array with sort (Part 1 of 2). Passes function compareintegers to method a.sort to arrange the elements of a in ascending numerical order 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

45 26 // comparison function for use with sort 27 function compareintegers( value1, value2 ) 28 { 29 return parseint( value1 ) - parseint( value2 ); 30 } // end function compareintegers 31 // --> 32 </script> 33 </head><body></body> 34 </html> Defines a function comparing integers to be passed to method sort (to replace the default string comparison function) 45 Fig Sorting an array with sort (Part 2 of 2) Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

46 46 Software Engineering Observation 10.5 Functions in JavaScript are considered to be data. Therefore, functions can be assigned to variables, stored in Arrays and passed to functions just like other data types.

47 10.9 Searching Arrays: Linear Search and Binary Search 47 The linear search algorithm iterates through the elements of an array until it finds an element that matches a search key, and returns the subscript of the element. If the key is not found, the function returns -1. If the array being searched is not in any particular order, it is just as likely that the value will be found in the first element as the last. On average, therefore, the program will have to compare the search key with half the elements of the array.

48 1 <?xml version = "1.0" encoding = "utf-8"?> 2 <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" 3 " 4 5 <!-- Fig : LinearSearch.html --> 6 <!-- Linear search of an array. --> 7 <html xmlns = " 8 <head> 9 <title>linear Search of an Array</title> 10 <script type = "text/javascript"> 11 <!-- 12 var a = new Array( 100 ); // create an Array // fill Array with even integer values from 0 to for ( var i = 0; i < a.length; ++i ) 16 a[ i ] = 2 * i; // function called when "Search" button is pressed 19 function buttonpressed() 20 { 21 // get the input text field 22 var inputval = document.getelementbyid( "inputval" ); // get the result text field 25 var result = document.getelementbyid( "result" ); // get the search key from the input text field 28 var searchkey = inputval.value; 29 Creates a new array to search 48 Fig Linear search of an array (Part 1 of 3). Initializes each array element with a value double its index 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

49 30 // Array a is passed to linearsearch even though it 31 // is a global variable. Normally an array will 32 // be passed to a method for searching. 33 var element = linearsearch( a, parseint( searchkey ) ); if ( element!= -1 ) 36 result.value = "Found value in element " + element; 37 else 38 result.value = "Value not found"; 39 } // end function buttonpressed // Search "thearray" for the specified "key" value 42 function linearsearch( thearray, key ) 43 { 44 // iterates through each element of the array in order 45 for ( var n = 0; n < thearray.length; ++n ) 46 if ( thearray[ n ] == key ) 47 return n; return -1; 50 } // end function linearsearch 51 // --> 52 </script> 53 </head> 54 If the key is not found, -1 is returned 49 Fig Linear search of an array (Part 2 of 3). Calls function linearsearch on array a with the value input by the user Iterates through every element of the array until the key is found If the key is encountered, the index of the element with the key as its value is returned 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

50 55 <body> 56 <form action = ""> 57 <p>enter integer search key<br /> 58 <input id = "inputval" type = "text" /> 59 <input type = "button" value = "Search" 60 onclick = "buttonpressed()" /><br /></p> 61 <p>result<br /> 62 <input id = "result" type = "text" size = "30" /></p> 63 </form> 64 </body> 65 </html> 50 Fig Linear search of an array (Part 3 of 3). When the Search button is pressed, calls function buttonpressed 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

51 10.9 Searching Arrays: Linear Search and Binary Search (Cont.) 51 The binary search algorithm is more efficient than the linear search algorithm, but it requires that the array be sorted. The binary search algorithm tests the middle element in the array and returns the index if it matches the search key. If not, it cuts the list in half, depending on whether the key is greater than or less than the middle element, and repeats the process on the remaining half of the sorted list. The algorithm ends by either finding an element that matches the search key or reducing the subarray to zero size. When searching a sorted array, the binary search provides a tremendous increase in performance over the linear search. For a one-billion-element array, this is the difference between an average of 500 million comparisons and a maximum of 30 comparisons. The maximum number of comparisons needed for the binary search of any sorted array is the exponent of the first power of 2 greater than the number of elements in the array.

52 1 <?xml version = "1.0" encoding = "utf-8"?> 2 <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" 3 " 4 5 <!-- Fig : BinarySearch.html --> 6 <!-- Binary search of an array. --> 7 <html xmlns = " 8 <head> 9 <title>binary Search</title> 10 <script type = "text/javascript"> 11 <!-- 12 var a = new Array( 15 ); for ( var i = 0; i < a.length; ++i ) 15 a[ i ] = 2 * i; // function called when "Search" button is pressed 18 function buttonpressed() 19 { 20 var inputval = document.getelementbyid( "inputval" ); 21 var result = document.getelementbyid( "result" ); 22 var searchkey = inputval.value; result.value = "Portions of array searched\n"; Fig Binary search of an array (Part 1 of 5) Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

53 26 // Array a is passed to binarysearch even though it 27 // is a global variable. This is done because 28 // normally an array is passed to a method 29 // for searching. 30 var element = 31 binarysearch( a, parseint( searchkey ) ); if ( element!= -1 ) 34 result.value += "\nfound value in element " + element; 35 else 36 result.value += "\nvalue not found"; 37 } // end function buttonpressed // binary search function 40 function binarysearch( thearray, key ) 41 { 42 var low = 0; // low subscript 43 var high = thearray.length - 1; // high subscript 44 var middle; // middle subscript while ( low <= high ) { 47 middle = ( low + high ) / 2; // The following line is used to display the 50 // part of thearray currently being manipulated 51 // during each iteration of the binary 52 // search loop. 53 buildoutput( thearray, low, middle, high ); Fig Binary search of an array (Part 2 of 5). Calls function binarysearch with arguments a and the key specified by the user While the search has not checked all values, find the midpoint of the unchecked region Displays the portion of the array currently being examined 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

54 55 if ( key == thearray[ middle ] ) // match 56 return middle; 57 else if ( key < thearray[ middle ] ) 58 high = middle - 1; // search low end of array 59 else 60 low = middle + 1; // search high end of array 61 } // end while return -1; // searchkey not found 64 } // end function binarysearch // Build one row of output showing the current 67 // part of the array being processed. 68 function buildoutput( thearray, low, mid, high ) 69 { 70 var result = document.getelementbyid( "result" ); for ( var i = 0; i < thearray.length; i++ ) 73 { 74 if ( i < low i > high ) 75 result.value += " "; 76 else if ( i == mid ) // mark middle element in output 77 result.value += thearray[ i ] + 78 ( thearray[ i ] < 10? "* " : "* " ); 79 else 80 result.value += thearray[ i ] + 81 ( thearray[ i ] < 10? " " : " " ); 82 } // end for 83 If the middle element s value is the key, return its subscript 54 Fig Binary search of an array (Part 3 of 5). Otherwise, if the middle element s value is higher than the key, we only need to search the bottom half of the array Otherwise, if the middle element s value is lower than the key, we only need to search the higher half of the array If we ve covered the whole array without encountering the key, return Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

55 84 result.value += "\n"; 85 } // end function buildoutput 86 // --> 87 </script> 88 </head> <body> 91 <form action = ""> 92 <p>enter integer search key<br /> 93 <input id = "inputval" type = "text" /> 94 <input type = "button" value = "Search" 95 onclick = "buttonpressed()" /><br /></p> 96 <p>result<br /> 97 <textarea id = "result" rows = "7" cols = "60"> 98 </textarea></p> 99 </form> 100 </body> 101 </html> 55 Fig Binary search of an array (Part 4 of 5) Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

56 56 Fig Binary search of an array (Part 5 of 5).

57 Multidimensional Arrays To identify a particular two-dimensional multidimensional array element, we must specify the two subscripts; by convention, the first identifies the element s row, and the second identifies the element s column. In general, an array with m rows and n columns is called an m-by-n array. Every element in a two-dimensional array is accessed using an element name of the form a[ i ][ j ]; a is the name of the array, and i and j are the subscripts that uniquely identify the row and column, respectively, of each element in a. Multidimensional arrays are maintained as arrays of arrays.

58 58 Fig Two-dimensional array with three rows and four columns.

59 10.10 Multidimensional Arrays (Cont.) 59 Multidimensional arrays can be initialized in declarations like a one-dimensional array, with values grouped by row in square brackets. The interpreter determines the number of rows by counting the number of sub initializer lists arrays nested within the outermost array. The interpreter determines the number of columns in each row by counting the number of values in the sub-array that initializes the row. The rows of a two-dimensional array can vary in length. A multidimensional array in which each row has a different number of columns can be allocated dynamically with operator new.

60 1 <?xml version = "1.0" encoding = "utf-8"?> 2 <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" 3 " 4 5 <!-- Fig : InitArray3.html --> 6 <!-- Initializing multidimensional arrays. --> 7 <html xmlns = " 8 <head> 9 <title>initializing Multidimensional Arrays</title> 10 <script type = "text/javascript"> 11 <!-- 12 var array1 = [ [ 1, 2, 3 ], // first row 13 [ 4, 5, 6 ] ]; // second row 14 var array2 = [ [ 1, 2 ], // first row 15 [ 3 ], // second row 16 [ 4, 5, 6 ] ]; // third row outputarray( "Values in array1 by row", array1 ); 19 outputarray( "Values in array2 by row", array2 ); function outputarray( heading, thearray ) 22 { 23 document.writeln( "<h2>" + heading + "</h2><pre>" ); // iterates through the set of one-dimensional arrays 26 for ( var i in thearray ) 27 { 28 // iterates through the elements of each one-dimensional 29 // array 30 for ( var j in thearray[ i ] ) 31 document.write( thearray[ i ][ j ] + " " ); Fig Initializing multidimensional arrays (Part 1 of 2). Initializes array1 with an initializer list of sub initializer lists Initializes array2 with rows of different lengths Nested for in statements traverse the arrays by iterating through the sets of one-dimensional arrays, then through the elements of each of those one-dimensional arrays Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

61 32 33 document.writeln( "<br />" ); 34 } // end for document.writeln( "</pre>" ); 37 } // end function outputarray 38 // --> 39 </script> 40 </head><body></body> 41 </html> Fig Initializing multidimensional arrays (Part 2 of 2) Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

62 Building an Online Quiz An XHTML form s elements can be accessed individually using getelementbyid or through the elements property of the containing form object. The elements property contains an array of all the form s controls. Property checked of a radio button is true when the radio button is selected, and it is false when the radio button is not selected.

63 1 <?xml version = "1.0" encoding = "utf-8"?> 2 <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" 3 " 4 5 <!-- Fig : quiz.html --> 6 <!-- Online quiz graded with JavaScript. --> 7 <html xmlns = " 8 <head> 9 <title>online Quiz</title> 10 <script type = "text/javascript"> 11 <!-- 12 function checkanswers() 13 { 14 var myquiz = document.getelementbyid( "myquiz" ); // determine whether the answer is correct 17 if ( myquiz.elements[ 1 ].checked ) 18 alert( "Congratulations, your answer is correct" ); 19 else // if the answer is incorrect 20 alert( "Your answer is incorrect. Please try again" ); 21 } // end function checkanswers 22 --> 23 </script> 24 </head> 25 <body> 26 <form id = "myquiz" onsubmit = "checkanswers()" action = ""> 27 <p>select the name of the tip that goes with the 28 image shown:<br /> 29 <img src="ept.gif" alt="mystery tip"/> 30 <br /> Fig Online quiz graded with JavaScript (Part 1 of 3). Checks to see if the second radio button of the myquiz form is selected Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

64 31 32 <input type = "radio" name = "radiobutton" value = "CPE" /> 33 <label>common Programming Error</label> <input type = "radio" name = "radiobutton" value = "EPT" /> 36 <label>error-prevention Tip</label> <input type = "radio" name = "radiobutton" value = "PERF" /> 39 <label>performance Tip</label> <input type = "radio" name = "radiobutton" value = "PORT" /> 42 <label>portability Tip</label><br /> <input type = "submit" name = "submit" value = "Submit" /> 45 <input type = "reset" name = "reset" value = "Reset" /> 46 </p> 47 </form> 48 </body> 49 </html> myquiz.elements[1] myquiz.elements[2] myquiz.elements[3] myquiz.elements[0] Fig Online quiz graded with JavaScript (Part 2 of 3) Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

65 65 Fig Online quiz graded with JavaScript (Part 3 of 3).

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