UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS WITH A FOCUS ON MAKING WORK PAY

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS WITH A FOCUS ON MAKING WORK PAY"

Transcription

1 EUROPEAN SEMESTER THEMATIC FICHE UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS WITH A FOCUS ON MAKING WORK PAY Thematic fiches are supporting background documents prepared by the services of the Commission in the context of the European Semester of economic policy coordination. They do not necessarily represent the official position of the Institution. 1. Introduction Unemployment benefits are a key feature of all European welfare systems. By insuring workers against the risk of job loss, they provide an essential safety net for individuals and households. They also play a stabilising role over the business cycle in supporting incomes of the unemployed who tend to be low income. In addition, unemployment benefits allow for a smoother relocation of labour across the economy, as job-seekers can devote more time to finding a job that matches their skills and expectations, thereby preserving their employability. At the same time, however, a high level of benefits can reduce the incentives to return into employment, with negative effects on unemployment duration and total unemployment, and impact on social protection systems. By providing income replacement and reducing the gap between labour and non-labour income, unconditional unemployment benefits might reduce incentives to search and take up jobs, which can have a detrimental impact on employment. Unemployment benefit systems vary widely across Member States, and operate within a broader context given by the existing economic and institutional framework. The entitlement conditions for receiving unemployment benefits, their duration and time profile, their monetary level and the way in which they are calculated can differ greatly. For example, the duration of unemployment benefits can range from 90 days to indefinite duration, while their amount can be determined as a percentage of the last wage, or as a flat rate (namely, a fixed amount), or as the result of a formula comprising both these elements, with the possible application of minimum and maximum thresholds. Furthermore, incentives to work are influenced not only by the unemployment benefit system, but also by the tax and benefit system in general and in particular by the combination of other (usually) means-tested benefits such as social assistance, housing benefits, family benefits and in-work benefits. Likewise, individual job-search effort and availability are influenced by the provision of active labour market policies as well as by the overall economic and labour market conditions. 1

2 Unemployment benefits can take the form of either unemployment insurance or unemployment assistance. Unemployment insurance benefits are characterised by a clear contributory logic. Therefore, they can only be claimed after a certain minimum period in employment with paid contributions, their level is often established in proportion to level of earnings received in the previous job and their duration often depends on the length of the contribution record. Unemployment assistance is primarily aimed at preventing unemployment-related poverty: it is normally means-tested and made available to unemployed individuals who are ineligible or no longer entitled to unemployment insurance benefits. The level of unemployment assistance benefits is generally lower than the one of unemployment insurance. The majority of Member States do not have a separate unemployment assistance scheme in place, but mostly rely on general means-tested social assistance made available to low-income households Identification of challenges The design of unemployment benefit systems needs to strike a balance between the objective of sustaining households' incomes and the need to adequately preserve work incentives. Benefits vary both in their level (in particular relative to previous earnings), and in their duration over time. The level of benefits ought to be sufficiently high to ensure adequate standards of living for the unemployed, while their duration should give unemployed individuals enough time to find a suitable job that matches their skills. On the other hand, it is important that the gap between the level of income provided by unemployment benefits and the income potentially earned from employment is sufficiently large to make the return to work sufficiently financially attractive. In addition it is important that specific features of the unemployment benefit system provide additional support by "activating" unemployed individuals, without affecting directly the level of benefits. These include job-search and availability requirements, compulsory participation in active labour market programmes, and the imposition of sanctions such as the suspension of benefit eligibility in case of non-compliance. 3. Identification of policy levers to address the challenges Different dimensions of unemployment benefit systems can be compared across countries on the basis of various indicators. 2 These include the duration of benefits, 1 2 Some Member States (Austria, Germany, Estonia, Finland, France, Ireland, Malta, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and UK) have a separate means tested unemployment assistance benefit. The main source of these indicators is the joint European Commission-OECD Tax and Benefit project, based on the OECD Tax and Benefits models. For more information, see: 2

3 entitlement conditions, financial disincentives measured by unemployment and inactivity traps and net increase in disposable income, time profile of net replacement rates and job search and availability requirements. Depending on the dimension analysed, the indicators refer to the characteristics of the most appropriate income support instrument (unemployment insurance to measure the risk of unemployment traps at the beginning of the unemployment spell, social assistance to track the risk of inactivity traps, both unemployment insurance and unemployment assistance to measure the extent to which benefit generosity decreases over time and the related risk of benefit dependence). The indicators are presented in Table 1, Figure 1, Figure 2 and Figure 3 below. Duration of unemployment insurance benefits: benefit duration can be a source of benefit dependency if it is overly long, which is more often a risk for workers with a long contribution period and older workers. The indicator presented in Table 1 is constructed with reference to the standard case of an unemployed individual who has 40 years of age and has 22 years of contributions. Figure 1 shows instead the minimum and maximum durations possible for individuals qualifying for unemployment insurance. Entitlement conditions: Entitlement to unemployment (insurance) benefits generally depends on the previous contribution record. The duration of contributions required in order to be entitled to unemployment benefits varies greatly across Member States, as well as the exact rules under which it is defined. In practice, eligibility conditions are specified either as the requirement of having a certain contribution record measured over the entire work career (e.g. having worked and paid contributions for at least 2 years), or as the requirement of having paid a certain number of contributions over a given reference period (e.g. having at least 12 months of contributions paid in the 24 months preceding unemployment). Together with duration, entitlement conditions affect the coverage of unemployment benefits: the stricter the entitlement conditions, the smaller the share of unemployed covered by unemployment benefits. Net replacement rates: they express the net income received by unemployment benefit recipients as a proportion of the net income that was earned before becoming unemployed. Net income is defined as income after taxes and social security contributions, with the inclusion of possible social benefits (social assistance, family, housing and in-work benefits). Their level and profile over time provides a clear indication of the adequacy of the system, accounting explicitly for the tax system and the provision of other welfare benefits. The profile of net replacement rates over 60 months is shown in Figure 3. It corresponds to the standard case of an individual aged 40, after 22 years of contributions, with earnings amounting to 67% of the average full-time level (it should be stressed that the profile of net replacement rates can differ substantially depending on the contributions history, in particular for shorter contribution records). A detailed description of the legislation used for the computation of most parameters can be found in the OECD Tax and benefits country chapters, published on the OECD's website: The indicators of entitlement conditions and job-search and availability requirements have been constructed by Venn, D. (2012) "Eligibility Criteria for Unemployment Benefits", OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers, No and replicated by Langenbucher, K. (2015) "Eligibility Criteria for Unemployment Benefits", OECD, forthcoming. 3

4 Availability requirements and suitable work criteria: this indicator describes the existence of requirements for benefit recipients to remain available for work while taking part in active labour market policies (ALMPs), and the type of job offers that jobseekers have to take up. It considers how much a benefit recipient is expected to remain available and actively search for a new job while participating in training or work experience programmes (or other ALMPs). It encompasses also the extent to which benefit recipients can refuse a job offer without incurring into sanctions (e.g. in cases involving a change in occupational area, a lower salary in comparison to the former occupation, or requiring geographical mobility). The indicator is a composite index ranging from 1 (least strict) to 5 (strictest). Job search and monitoring: this relates to the monitoring of job-search activities undertaken by the benefit recipient. In particular, how often the unemployed have to prove that they have been independently looking for work, and the formal requirements that benefit recipients have to fulfil concerning their job search activities. The indicator is a composite index ranging from 1 (least strict) to 5 (strictest). Sanctions: this indicator provides a synthetic measure of the strictness of sanctions that may be imposed on jobseekers in cases such as voluntary unemployment, refusal of a "suitable" job offer, or failure to participate in ALMPs. The sanctions themselves are generally defined in terms of reduction, suspension or termination of the (remaining) unemployment benefits. For example, in most Member States voluntary unemployed (workers who have voluntarily quit their job) are not eligible for unemployment benefits, or have to undergo a long waiting period before claiming them. The indicator is a composite index ranging from 1 (least strict no sanctions) to 5 (strictest highest sanctions). Unemployment traps: they provide a measure of financial (dis-)incentives to take up work for individuals benefiting from unemployment insurance (measured at the beginning of the unemployment spell). Unemployment traps are often very high for low wage earners and workers accepting job offers with lower re-employment wages. The indicator measures the marginal effective tax rate on labour, namely the extent to which the increase in gross earnings when moving from unemployment to work is reduced as a result of income taxes, social security contributions and the withdrawal of benefits. It usually ranges between 0 and 100; high values correspond to low incentives to take up work. Inactivity traps are defined similarly to the unemployment trap indicator, but measure the (dis-)incentives to take up work for individuals who are not receiving unemployment benefits (either because not entitled or no longer eligible), but potentially benefiting from social assistance and other out-of-work means tested benefits, if available. Net increase in disposable income: like the unemployment trap, it provides a measure of financial (dis-)incentives to take up work for individuals receiving unemployment insurance benefits, but rather than measuring the share of gross income that is taxed away, it gives the net gain (in terms of disposable income) for the unemployed when moving into employment. 4

5 4. Cross-examination of policy state of play Looking at all these relevant dimensions allows to better gauge how unemployment benefit systems perform in terms of their objective of providing income support and stabilisation while preserving incentives to take up work. In addition, it helps having a more thorough assessment of each objective. For instance, looking only at unemployment traps (which take into account replacement rates at the beginning of the unemployment spell) and the duration of unemployment insurance benefits may be misleading, as it does not permit to capture the implication on incentives associated with the structure of benefits over time and job search conditionality. Furthermore, one needs to reflect on activation support, including not only with respect to the range of requirements to maintain the receipt of unemployment benefits, but also with respect to minimal support services, in particular early intervention for jobseekers recently registered with an employment service and intensified counselling, education and training or another active measure (ALMP) in the first months of the unemployment spell. Table 1: Selected dimensions of unemployment benefit systems * Unemployment insurance in Belgium is of indefinite duration. Notes: Data are presented for the most recent available years. Unemployment, inactivity trap and net increase in disposable income are averages over four different stylised family types (single person with and without children, one-earner couple with and without children) and two earnings levels (67% and 100% of average full-time earnings). Unemployment benefit duration is expressed in months, and refers to the case of a worker with 40 years of age and 22 years of contributions. The indicators "availability conditions", "job-search conditions" and "sanctions" are expressed as an index ranging from 1 (least strict) to 5 (strictest). The indicators "unemployment trap" and "inactivity trap" are expressed as percentage points of additional gross earnings when moving to employment. Net increase in disposable income is expressed as a percentage of net income when unemployed. Sources: European commission based on OECD Tax-Benefits models; Langenbucher, K. (2015) "Eligibility Criteria for Unemployment Benefits", OECD, forthcoming. 5

6 The evaluation of reform needs in individual countries can be supported by, among others, cross-country comparisons of policies and institutions in countries facing similar situations and challenges, as they highlight areas where specific countries lag behind. Unemployment benefit duration varies greatly among Member States and depends also on past work records. For instance for a worker with a long work history (22 years of contributions) it ranges from 3 months in Hungary or 5 months in the Czech Republic to up to 24 months in Denmark, France and Portugal (see table 1). Considering shorter work histories would translate into shorter durations in many Member States since the maximum duration generally increases with tenure (see figure 1). Figure 1: Duration of unemployment insurance benefits, 2013 Notes: Duration measured in months. Lower bound refers to the benefit duration which normally applies for those unemployed who just qualify for unemployment benefits, i.e. eligible unemployed with the shortest contribution period. Upper bound refers to the maximum benefit duration which normally applies for those unemployed who have the longest contribution period. In Belgium the duration is indefinite. In Denmark, Finland and Latvia the minimum and the maximum duration coincide.source: European Commission, based on OECD Tax-Benefits models. The duration of contributions required in order to be entitled to unemployment benefits (the qualifying period) also varies greatly across Member States, as well as the rules under which they are defined. It should be noted that national rules rely on different definitions and methods of measurement of the duration of the required contribution period. 3 In 2015, the 3 In some countries contribution period is calculated based on hours (e.g. in Denmark hours corresponding to one year of full-time work is required), in some other countries work is measured according to daily, weekly or monthly record, while yet in some others they are combined (e.g. in Sweden 6 months and at least 80 hours of work per months is required). In addition, rules vary in what is considered as work, e.g. in Czech Republic qualifying period of 12 months can be completed by substitute periods of employment such as 6

7 minimum contribution period ranges between 3 months in Croatia and Italy (after a recent reform in May 2015) and 2 years in Slovakia (figure 2). Figure 2: Entitlement conditions - minimum contribution requirements, 2015 Notes: The ratio of minimum contributions over the reference period (right-hand axis) shows the proportion between the duration of contributions required, and the maximum period over which these are considered. For Cyprus there is no fixed period: 6 months of contributions are required since the last unemployment spell. In Belgium, the minimum duration of contributions required to become entitled to unemployment benefits varies with age (the result above is shown for workers who are less than 36 years old). Source: European Commission, based on MISSOC, OECD and national sources. Furthermore there are important differences as regards the reference period during which the contribution must be made, which also affects the strictness of eligibility conditions (see figure 2, on the right-hand axis estimates of the length of the contribution period as a percentage of this reference period). The lower the percentage, the longer is the reference period in relation to the contribution period, therefore making it easier for the unemployed to be entitled (in Cyprus, there is no reference period). However, due to the diversity of policies in place, the monitoring of such criteria can be of a more qualitative nature. 4 Finally there are differences as regards the level of replacement rates and their composition (unemployment insurance, unemployment assistance and general social assistance) and personal care of a child. On the other hand, e.g. in Malta the number of paid sickness days prior to unemployment is deducted from the benefit duration entitlement. 4 For example, in MT, one needs to fulfil a contribution period of 50 weeks of which at least 20 weeks during the past two years (in the chart, % of reference period refers to 50 weeks out of two years, which reflects the distinction between contributions over the whole career and over the latest working period). In IE, 26 weekly contributions need to be paid in each of the two tax years preceding the benefit year (it is also possible to qualify with 9 months out of 12 with previous work experience). In IT, a total of 13 weeks of work is needed in the reference period of 4 years, of this 30 days of work must be accrued during the one year prior to the onset of unemployment. In SK, the reference period is 4 years for those in temporary employment (in the chart, the reference period of 3 years, reflecting other situations, is used). In the UK, there is no qualifying period, but the entitlement is based on paid contributions in the last two tax years. 7

8 their profile over time, with in general declines in replacement rates levels over time (figure 3). In addition replacement rates are generally higher the lower former wages and may decline for shorter work histories, which can make access to unemployment insurance benefits more difficult (the figure provides information for the case of a worker with 40 years of age and 22 years of contributions, at 67% of the average wage). Figure 3: Net replacement rates of unemployment benefits over time, 2013 Notes: Replacement rates are expressed as a percentage of previous net income from work. Earnings level is set at 67% of average full-time earnings. Time duration spans from 1 to 60 months of unemployment. Chart absent for Cyprus because of missing data. Source: European commission, based on OECD Tax-Benefits models. Date:

The coverage rate of social benefits. Research note 9/2013

The coverage rate of social benefits. Research note 9/2013 Research note 9/2013 SOCIAL SITUATION OBSERVATORY INCOME DISTRIBUTION AND LIVING CONDITIONS APPLICA (BE), EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR THE EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR SOCIAL WELFARE POLICY AND RESEARCH (AT), ISER UNIVERSITY

More information

6 Social Welfare Payments

6 Social Welfare Payments 6 Social Welfare Payments Indicator 6.1 Indicator 6.2 Unemployment Benefits Compared to Earnings (OECD countries) Unemployment Benefits Compared to Earnings in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom

More information

EUROPEAN ECONOMY. Benchmarking Unemployment Benefit Systems. Klara Stovicek and Alessandro Turrini. Economic Papers 454 May 2012

EUROPEAN ECONOMY. Benchmarking Unemployment Benefit Systems. Klara Stovicek and Alessandro Turrini. Economic Papers 454 May 2012 EUROPEAN ECONOMY Economic Papers 454 May 212 Benchmarking Unemployment Benefit Systems Klara Stovicek and Alessandro Turrini Economic and Financial Affairs Economic Papers are written by the Staff of the

More information

4 Distribution of Income, Earnings and Wealth

4 Distribution of Income, Earnings and Wealth 4 Distribution of Income, Earnings and Wealth Indicator 4.1 Indicator 4.2a Indicator 4.2b Indicator 4.3a Indicator 4.3b Indicator 4.4 Indicator 4.5a Indicator 4.5b Indicator 4.6 Indicator 4.7 Income per

More information

Increasing Financial Incentives to Work: The Role of In-work Benefits

Increasing Financial Incentives to Work: The Role of In-work Benefits ISBN 92-64-145-9 OECD Employment Outlook OECD 5 Chapter 3 Increasing Financial Incentives to Work: The Role of In-work Benefits Ensuring that the provision of welfare benefits is consistent with work incentives

More information

PERMANENT AND TEMPORARY WORKERS

PERMANENT AND TEMPORARY WORKERS PERMANENT AND TEMPORARY WORKERS Australia Permanent worker: Permanent workers are employees with paid leave entitlements in jobs or work contracts of unlimited duration, including regular workers whose

More information

NERI Quarterly Economic Facts Summer 2012. 4 Distribution of Income and Wealth

NERI Quarterly Economic Facts Summer 2012. 4 Distribution of Income and Wealth 4 Distribution of Income and Wealth 53 54 Indicator 4.1 Income per capita in the EU Indicator defined National income (GDP) in per capita (per head of population) terms expressed in Euro and adjusted for

More information

Healthcare Employment Rights 71 a 08 Social Welfare

Healthcare Employment Rights 71 a 08 Social Welfare Employment Healthcare Rights 71 a 08 Social Welfare 08 72 LIVING IN IRELAND Payments are divided into 3 categories: 1. Contributory: Social insurance payments (usually called benefits) are related to social

More information

PF1.5: Child Support

PF1.5: Child Support Definition and methodology PF1.5: Child All who are not living in the same household as their children are legally obliged to make child support towards their financial expense. Most OECD countries have

More information

The Tax Burden of Typical Workers in the EU 28 2014 Edition. James Rogers & Cécile Philippe May 2014. (Cover page) Data provided by

The Tax Burden of Typical Workers in the EU 28 2014 Edition. James Rogers & Cécile Philippe May 2014. (Cover page) Data provided by (Cover page) The Tax Burden of Typical Workers in the EU 28 2014 Edition NEW DIRECTION Page 1 of 17 James Rogers & Cécile Philippe May 2014 New Direction aims to help shift the EU onto a different course

More information

Social and unemployment insurance: a comparative analysis for Europe. Lorenzo Corsini

Social and unemployment insurance: a comparative analysis for Europe. Lorenzo Corsini Social and unemployment insurance: a comparative analysis for Europe Lorenzo Corsini Content of the module Unemployment insurance: a comparative analysis for Europe. Introduction to job search theory.

More information

OECD THEMATIC FOLLOW-UP REVIEW OF POLICIES TO IMPROVE LABOUR MARKET PROSPECTS FOR OLDER WORKERS. DENMARK (situation mid-2012)

OECD THEMATIC FOLLOW-UP REVIEW OF POLICIES TO IMPROVE LABOUR MARKET PROSPECTS FOR OLDER WORKERS. DENMARK (situation mid-2012) OECD THEMATIC FOLLOW-UP REVIEW OF POLICIES TO IMPROVE LABOUR MARKET PROSPECTS FOR OLDER WORKERS DENMARK (situation mid-2012) MACROBUTTON NUMBERING (SITUATION In 2011, the employment rate for the population

More information

EUROMOD. EUROMOD Working Paper No. EM 5/14. The implications of an EMU unemployment insurance scheme for supporting incomes

EUROMOD. EUROMOD Working Paper No. EM 5/14. The implications of an EMU unemployment insurance scheme for supporting incomes EUROMOD WORKING PAPER SERIES EUROMOD Working Paper No. EM 5/14 The implications of an EMU unemployment insurance scheme for supporting incomes H. Xavier Jara Holly Sutherland April 214 The implications

More information

Conditions for entitlement to disability benefits, 2013

Conditions for entitlement to disability benefits, 2013 Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Reduction in capacity for work of 50%. Reduction of capacity for work of at least 66%. 50% reduction in working capacity/degree of disability. More than 50% reduction

More information

INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS OF HOURLY COMPENSATION COSTS

INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS OF HOURLY COMPENSATION COSTS For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Tuesday, March 8, 2011 USDL-11-0303 Technical Information: (202) 691-5654 ilchelp@bls.gov www.bls.gov/ilc Media Contact: (202) 691-5902 PressOffice@bls.gov INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS

More information

The Economics of Imperfect Labor Markets. Chapter 4. Payroll taxes

The Economics of Imperfect Labor Markets. Chapter 4. Payroll taxes 1 / 36 The Economics of Imperfect Labor Markets Tito Boeri October 2010 Tito Boeri and Jan van Ours (2008) The Economics of Imperfect Labor Markets Princeton University Press Chapter 4. Payroll taxes Payroll

More information

PORTABILITY OF SOCIAL SECURITY AND HEALTH CARE BENEFITS IN ITALY

PORTABILITY OF SOCIAL SECURITY AND HEALTH CARE BENEFITS IN ITALY PORTABILITY OF SOCIAL SECURITY AND HEALTH CARE BENEFITS IN ITALY Johanna Avato Human Development Network Social Protection and Labor The World Bank Background study March 2008 The Italian Social Security

More information

The implications of an EMU unemployment insurance scheme for supporting incomes

The implications of an EMU unemployment insurance scheme for supporting incomes The implications of an EMU unemployment insurance scheme for supporting incomes H. Xavier Jara and Holly Sutherland ISER, University of Essex 4 th SEEK Conference on Public Finance and Income Distribution

More information

POLICIES TO IMPROVE LABOUR MARKET PROSPECTS FOR OLDER WORKERS

POLICIES TO IMPROVE LABOUR MARKET PROSPECTS FOR OLDER WORKERS POLICIES TO IMPROVE LABOUR MARKET PROSPECTS FOR OLDER WORKERS SPAIN (situation beginning of 2012) In 2011, the employment rate for the population aged 50-64 in Spain was 1.1 percentage point higher than

More information

Social Citizenship Rights and Gender/Family Policies. Walter Korpi Swedish Institute for Social Research

Social Citizenship Rights and Gender/Family Policies. Walter Korpi Swedish Institute for Social Research Social Citizenship Rights and Gender/Family Policies Walter Korpi Swedish Institute for Social Research The Logic of Industrialism Industrialism and Industrial Man. A Study of Labor Problems in Economic

More information

Ad Hoc Group report on the 2010 thematic review

Ad Hoc Group report on the 2010 thematic review Ad Hoc Group report on the 2010 thematic review [part 2. 'Quality in work'] REPORT ENDORSED BY EMCO ON 24 NOVEMBER 2010 CONTENTS 1. BACKGROUND...2 1.1 THE CONCEPT...2 2. STATE OF PLAY...3 2.1 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS

More information

Tax Concessions for Older People in OECD Countries, 2010

Tax Concessions for Older People in OECD Countries, 2010 Austria Belgium Czech Republic Tax credit of EUR 400 for low pension income up to EUR 17,000; the tax credit is fully phased out once pension income equals EUR 25,000. pension income of maximum EUR 1,901.19.

More information

An explanation of social assistance, pension schemes, insurance schemes and similar concepts

An explanation of social assistance, pension schemes, insurance schemes and similar concepts From: OECD Framework for Statistics on the Distribution of Household Income, Consumption and Wealth Access the complete publication at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264194830-en An explanation of social

More information

LATVIA S PENSION SYSTEM: CURRENT SITUATION AND FUTURE PROSPECTS. Monika Queisser Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs, OECD

LATVIA S PENSION SYSTEM: CURRENT SITUATION AND FUTURE PROSPECTS. Monika Queisser Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs, OECD LATVIA S PENSION SYSTEM: CURRENT SITUATION AND FUTURE PROSPECTS Monika Queisser Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs, OECD Demographic challenges Major demographic trends in Latvia Declining

More information

ERASMUS+ MASTER LOANS

ERASMUS+ MASTER LOANS ERASMUS+ MASTER LOANS Erasmus+ Master Loan: opening up access to more affordable lending for cross-border studies The Erasmus+ programme makes it possible for students who want to take a full Masters level

More information

The Tax Burden of Typical Workers in the EU 28 2015

The Tax Burden of Typical Workers in the EU 28 2015 The Tax Burden of Typical Workers in the EU 28 2015 James Rogers Cécile Philippe Institut Économique Molinari, Paris Bruxelles TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract 2 Background 2 Main Results 3 On average, a respite

More information

The Tax Burden of Typical Workers in the EU 27 2013 Edition

The Tax Burden of Typical Workers in the EU 27 2013 Edition (Cover page) The Tax Burden of Typical Workers in the EU 27 2013 Edition James Rogers & Cécile Philippe May 2013 Data provided by NEW DIRECTION Page 1 of 16 The Tax Burden of Typical Workers in the EU

More information

OECD THEMATIC FOLLOW-UP REVIEW OF POLICIES TO IMPROVE LABOUR MARKET PROSPECTS FOR OLDER WORKERS. SWITZERLAND (situation mid-2012)

OECD THEMATIC FOLLOW-UP REVIEW OF POLICIES TO IMPROVE LABOUR MARKET PROSPECTS FOR OLDER WORKERS. SWITZERLAND (situation mid-2012) OECD THEMATIC FOLLOW-UP REVIEW OF POLICIES TO IMPROVE LABOUR MARKET PROSPECTS FOR OLDER WORKERS SWITZERLAND (situation mid-2012) In 2011, the employment rate for the population aged 50-64 in Switzerland

More information

Database Grundtvig courses. January 2011 December 2012

Database Grundtvig courses. January 2011 December 2012 Database Grundtvig courses January 2011 December 2012 1. Totals courses Courses aimed at participants receiving: 10 1057 A grant for either Comenius or Grundtvig target groups (COM+GRU) 28% 299 A Grundtvig

More information

The claimant must have been employed for 26 weeks in the 12 months preceding unemployment.

The claimant must have been employed for 26 weeks in the 12 months preceding unemployment. LUXEMBOURG 1. Overview of the system A contributory means-tested unemployment insurance can be paid for a maximum period of 12 months. A social assistance (Revenu Minimum Garanti) is available only for

More information

Work Injury: Benefits, 2010

Work Injury: Benefits, 2010 Austria Belgium Temporary disability The insured receives the cash sickness benefit until a decision on permanent disability is made. The employer pays 100% of earnings for up to 12 weeks (plus additional

More information

EMPLOYMENT INSURANCE IN CANADA AND INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS. Prepared by: Marc VAN AUDENRODE * Andrée-Anne FOURNIER Nathalie HAVET Jimmy ROYER

EMPLOYMENT INSURANCE IN CANADA AND INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS. Prepared by: Marc VAN AUDENRODE * Andrée-Anne FOURNIER Nathalie HAVET Jimmy ROYER EMPLOYMENT INSURANCE IN CANADA AND INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS Prepared by: Marc VAN AUDENRODE * Andrée-Anne FOURNIER Nathalie HAVET Jimmy ROYER Groupe d analyse 1080, Côte du Beaver Hall, Suite 1810 Montréal,

More information

Challenges in Combating Pensioner Poverty Helsinki, 4-5 Dec 2006

Challenges in Combating Pensioner Poverty Helsinki, 4-5 Dec 2006 Challenges in Combating Pensioner Poverty Helsinki, 4-5 Dec 2006 1st Afternoon Plenary session Design and reform of minimum income guarantee and general public earnings related pension schemes and their

More information

Labour Force Survey 2014 Almost 10 million part-time workers in the EU would have preferred to work more Two-thirds were women

Labour Force Survey 2014 Almost 10 million part-time workers in the EU would have preferred to work more Two-thirds were women 75/2015-27 April 2015 Labour Force Survey 2014 Almost 10 million part-time workers in the EU would have preferred to work more Two-thirds were women Among the 44.1 million persons in the European Union

More information

PENSIONS AT A GLANCE 2011: RETIREMENT-INCOME SYSTEMS IN OECD COUNTRIES BELGIUM

PENSIONS AT A GLANCE 2011: RETIREMENT-INCOME SYSTEMS IN OECD COUNTRIES BELGIUM PENSIONS AT A GLANCE 2011: RETIREMENT-INCOME SYSTEMS IN OECD COUNTRIES Online Country Profiles, including personal income tax and social security contributions BELGIUM Belgium: pension system in 2008 The

More information

Transfer issues and directions for reform: Australian transfer policy in comparative perspective

Transfer issues and directions for reform: Australian transfer policy in comparative perspective Transfer issues and directions for reform: Australian transfer policy in comparative perspective Peter Whiteford, Social Policy Research Centre, University of New South Wales p.whiteford@unsw.edu.au 1

More information

Parental Leave Policies in 21 Countries: Assessing Generosity and Gender Equality i

Parental Leave Policies in 21 Countries: Assessing Generosity and Gender Equality i Parental Leave Policies in 21 Countries: Assessing Generosity and Gender Equality i Parental Leave Policies in 21 Countries: Assessing Generosity and Gender Equality 1 Parental Leave Policies in 21 Countries:

More information

// BRIEF STATISTICS 2014

// BRIEF STATISTICS 2014 // BRIEF STATISTICS 2014 // TAXATION IN FINLAND Finland s taxation is subject to decisions by the Finnish Parliament, the European Union and the municipalities of Finland. It is governed by tax legislation,

More information

ERASMUS+ MASTER LOANS

ERASMUS+ MASTER LOANS Ref. Ares(2015)660570-17/02/2015 ERASMUS+ MASTER LOANS Erasmus+ Master Loan: opening up access to more affordable lending for cross-border studies The Erasmus+ programme makes it possible for students

More information

Statutory Parental Leave and Childcare Leave: April 2012

Statutory Parental Leave and Childcare Leave: April 2012 Statutory Parental Leave and Childcare Leave: April 2012 These two types of leave are considered together here, though treated separately in the country notes. All EU member states must provide at least

More information

The World Bank. Scientific research: Latvia: Who is Unemployed, Inactive or Needy? Assessing Post-Crisis Policy Options

The World Bank. Scientific research: Latvia: Who is Unemployed, Inactive or Needy? Assessing Post-Crisis Policy Options The World Bank INTERNATIONAL BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT INTERNATIONAL FINANCE CORPORATION MULTILATERAL INVESTMENT GUARANTEE AGENCY Scientific research: Latvia: Who is Unemployed, Inactive

More information

The Tax Burden of Typical Workers in the EU 27

The Tax Burden of Typical Workers in the EU 27 The Tax Burden of Typical Workers in the EU 27 James Rogers Cécile Philippe Institut Économique Molinari, Paris-Bruxelles TABLE OF CONTENTS Objective of the Study 2 Study Interest 2 Main Results 3 Definitions

More information

COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION

COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION EUROPEAN COMMISSION Brussels, 17.9.2014 C(2014) 6767 final COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION Updating of data used to calculate lump sum and penalty payments to be proposed by the Commission to the Court

More information

Civil service pension schemes. Options for reform

Civil service pension schemes. Options for reform Civil service pension schemes Options for reform World Bank Core Course on Pensions Washington, DC, March, 2014 Agenda Institutional arrangements for public-sector workers pensions Demographic pressures

More information

Contract Work in Switzerland. A Brief Guide

Contract Work in Switzerland. A Brief Guide Contract Work in Switzerland. A Brief Guide Introduction to Swissroll There are approximately 1,000,000 foreign employees in Switzerland, 25% of which commute from outside the country. Swissroll are registered

More information

DEMOGRAPHICS AND MACROECONOMICS

DEMOGRAPHICS AND MACROECONOMICS 1 UNITED KINGDOM DEMOGRAPHICS AND MACROECONOMICS Data from 2008 or latest available year. 1. Ratio of over 65-year-olds the labour force. Source: OECD, various sources. COUNTRY PENSION DESIGN STRUCTURE

More information

Actual annual working time in France and in Europe in 2013

Actual annual working time in France and in Europe in 2013 Actual annual working time in France and in Europe in 2013 Update to the January 2012 study plus new data Summary of the Working Paper N.49 : La durée effective du travail en France et en Europe (June

More information

Family benefits Information about health insurance country. Udbetaling Danmark Kongens Vænge 8 3400 Hillerød. A. Personal data

Family benefits Information about health insurance country. Udbetaling Danmark Kongens Vænge 8 3400 Hillerød. A. Personal data Mail to Udbetaling Danmark Kongens Vænge 8 3400 Hillerød Family benefits Information about health insurance country A. Personal data Name Danish civil registration (CPR) number Address Telephone number

More information

Flexicurity. U. Michael Bergman University of Copenhagen

Flexicurity. U. Michael Bergman University of Copenhagen Flexicurity U. Michael Bergman University of Copenhagen Plan for the day What is flexicurity? Why is there an interest in the flexicurity model? Why are people unemployed? The Danish flexicurity system

More information

The Tax Burden of Typical Workers in the EU 28 2016

The Tax Burden of Typical Workers in the EU 28 2016 The Tax Burden of Typical Workers in the EU 28 2016 James Rogers Cécile Philippe Institut Économique Molinari, Paris Bruxelles TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract 2 Background 2 Main Results 3 On average, a respite

More information

A European Unemployment Insurance Scheme

A European Unemployment Insurance Scheme A European Unemployment Insurance Scheme Necessary? Desirable? Optimal? Grégory Claeys, Research Fellow, Bruegel Zsolt Darvas, Senior Fellow, Bruegel Guntram Wolff, Director, Bruegel July, 2014 Key messages

More information

Hungary s labour market indicators continue to improve

Hungary s labour market indicators continue to improve Hungary s labour market indicators continue to improve Employment rate higher again in Hungary According to the latest data, the positive trend regarding growth in the number of people in employment has

More information

Netherlands. Croatia. Malta. Slovenia. Greece. Czech Republic. Portugal. Compulsory. households actual. social contributions.

Netherlands. Croatia. Malta. Slovenia. Greece. Czech Republic. Portugal. Compulsory. households actual. social contributions. Structure and development of tax revenues Table EL.: Revenue (% of GDP) 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 200 20 202 203 I. Indirect taxes : : 2.3 2.7 2.7.8 2.6 3.5 3. 3.4 VAT : : 6.8 7. 7.0 6.3 7. 7.2 7.

More information

Employee eligibility to work in the UK

Employee eligibility to work in the UK Employee eligibility to work in the UK This document details legal requirements that apply to ALL new members of staff All employers in the UK are legally bound to comply with the Asylum and Immigration

More information

WICARE - Surveying wages and working conditions in the Social Services

WICARE - Surveying wages and working conditions in the Social Services WICARE - Surveying wages and working conditions in the Social Services Social Services Workshop, EPSU Brussels, Belgium 17 December 2013 Kea Tijdens and Maarten van Klaveren (AIAS-UVA) Introduction Why

More information

Sweden. Qualifying conditions. Benefit calculation. Earnings-related. Key indicators. Sweden: Pension system in 2012

Sweden. Qualifying conditions. Benefit calculation. Earnings-related. Key indicators. Sweden: Pension system in 2012 Sweden Sweden: Pension system in 212 The earnings-related part is based on notional accounts and there is a small mandatory contribution to individual, defined-contribution funded pensions. There is also

More information

Projected Population of Scotland (2008-based) Figures

Projected Population of Scotland (2008-based) Figures Projected Population of Scotland (2008-based) Figures Contents Figure 1 Estimated population of Scotland, actual and projected, 1951-2083 Figure 2 Births and deaths, actual and projected, Scotland, 1951-2033

More information

Tax-benefit systems, income distribution and work incentives in the European Union

Tax-benefit systems, income distribution and work incentives in the European Union INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MICROSIMULATION (2013) 6(1) 27-62 INTERNATIONAL MICROSIMULATION ASSOCIATION Tax-benefit systems, income distribution and work incentives in the European Union H. Xavier Jara Institute

More information

- 2 - Chart 2. Annual percent change in hourly compensation costs in manufacturing and exchange rates, 2010-2011

- 2 - Chart 2. Annual percent change in hourly compensation costs in manufacturing and exchange rates, 2010-2011 For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Wednesday, December 19, 2012 USDL-12-2460 Technical Information: (202) 691-5654 ilchelp@bls.gov www.bls.gov/ilc Media Contact: (202) 691-5902 PressOffice@bls.gov INTERNATIONAL

More information

PF2.3: Additional leave entitlements for working parents

PF2.3: Additional leave entitlements for working parents OECD Social Policy Division Directorate of Employment, Labour and Social Affairs Definitions and methodology PF2.3: Additional leave entitlements for working parents In addition to leave entitlements around

More information

COMPARING SOCIAL MODELS IN SEARCH OF INCOME AND JOB/EMPLOYMENT SECURITY: UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS VS SHORT TIME WORK COMPENSATIONS

COMPARING SOCIAL MODELS IN SEARCH OF INCOME AND JOB/EMPLOYMENT SECURITY: UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS VS SHORT TIME WORK COMPENSATIONS COMPARING SOCIAL MODELS IN SEARCH OF INCOME AND JOB/EMPLOYMENT SECURITY: UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS VS SHORT TIME WORK COMPENSATIONS Silvia Spattini Researcher ADAPT Marco Biagi Centre for International and

More information

Contributions must have been made for at least 12 months.

Contributions must have been made for at least 12 months. GERMANY 1. Overview of the system Unemployment insurance and unemployment assistance benefits are related to previous income levels and are augmented when there are dependent children. Social assistance

More information

UNITED KINGDOM 2003. The UK Financial year runs from April to April. The rates and rules below are for June 2003.

UNITED KINGDOM 2003. The UK Financial year runs from April to April. The rates and rules below are for June 2003. UNITED KINGDOM 2003 The UK Financial year runs from April to April. The rates and rules below are for June 2003. 1. Overview of the system The United Kingdom has a contributory flat-rate unemployment insurance

More information

NEET: Young People Not in Education, Employment or Training

NEET: Young People Not in Education, Employment or Training NEET: Young People Not in Education, Employment or Training Standard Note: SN/EP/06705 Last updated: 13 December 2013 Author: Section: James Mirza-Davies Economic Policy and Statistics In the third quarter

More information

193/2014-15 December 2014. Hourly labour costs in the EU28 Member States, 2012 (in )

193/2014-15 December 2014. Hourly labour costs in the EU28 Member States, 2012 (in ) 193/2014-15 December 2014 Labour Cost Survey 2012 in the EU28 Labour costs highest in the financial and insurance sector Three times higher than in the accommodation and food sector In 2012, average hourly

More information

Research Briefing. The Best and the Brightest EU students at UK universities and as highly skilled graduate workers in the UK

Research Briefing. The Best and the Brightest EU students at UK universities and as highly skilled graduate workers in the UK Research Briefing The Best and the Brightest EU students at UK universities and as highly skilled graduate workers in the UK Academic performance and labour market outcomes of EU domiciled students in

More information

Social dumping and free movement: Overview of current issues from an economic point of view

Social dumping and free movement: Overview of current issues from an economic point of view Social dumping and free movement: Overview of current issues from an economic point of view Prof. dr. Jozef Pacolet & Frederic De Wispelaere Design Charles & Ray Eames - Hang it all Vitra Statistics on

More information

FINLAND 2001. 1. Overview of the system

FINLAND 2001. 1. Overview of the system FINLAND 2001 1. Overview of the system There exists a three-tier system of unemployment benefits: a basic benefit, an earnings related benefit and a means-tested benefit. The earnings related supplement

More information

PHONE SELLING ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

PHONE SELLING ADDITIONAL INFORMATION COUNTRY PHONE SELLING ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ALLOWED Belgium The use of automatic system of phone call with a marketing goal without human intervention is not allowed without the authorization of the consumer.

More information

EUROPE 2020 TARGET: EARLY LEAVERS FROM EDUCATION AND TRAINING

EUROPE 2020 TARGET: EARLY LEAVERS FROM EDUCATION AND TRAINING EUROPE 2020 TARGET: EARLY LEAVERS FROM EDUCATION AND TRAINING By 2020, the share of early leavers from education and training (aged 18-24) should be less than 10% Early school leaving 1 is an obstacle

More information

Your Home Finding a Home

Your Home Finding a Home Your Home Finding a Home একট ব ড় র সন ন কর Finding a home Whether you are a new or existing customer, we believe you should be able to choose a home that best suits your needs. City West owns and manages

More information

Lithuania Lithuania spent USD per student on primary to tertiary educational institutions, below the OECD average of USD

Lithuania Lithuania spent USD per student on primary to tertiary educational institutions, below the OECD average of USD Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators is the authoritative source for information on the state of education around the world. It provides data on the structure, finances and performance of education systems

More information

Overseas degree equivalency: methodology

Overseas degree equivalency: methodology This document was produced by UK NARIC for the National College for Teaching and Leadership (NCTL) 1. Introduction The current allocation of bursaries for postgraduate teacher training places in England

More information

PENSIONS AT A GLANCE 2009: RETIREMENT INCOME SYSTEMS IN OECD COUNTRIES UNITED STATES

PENSIONS AT A GLANCE 2009: RETIREMENT INCOME SYSTEMS IN OECD COUNTRIES UNITED STATES PENSIONS AT A GLANCE 29: RETIREMENT INCOME SYSTEMS IN OECD COUNTRIES Online Country Profiles, including personal income tax and social security contributions UNITED STATES United States: pension system

More information

As of 2014, the SIC contribution will increase to. 29.2 %, capped at 48times average monthly wage per year (CZK 1,242,432 for 2013)

As of 2014, the SIC contribution will increase to. 29.2 %, capped at 48times average monthly wage per year (CZK 1,242,432 for 2013) Country Mandatory Social Security Mandatory Health Insurance (or other type if applicable) Austria 21,83% 18,07% 18,5% retirement pension ; 8,48 per month accident insurane; 7,65% health Belgium 35% of

More information

Pension rules for the self-employed in the EU, 2014 a)

Pension rules for the self-employed in the EU, 2014 a) Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Austria used to have a comprehensive special scheme both for farmers and for craftsmen and retailers until 31 Dec 2004. As of 1 Jan 2005 all pension systems were

More information

Unemployment-Related Benefits Systems: Overall Comparison

Unemployment-Related Benefits Systems: Overall Comparison RP23/99-00 June 2000 Prepared by Ms Eva LIU Research and Library Services Division Legislative Council Secretariat 5th Floor, Citibank Tower, 3 Garden Road, Central, Hong Kong Telephone : (852) 2869 7735

More information

Unemployment benefits and unemployment The challenge of unemployment benefits is to protect workers while minimizing undesirable side effects

Unemployment benefits and unemployment The challenge of unemployment benefits is to protect workers while minimizing undesirable side effects Robert A. Moffitt Johns Hopkins University, USA, and IZA, Germany Unemployment benefits and unemployment The challenge of unemployment benefits is to protect workers while minimizing undesirable side effects

More information

ERASMUS+ MASTER LOANS

ERASMUS+ MASTER LOANS ERASMUS+ MASTER LOANS Erasmus+ Master Loan: opening up access to more affordable lending for cross-border studies The Erasmus+ programme makes it possible for students who want to take a full Master's-level

More information

Denmark. Qualifying conditions. Benefit calculation. Basic. Targeted. Key indicators. Denmark: Pension system in 2012

Denmark. Qualifying conditions. Benefit calculation. Basic. Targeted. Key indicators. Denmark: Pension system in 2012 Denmark Denmark: Pension system in 212 There is a public basic scheme. A means-tested supplementary pension benefit is paid to the financially most disadvantaged pensioners. There is also a scheme based

More information

relating to household s disposable income. A Gini Coefficient of zero indicates

relating to household s disposable income. A Gini Coefficient of zero indicates Gini Coefficient The Gini Coefficient is a measure of income inequality which is based on data relating to household s disposable income. A Gini Coefficient of zero indicates perfect income equality, whereas

More information

DEMOGRAPHICS AND MACROECONOMICS

DEMOGRAPHICS AND MACROECONOMICS 1 MALTA DEMOGRAPHICS AND MACROECONOMICS Nominal GDP (millions Maltese Lira) 5,634 GDP per capita (USD) 20,254 Population (thousands) 407 Labour force (thousands) 171 Employment rate 93.94 Population over

More information

Parental leave in Belgium and in Europe

Parental leave in Belgium and in Europe Parental leave in Belgium and in Europe Leila Maron & Síle O'Dorchai Department of Applied Economics, Université Libre de Bruxelles (DULBEA) Article: Maron, Leila, Danièle Meulders and Síle O Dorchai (2008)

More information

PENSIONS AT A GLANCE 2011: RETIREMENT-INCOME SYSTEMS IN OECD COUNTRIES SWEDEN

PENSIONS AT A GLANCE 2011: RETIREMENT-INCOME SYSTEMS IN OECD COUNTRIES SWEDEN PENSIONS AT A GLANCE 2011: RETIREMENT-INCOME SYSTEMS IN OECD COUNTRIES Online Country Profiles, including personal income tax and social security contributions SWEDEN Sweden: pension system in 2008 The

More information

EUROPE 2020 TARGET: TERTIARY EDUCATION ATTAINMENT

EUROPE 2020 TARGET: TERTIARY EDUCATION ATTAINMENT EUROPE 2020 TARGET: TERTIARY EDUCATION ATTAINMENT Low tertiary or equivalent education attainment levels create skills bottlenecks in knowledgeintensive economic sectors and hamper productivity, innovation

More information

Employment Injuries and Occupational Diseases: Benefits (Permanent Incapacity) a), 2005

Employment Injuries and Occupational Diseases: Benefits (Permanent Incapacity) a), 2005 Austria Belgium 20% (50% for pupils and students). Accident insurance fund. Review at any time possible in the first two years; thereafter at intervals of at least 1 year. No minimum level. Employment

More information

THE TAX BURDEN OF TYPICAL WORKERS IN THE EU 27

THE TAX BURDEN OF TYPICAL WORKERS IN THE EU 27 THE TAX BURDEN OF TYPICAL WORKERS IN THE EU 27 May 2011 James Rogers Cécile Philippe Published by New Direction The Foundation for European Reform Rue d'arlon 40 1000 Brussels Belgium Telephone: +32-2

More information

Annual report 2009: the state of the drugs problem in Europe

Annual report 2009: the state of the drugs problem in Europe Annual report 2009: the state of the drugs problem in Europe International Conference: New trends in drug use: facts and solutions, Parliament of the Republic of Vilnius - 5 November 2009 Dagmar Hedrich

More information

Gender Mainstreaming and Women s Employability. Professor Jill Rubery Manchester School of Management UMIST

Gender Mainstreaming and Women s Employability. Professor Jill Rubery Manchester School of Management UMIST Gender Mainstreaming and Women s Employability Professor Jill Rubery Manchester School of Management UMIST Dimensions to the problems of women's employability Access to employment Job quality Social/ household

More information

Third quarter of 2014 Annual growth in labour costs down to 1.3% in euro area Stable at 1.4% in EU28

Third quarter of 2014 Annual growth in labour costs down to 1.3% in euro area Stable at 1.4% in EU28 198/2014-17 December 2014 Third quarter of 2014 Annual growth in labour costs down to 1.3% in euro area Stable at 1.4% in EU28 Hourly labour costs 1 rose by 1.3% in the euro area 2 (EA18) and by 1.4% in

More information

Definition of Public Interest Entities (PIEs) in Europe

Definition of Public Interest Entities (PIEs) in Europe Definition of Public Interest Entities (PIEs) in Europe FEE Survey October 2014 This document has been prepared by FEE to the best of its knowledge and ability to ensure that it is accurate and complete.

More information

HUNGARY. 1. Overview of the system

HUNGARY. 1. Overview of the system HUNGARY 1. Overview of the system is compulsory; benefits are paid for a maximum period of 12 months. A social assistance benefit exists as a last resort financial aid. Income-tested housing benefits are

More information

VULNERABILITY OF SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS

VULNERABILITY OF SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS VULNERABILITY OF SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS 2 December 2014 Paris Seminar in Demographic Economics Falilou FALL Senior Economist OECD Economics Department 1 Introduction and outline Social institutions and the

More information

Austria. Qualifying conditions. Benefit calculation. Earnings-related. Targeted

Austria. Qualifying conditions. Benefit calculation. Earnings-related. Targeted 11. PENSIONS AT A GLANCE 215: COUNTRY PROFILES AUSTRIA Austria Austria: Pension system in 214 The pension system consists of a definedbenefit public scheme with an incometested top-up for low-income pensioners.

More information

CASH BENEFITS IN RESPECT OF SICKNESS AND MATERNITY SUBJECT TO EU COORDINATION

CASH BENEFITS IN RESPECT OF SICKNESS AND MATERNITY SUBJECT TO EU COORDINATION CASH BENEFITS IN RESPECT OF SICKNESS AND MATERNITY SUBJECT TO EU COORDINATION Z a k ł a d U b e z p i e c z e ń S p o ł e c z n y c h The scope and purpose of benefits coordination The EU coordination

More information

Alcohol Consumption in Ireland 1986-2006 A Report for the Health Service Executive

Alcohol Consumption in Ireland 1986-2006 A Report for the Health Service Executive Alcohol Consumption in Ireland 1986-2006 A Report for the Health Service Executive Prepared by Dr. Ann Hope This report should be referenced: Hope, A. (2007). Alcohol consumption in Ireland 1986-2006.

More information

Going for Growth: Structural Surveillance in the OECD

Going for Growth: Structural Surveillance in the OECD Going for Growth: Structural Surveillance in the OECD OECD World Bank Conference on Innovation and Sustainable Growth in a Globalised World, Paris, 18-19 November 2008 Sven Blondal Sven Blondal, Economics

More information

The structure of the European education systems. schematic diagrams. Eurydice Highlights. Education and Training

The structure of the European education systems. schematic diagrams. Eurydice Highlights. Education and Training What is Eurydice The Eurydice Network provides information on and analyses of European education systems and policies. It consists of 40 national units based in all 36 countries participating in the EU's

More information

Early retirement conditions in the EU, 2014

Early retirement conditions in the EU, 2014 Austria Belgium Bulgaria General legislation: 62 years for men and women. At the earliest 60 years for heavy workers provided that they have worked heavily at least 10 years during the preceding 20 years,

More information

UNEMPLOYMENT REPLACEMENT RATES DATASET AMONG 34 WELFARE STATES, 1971-2009

UNEMPLOYMENT REPLACEMENT RATES DATASET AMONG 34 WELFARE STATES, 1971-2009 UNEMPLOYMENT REPLACEMENT RATES DATASET AMONG 34 WELFARE STATES, - AN UPDATE, EXTENSION AND MODIFICATION OF THE SCRUGGS WELFARE STATE ENTITLEMENTS DATA SET OLAF VAN VLIET KOEN CAMINADA NEUJOBS SPECIAL REPORT

More information