1 Glossary A Active/Active Application Failover A failover scenario in which an application that is running on one server fails over to another server that is running the same application. Active/Passive Application Failover A failover scenario in which an application that is running on one server fails over to another server that is waiting to handle the failure. Administrative Domain A collection of physical and/or virtual resources that are owned and accessed using an administrative role. The two administrative domains include: PAN Administrator role LPAN Administrator, Operator, and Monitor roles See also Administrative Role, LPAN, PAN. Administrative Permission A named set of actions that can be performed by an administrative role. The three administrative permissions include: Configuration create, configure, assign, and remove resources Control Start and stop system components
2 Monitor View the status of system components See also Administrative Role. Administrative Role A named set of administrative permissions assigned to a PAN Manager user within an administrative domain. The three administrative roles include: Administrator Configuration, Control, and Monitor permissions Operator Control and Monitor permissions Monitor Monitor permission See also Administrative Domain, Administrative Permission. Application Template A set of executable scripts that provide all the required PAN Manager resources for an application. The scripts execute PAN Manager commands when the template is extracted into an LPAN. B BIOS Basic Input/Output System. A cblade and pblade firmware component that provides boot services for the operating system, and controls the keyboard, display, and serial communications. See also Firmware. Blade A modular hardware component that provides a high-performance and efficient replacement for an entire server or system. A platform in a PAN provides three distinct types of blades: cblades, sblades,
3 and pblades. On Fujitsu Siemens Computers platforms, all blades are hot-pluggable and hot-swappable. See also cblade, pblade, sblade, Platform, vblade. Blade Pool A set of pblades or vblades designated for use as primary or failover blades for pservers. Administrators can use pools to group pblades or vblades with similar architecture (AMD, Intel, 32-bit, 64-bit) and performance (2-way, 4-way). When an administrator configures pools with PAN Manager, PAN Manager can dynamically assign a pool-configured pserver with the blade(s) from a pool. See also Global Pool, Local Pool. BladeFarm A PAN that contains multiple BladeFrame BF400 S2 platforms and their associated processing and I/O resources. BladeFrame See Platform. BladePlane A component of the chassis that is made of high-speed serial fabric and provides the physical network inside the platform. The BladePlane is commonly known as the spine. The BladePlane connects the pblades, cblades, and sblades in the PRIMERGY BF500 and BladeFrame BF400 S2. The BladePlane connects the pblades with each cblade ES in the BladeFrame BF200. Blind-mate Connection A hardware connection that binds the blades to the BladePlane. The connection contains a series of progressively larger pins on the blades and pin receivers for the pins on the BladePlane.
4 BMC Baseboard Management Controller. A cblade and pblade firmware component that records significant platform events in the Hardware Event Log (HEL) and the System Event Log (SEL). See also Firmware. Broadcast Domain A network domain defined by the member nodes and their ability to communicate with each other. Broadcast domains can include servers that are internal or external to the PAN. C cblade Control Blade. A blade that handles system and internal network management and provides pservers with access to external storage, external networks, and DVD-ROM drives. The cblade provides network access with Ethernet and storage access with Fibre Channel connections. Each platform contains a pair of cblades. The cblade models include: cblade EX Contains a two-way dual core AMD processor, high-speed SAN fabric bandwidth, and high Ethernet network throughput. cblade ES Contains a two-way SMP Intel processor and a cblade switch. cblade Switch A component in the cblade ES that provides point-to-point connectivity among all pblades and each cblade ES in the BladeFrame BF200. Chassis The physical housing unit that racks and protects the blades.
5 CLI Command Line Interface. A PAN Manager interface in which you enter commands from a cblade command prompt. CMOS Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor. A cblade and pblade firmware component that stores the date, time, and system setup parameters. See also Firmware. Console A CLI or GUI window that provides a management interface to a pserver. Administrators can also open a console to a cblade, either locally by connecting a laptop directly to the platform, or remotely by using utilities such as ssh and Telnet. Control Blade (cblade) See cblade. D Device ID The PAN Manager name of a disk device or tape device, which is chosen by the administrator. A device ID can be any ID chosen by the administrator. In releases before Release 5.1, the device ID was the SCSI address (HBA_port.path_group.target.lun). See also Unit. Disaster Recovery Archive A file that contains a saved copy of an entire PAN configuration and can be used to structure the same configuration at a later date. Disks One or more storage disk arrays, which can be directly attached with Fiber Channel, components of a Storage Area Network (SAN), or components of Network Attached Storage (NAS).
6 Domain A Virtual Machine (VM) running under control of the hypervisor on a pblade. The hypervisor supports two types of domains: Domain 0, also known as dom0, is created automatically when the hypervisor boots and runs the host operating system, which has special privileges and manages the other domains. Guest or unprivileged domains, also known as domu, run a guest operating system. Each vblade maps to a specific guest domain. See also Hypervisor, vblade, VM, Xen. E EVBS Egenera Virtualized Boot Services. A new generation of the Remote BIOS product that is based on the Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI), a new preboot technology developed by Intel that is expected to eventually replace BIOS. EVBS provides a boot environment that includes boot device emulation of CD, Storage Area Network (SAN), and Preboot Execution Environment (PXE). EVBS provides CD, SAN, and PXE boot services for pservers. See also PXE. F Failover To change data traffic from using the primary instances of hardware, software, or application components to using the redundant instances of the same component when a failure occurs.
7 Failover Policy A feature of PAN Manager that governs how application services can continue to be provided in the event of an application, pserver, or pblade failure. The failover policy specifies which pservers run the application service, in which order they are selected, and whether the application should return to its original pserver when that pserver returns. Fiber Channel A set of standards for a serial I/O bus that is capable of transferring data between two ports at up to 4 Gbps, with standards proposals to go to higher speeds. Fibre Channel supports point to point, arbitrated loop, and switched topologies. Firmware The software that is embedded in the hardware devices on the cblades and pblades. See also BIOS, BMC, CMOS, FRU Data, Option ROM. Flow Control A PAN Manager feature that ensures all Ethernet broadcast traffic passes through the cblade with guaranteed delivery. See also pserver to External Network Flow Control, pserver to pserver Flow Control. FRU Data Field Replaceable Unit Data. A cblade and pblade firmware component that contains descriptive information about the blade, including its part number and serial number. See also Firmware.
8 G Global Pool A pblade pool that is used by the whole PAN and from which pblades can be allocated to pservers running in that PAN. A global pool spans LPANs; pblades in a global pool can be allocated to pservers running in any LPAN. You cannot add vblades to a global pool, however. See also Local Pool. GRUB Grand Unified Bootloader. A boot loader package that follows the multiboot specification. With GRUB, administrators can select, boot, and pass boot-time parameters to different kernel images. GRUB is the boot loader used with Linux guest operating systems running on vblades. See also Guest Operating System. Guest Operating System A pserver running on a vblade under the control of the hypervisor. The guest operating system is also known as domu (unprivileged domain). For vblades whose underlying pblade has Intel VT-x or AMD-V virtualization technology, any unmodified operating system can run as a guest operating system. For vblades whose underlying pblade does not have virtualization technology, you must use guest operating systems from Fujitsu Siemens Computers that have been specially modified for use with Xen. See also Domain, Host Operating System, Hypervisor, Live Migration, Resume, Suspend. GUI Graphical User Interface. The PAN Manager interface in which you configure, monitor, and control the PAN s physical and virtual resources. You access the PAN Manager GUI using a supported Internet browser.
9 H Hardware Prefetch A firmware option for pservers that minimizes latency by using the hardware features of certain pblades to bring data and instructions into higher-speed memory before the processor needs them. The hardware prefetch option can improve the performance of pservers running Oracle applications. See also Hyperthreading, Node Interleaving. HBA Host Bus Adapter. The hardware component on each cblade that provides redundant access to Fibre Channel storage. Health Monitor The feature of the MON resource monitoring system in PAN Manager that allows administrators to monitor the health of applications and to automatically initiate application failover. High Availability The set of hardware and software features that maximize the amount of time applications can run. PAN Manager provides resources for enabling two high-availability services: highavailability applications and load balancers. Host Operating System A Virtual Machine (VM) that runs with special privileges under control of the hypervisor and manages the guest operating systems. The host operating system is also known as dom0 (domain 0). See also Domain, Guest Operating System. Hot-swappable A property of a system component that allows administrators to insert it into a running system and have the system recognize and use it without restarting, or to remove it from a running system without taking down the system.
10 Hyperthreading A firmware option for pservers that uses the Hyper-Threading Technology feature of certain Intel pblades to improve the performance of multithreaded applications. See also Hardware Prefetch, Node Interleaving. Hypervisor A special type of pserver that allows multiple guest operating systems to share one or more hardware processors on a pblade. The guests can be single instances of different operating systems or multiple instances of the same operating system. The hypervisor is a separately purchased option that is based on Xen technology, where guest operating systems use virtual device drivers to access the vblade processing resource on a pblade. See also Guest Operating System, Host Operating System, vblade, Xen. I IPMS Intelligent Platform Management System. A messaging system within the platform that, along with other components, allows administrators to monitor hardware and to power on and off hardware. Components of the system include: Intelligent Platform Management Bus (IPMB) Intelligent Chassis Management Bus (ICMB) Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) ISO Image A bootable disk image of an ISO 9660 file system. Administrators register ISO images in the PAN, and can insert them into and eject them from Virtual CD (VCD) devices. An ISO image and VCD provide a convenient alternative to physical media and media drives. See also VCD.
11 K Kernel The core module of an operating system, which includes the system drivers and manages subsystems such as I/O and memory allocation. L Live Migration To move a running guest pserver from one vblade to another vblade without shutting down. See also vblade. Local Pool A pblade or vblade pool that is used by a specific LPAN and from which pblades or vblades can be allocated to pservers running in that LPAN. The blades in a local pool cannot be allocated to pservers running in other LPANs. Administrators can link a local pool to a global pool, so PAN Manager can attempt to allocate a blade from the global pool if it can t allocate the blade from the local pool. See also Global Pool. LPAN Logical Processing Area Network. A secure logically isolated group of PAN resources, including pblades, network connections, and storage. See also Maintenance LPAN. LUN Logical Unit Number. The SCSI identifier of a logical storage unit within a target.
12 LVS Linux Virtual Server. A load-balancing package distributed with Red Hat Linux, which allows administrators to distribute the request load between multiple servers based on an administratordefined policy. M MAC Address Media Access Control Address. A hardware address that uniquely identifies a component in a network Maintenance LPAN An LPAN for performing maintenance operations on hardware, such as updating firmware. When administrators removes blades or pool of blades from service, PAN Manager adds them to the maintenance LPAN. When the blades are returned to active service, PAN Manager removes them from the maintenance LPAN. The maintenance LPAN supports the same resources and features as any other LPAN. The maintenance LPAN (.maint) cannot be deleted. See also LPAN. Master Platform The BladeFrame BF400 S2 platform that starts a BladeFarm by opening its PAN for member platforms to join. The master platform runs the PAN master instance of PAN Manager and manages the member platforms. See also PAN Master. Media Drive A physical or virtual drive for booting and installing from removable media, such as a DVD-ROM drive or Virtual CD (VCD) drive. See also VCD. Member Platform A BladeFrame BF400 S2 platform that joins the PAN of the master platform to become a member of a BladeFarm.
13 Migration See Live Migration. mreth Interface Mega Redundant Ethernet Interface. An association between a reth on one BladeFrame BF400 S2 platform and a reth on another BladeFrame BF400 S2 platform that is a member of the same BladeFarm as the first platform. A mreth provides a failover path between the platforms in a BladeFarm. Pronunciation: mega wreath interface. Multipath A configuration for a data center I/O server that allows one or more servers to access data storage devices through multiple physical paths or connections. In PAN platforms, the multipath configuration extends this I/O redundancy outside of the platform to the SAN fabric. N NIC Network Interface Controller. An adapter circuit board installed in each cblade or sblade (depending on platform) that provides a physical connection to an external network. Node Interleaving A firmware option for pservers that uses the hardware features of certain pblades to interleave a single page of memory from each processor at a time. Administrators use node interleaving to improve the performance of pservers running applications that don t support non-uniform memory access (NUMA), which concatenates all the memory from each processor in a single block. See also Hardware Prefetch, Hyperthreading.
14 O Option ROM Option Read-Only Memory. A pblade firmware component that stores the network fabric device driver. See also Firmware. P PAN Processing Area Network. A distributed set of physical and virtual resources, including processors, disks, tapes, and network connections. These resources are both internal and external to a platform, and are bound into servers (pservers) through software. PAN Agent A software process on the pblade that performs management functions on behalf of PAN Manager. The PAN Agent provides health and performance monitors as well as graceful startup and shutdown of pservers, HA clusters, and load-balancing clusters. PAN Archive A file that contains configuration information about a specific PAN. A PAN archive that is imported and swapped becomes the currently running PAN configuration. See also Disaster Recovery Archive. PAN Manager Software The software that manages a platform and its hardware and software resources. PAN Manager provides both a GUI and CLI for administrators. See also PAN Master, PAN Slave.
15 PAN Master The instance of PAN Manager that controls the resources and configuration of a PAN and to which the administrator logs in. In a platform, the PAN master runs on the master cblade and can fail over to the slave cblade. In a BladeFarm, the PAN master runs on the master cblade in the master BladeFrame BF400 S2 platform, and can fail over to the PAN slave instance of PAN Manager that runs on the slave cblade. See also PAN Slave. PAN Slave The instance of PAN Manager that runs on the slave cblade and is passive until a failover, when the PAN slave assumes the responsibilities of the PAN master. In a platform, the PAN slave runs on the slave cblade. In a BladeFarm, the PAN slave runs on the slave cblade in the master BladeFrame BF400 S2 platform. See also PAN Master. pblade Processing Blade. A component of a platform that provides processing and memory capabilities. Each pblade is an independent processing module. pblade Pool See Blade Pool. PED Precise Error Daemon. A daemon on the cblade that monitors the events and state changes occurring on the platform, filters out noise error conditions that are expected behavior, and logs notable errors to the system log (that is, the /var/log/messages file). Persistent Reservation An association between a set of SCSI initiator ports (that is, cblade HBA ports) and a set of SCSI target ports (that is, SAN ports) that enables a pserver to control access to a disk device. SCSI-2
16 reservations control access between a single pserver and a disk (LUN). SCSI-3 reservations control access between pservers running as a Veritas cluster and one or more disks (LUNs) over any of the configured paths. See also vlun. Platform The fundamental unit for organizing processing resources in a PAN. A platform consists of a set of diskless pblades, a redundant pair of cblades, and a high-speed internal fabric or network connecting all the blades. Some platforms also have a redundant pair of sblades, which offload I/O from the cblades. Administrators can configure and deploy the platform's resources through software, without physical intervention. Pool See Blade Pool. Power Domain A set of blades that is powered through the BladePlane by a single power cord. Blades reside in four power domains on the BladeFrame BF400 S2: power domains A and B each consist of one cblade, one sblade, and up to six pblades; power domains C and D each consist of up to six pblades. All blades (cblades and pblades) on the BladeFrame BF200 reside in a single power domain (power domain A). Processing Area Network (PAN) See PAN. Processing Blade (pblade) See pblade.
17 pserver The combination of a single pblade or vblade, an optional failover pblade or vblade, storage resources, a root file system, and network resources that provides the capabilities of a conventional server. If the pserver is running on a vblade, it is also known as a guest pserver or guest operating system. See also Guest Operating System. pserver to External Network Flow Control A PAN Manager network resource configuration in which all data packets transmitted from one or more veths that reside on one or more pservers is guaranteed to reach the NIC(s). See also Flow Control, pserver to pserver Flow Control. pserver to pserver Flow Control A PAN Manager network resource configuration in which all data packets transmitted from the internal broadcast mechanism of each cblade is guaranteed to reach the veths on one or more pservers. See also Flow Control, pserver to External Network Flow Control. PXE Preboot Execution Environment. An environment provided with EVBS to bootstrap pservers from a veth that connects to a remote PXE server. With PXE booting, administrators can use a variety of PXE-based provisioning and deployment tools for pserver installations. These tools automate the installation and configuration of operating systems and applications in the PAN. See also EVBS, veth. R Rate Control To limit, if necessary, the rate of network traffic for each veth that resides on a pserver. Redundant Ethernet (reth) See reth Interface.
18 Resource Map An XML file that describes the mapping of resources from a PAN archive to the currently running PAN configuration. Resource Mapping The operations associated with applying a PAN archive s resource map to the currently running PAN configuration. Resource mapping occurs when the PAN archive is validated prior to or after the import operation occurs. Resume To resume the execution of a guest operating system running on a vblade at the same point where its execution was previously suspended. See also Suspend. reth Interface Redundant Ethernet interface. Two physical Ethernet interfaces that are configured on each cblade or sblade (depending on the platform) with the ability to dynamically balance incoming and outgoing network traffic. If one member of the reth pair fails, the other reth pair member assumes all incoming and outgoing network traffic. Pronunciation: wreath interface. Root Disk Image The bootable image of a Linux pserver as installed on a PAN disk. S SAN Storage Area Network. A network whose primary purpose is the transfer of data between computer systems and storage elements and among storage elements. A SAN consists of a communication infrastructure, which provides physical connections, and a management layer, which organizes the connections, storage
19 elements, and computer systems so that data transfer is secure and robust. SAN storage is typically shared among more than one server and networked with high-speed Fibre Channel connections. sblade Switch Blade. A component in the platform that provides point-topoint connectivity among all pblades and cblades. SCSI Small Computer System Interface. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard used by many computer and device manufacturers to transfer data. See also Persistent Reservation, vlun. Security Domain See Administrative Domain. SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol. A PAN Manager feature that supports the standard SNMP protocol to allow PAN Manager administrators to manage PAN-specific entities. PAN Manager supports SNMP version 1 (SNMPv1) and SNMP version 2 (SNMPv2c). Spine See BladePlane. STONITH Shoot The Other Node In The Head. The act of one cblade disabling or shutting down the other. This feature ensures that a cblade is shut down and cannot send conflicting information or write to data storage. Suspend To suspend the execution and save the run-time state of a guest operating system on a vblade. See also Resume. Switch Blade (sblade) See sblade.
20 Switched Point-to- Point Architecture The internal network and I/O architecture of the platform. All nodeto-node and node-to-storage traffic passes through each sblade. T Trap A message sent from an SNMP agent to an SNMP manager to inform the manager of an event. PAN SNMP agents send traps for events, such as inserting and removing blades or booting and shutting down a pserver. Trigger A numerical threshold value used by the statistical monitors of system processes on a pblade, LPAN, or platform to define when an event occurs. For example, CPU utilization may be configured with a trigger of 80%. If the CPU utilization monitor exceeds 80%, a CPU utilization event is generated. Trunking To partition a Gigabit Ethernet NIC into multiple private and secure channels. U Unit The pserver disk identifier (X.0) for a disk, tape, CD, or Virtual CD (VCD) device. See also Device ID. Uplink A connection from a networking device, such as a vswitch, switch, or hub, to a network or broadcast domain, such as a reth.
21 V vblade Virtual Blade. A software partition of a pblade that splits the pblade into independent logical processing resources. A vblade inherits the CPU architecture from its pblade, and you can use it in most contexts where you use a pblade. Administrators use PAN Manager to create a vblade. See also Hypervisor, pblade. VCD Virtual CD. A virtual media drive that is allocated to a pserver and can boot ISO images. Administrators can insert any ISO image that has been registered in the PAN into the VCD and eject it when finished. VCDs and ISO images provide a convenient alternative to physical media and media drives. See also ISO Image. veth Virtual Ethernet. A software Ethernet interface created using PAN Manager. A veth interface has the equivalent functionality of a physical NIC. The veths are allocated to pservers and connected to vswitches to create pserver network connections. Pronunciation: veeth interface. Virtual Blade (vblade) See vblade. Virtualization Hardware Specific pblade models that include Intel Virtualization Technology (VT-x) or AMD Virtualization (AMD-V) support. For vblades whose underlying pblade has this virtualization hardware, any unmodified operating system can run as a guest operating system. Otherwise, you must use guest operating systems from Fujitsu Siemens Computers that have been specially modified for use with Xen. See also Guest Operating System, vblade, Xen.
22 vlun Virtual LUN. A PAN software component running on the cblade that manages all SCSI-3 persistent reservations on behalf of the pservers and SAN disk devices. See also Persistent Reservation. VM Virtual Machine. A group of discrete execution environments on a single pserver, each of which runs an operating system. PAN Manager supports the following VM technologies: Xen (builtin hypervisor and vblade features), VMWare application, and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server (SLES) pserver. See also Hypervisor, vblade, Xen. VMM Virtual Machine Monitor. See Hypervisor. vswitch Virtual Switch. A software switch created through PAN Manager. Administrators can network pservers by connecting two or more pservers to the same vswitch. X Xen An open-source virtual machine monitor that enables the execution of multiple guest operating systems on the same computer. PAN Manager integrates Xen technology in its hypervisor option and vblade feature. Xen provides secure isolation, resource control, quality-of-service guarantees, and live migration of virtual machines (also known as guest operating systems). See also Guest Operating System, Host Operating System, Hypervisor, Live Migration, vblade, Virtualization Hardware. Pronunciation: Zen.
23 Information on this document On April 1, 2009, Fujitsu became the sole owner of Fujitsu Siemens Computers. This new subsidiary of Fujitsu has been renamed Fujitsu Technology Solutions. This document from the document archive refers to a product version which was released a considerable time ago or which is no longer marketed. Please note that all company references and copyrights in this document have been legally transferred to Fujitsu Technology Solutions. Contact and support addresses will now be offered by Fujitsu Technology Solutions and have the The Internet pages of Fujitsu Technology Solutions are available at and the user documentation at Copyright Fujitsu Technology Solutions, 2009 Hinweise zum vorliegenden Dokument Zum 1. April 2009 ist Fujitsu Siemens Computers in den alleinigen Besitz von Fujitsu übergegangen. Diese neue Tochtergesellschaft von Fujitsu trägt seitdem den Namen Fujitsu Technology Solutions. Das vorliegende Dokument aus dem Dokumentenarchiv bezieht sich auf eine bereits vor längerer Zeit freigegebene oder nicht mehr im Vertrieb befindliche Produktversion. Bitte beachten Sie, dass alle Firmenbezüge und Copyrights im vorliegenden Dokument rechtlich auf Fujitsu Technology Solutions übergegangen sind. Kontakt- und Supportadressen werden nun von Fujitsu Technology Solutions angeboten und haben die Die Internetseiten von Fujitsu Technology Solutions finden Sie unter und unter finden Sie die Benutzerdokumentation. Copyright Fujitsu Technology Solutions, 2009
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