1 Parallels Cloud Server 6.0 Readme September 25, 2013 Copyright Parallels IP Holdings GmbH and its affiliates. All rights reserved.
2 Contents About This Document... 3 About Parallels Cloud Server What's New in Parallels Cloud Server System Requirements... 4 Supported Guest Operating Systems... 6 Installing Parallels Cloud Server Starting to Work with Parallels Cloud Server Known Issues and Restrictions... 9 Contact Information... 12
3 About This Document This document provides the first-priority information about Parallels Cloud Server 6.0 and supplements the included documentation. About Parallels Cloud Server 6.0 Parallels Cloud Server 6.0 is a virtualization solution that allows you to simultaneously run Parallels virtual machines and containers on the same physical server, thereby making more efficient use of your server's hardware resources. What's New in Parallels Cloud Server 6.0 Parallels Cloud Server 6.0 includes the following new features and improvements: Parallels Cloud Storage. Parallels Cloud Server 6.0 introduces Parallels Cloud Storage, a solution allowing you to quickly and easily transform low-cost commodity storage hardware and network equipment into a protected enterprise-level storage, like SAN and NAS. Parallels Cloud Storage is optimized for storing large amounts of data and provides replication, high-availability, and self-healing features for your data. Using Parallels Cloud Storage, you can safely store and run Parallels virtual machines and containers, migrate them with zero downtime, provide high availability for your Parallels Cloud Server installations, and much more. Container-in-an-image-file layout. In Parallels Cloud Server 6.0, the container layout has been redesigned to store all files in a single image (similar to a virtual machine's hard disk). Such standalone nature: Enables easier migrations and backups due to a faster sequential I/O access to container images than to separate container files. Removes the need for OS and application templates once a container is created. Allows the use of native Linux disk quotas that are journaled and does not require quota recalculation after disasters like server crashes. Provides the ability to take consistent snapshots of a container s file system. Memory and IOPS deduplication. Parallels Cloud Server 6.0 introduces support for memory and IOPS deduplication. Identical files in multiple containers are efficiently cached to help eliminate memory and I/O bottlenecks, increase the number of running containers per Parallels server, and reduce the starting times of multiple similar containers. Rebootless updates. Parallels Cloud Server 6.0 supports rebootless updates. During a rebootless update, all running virtual machines and containers are suspended and resumed rather than shut down and started. This greatly reduces their downtime and virtually eliminates the service outage or interruption for end users. 3
4 Console access to containers. Parallels Cloud Server provides you with the possibility to get access to a container s console. Using the console, you can log in to a container when it is running or view the progress of the guest OS startup and shutdown processes. Updates with yum. Parallels Cloud Server 6.0, the vzup2date utility has been replaced with the standard yum utility, greatly simplifying the procedure of updating all components of your system. Containers with preinstalled application templates. In Parallels Cloud Server 6.0, you can preinstall application templates to OS EZ template caches to speed up creating multiple containers based on the same set of OS and application templates. Virtual machines with 32 CPU cores, 128 GB of RAM, and 16 TB of disk space; Containers with 16 TB of disk space. In Parallels Cloud Server 6.0, you can create virtual machines with up to 32 CPU cores, 128 GB of RAM, and 16 TB of virtual disk space; and Containers with up to 16 TB of disk space. Support for Open vswitches. Parallels Cloud Server 6.0 comes with support for Open vswitches, multi-layer software network switches that are well suited to function as virtual switches in virtualized environments, providing virtual machines and containers with network connectivity. CPU identification masks for virtual machines. In Parallels Cloud Server 6.0, you can control the CPU features available to virtual machines, allowing their live migration between servers with different CPU feature sets. Virtual machine configuration samples. In Parallels Cloud Server 6.0, you can quickly and easily change the configuration of a virtual machine by applying a new configuration sample file to it, without the need to manually change all its settings. System Requirements The system requirements slightly change depending on whether you will deploy Parallels Cloud Server 6.0 as a stand-alone installation or as part of a Parallels Cloud Storage cluster. Requirements for Standalone Installations The hardware and software requirements for running Parallels Cloud Server 6.0 as a standalone installation are as follows: Platform: x86 or x86-64 platform with Intel VT-x or AMD-V hardware virtualization support. CPU: 1.5 GHz or higher processor (a 64-bit processor is required for launching 64-bit guest operating systems). Memory: 2 GB of RAM (4 GB or more recommended). Hard disk: 4 root (/): allocate 12 GB or more disk space to the / partition. /vz: format this partition as ext4 and allocate all the remaining free space to it (no less than 88 GB).
5 swap: use the following guidelines when deciding on how much disk space to allocate to the swap partition: RAM swap up to 4 GB 2 GB 4-16 GB 4 GB GB 8 GB GB 16 GB GB 32 GB Network: 1 or more Ethernet cards (1 Gb or faster) Other hardware: DVD-ROM drive. Operating system: None. Parallels Cloud Server 6.0 is installed directly on the server hardware and does not need any operating system for its functioning. Both the actual number of virtual machines and containers you can run on a physical server and their performance depend on the resources they require. In general, the more resources your physical server has, the more virtual machines and containers you can run and the higher their performance. Requirements for Servers in a Parallels Cloud Storage Cluster If you plan to deploy a Parallels Cloud Storage cluster, make sure your servers meet the requirements below. Metadata Servers A metadata server must meet the following requirements: Software: Parallels Cloud Server 6.0 RAM: 1 GB per each 100 TB of storage Disk space: 10 GB or more Network: Network: 1 or more Ethernet adapters (1 Gb or faster) a static IP address for each Ethernet adapter Chunk Servers A chunk server must run Parallels Cloud Server 6.0 and have at least one Ethernet adapter (1 Gb or faster) installed. Chunk servers can export any amount of available local disk space to a Parallels Cloud Storage cluster and do not require more than 1 GB of RAM. Clients A client computer must run Parallels Cloud Server 6.0 and have at least one Ethernet adapter (1 Gb or faster) installed. There are no special requirements to the amount of RAM and disk space that 5
6 must be available on a client, except for the general recommendations for running the Parallels Cloud Server software. Note: You can set up any computer meeting the requirements above to perform the role of a metadata server, chunk server, or client. You can also assign two or all three roles to one and the same computer. For example, you can configure a computer to act as a client by installing Parallels Cloud Server 6.0 on it and running virtual machines and containers from this computer. At the same time, you can set up the computer as a chunk server so that its disk space is used to store the contents of virtual machines and containers. System Limits The table below lists the current hardware limits for Parallels Cloud Server 6.0: Hardware Theoretical Certified RAM 64 TB 256 GB CPU cores 128 hyperthreaded cores 256 non-hyperthreaded cores 32 hyperthreaded cores Requirements to networks Your network must be configured as follows: Operate at 1 Gb/s or higher. Have non-blocking Ethernet switches. Use separate networks and Ethernet adapters for user and cluster traffic. This will prevent possible I/O performance degradation in your cluster by external traffic. Besides, if a cluster is accessible from public networks (e.g., from the Internet), it may become the target of Denial-of-Service attacks, and the entire cluster I/O subsystem may get stuck. Supported Guest Operating Systems Listed below are the operating systems that have been tested in virtual machines and containers and are officially supported in Parallels Cloud Server 6.0. Virtual machines Windows 8 (x64) Windows 7 with Service Pack 1 (x86, x64) Windows Server 2012 Windows Server 2008 R2 with Service Pack 1 (x64) Windows Server 2003 R2 with Service Pack 2 (x86, x64) Windows XP Professional with Service Pack 2 (x64) and with Service Pack 3 (x86) 6
7 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.x (x86, x64) Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.x (x86, x64) Fedora 17 (x86, x64) Fedora 16 (x86, x64) CentOS 6.x (x86, x64) CentOS 5.x (x86, x64) SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 (x86, x64) opensuse 12.2 (x86, x64) Debian GNU/Linux 6.0 (x86, x64) Ubuntu (x86, x64) Ubuntu (x86, x64) Ubuntu Server (x86, x64) Ubuntu Server (x86, x64) FreeBSD 9 (x86, x64) Containers Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.x (x86, x64) Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.x (x86, x64) Fedora 17 (x86, x64) Fedora 16 (x86, x64) CentOS 6.x (x86, x64) CentOS 5.x (x86, x64) SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 with Service Pack 2 (x86, x64) opensuse 12.1 (x86, x64) opensuse 11.4 (x86, x64) Debian GNU/Linux 6.0 (x86, x64) Ubuntu (x86, x64) Ubuntu (x86, x64) Ubuntu (x86, x64) Ubuntu (x86, x64) 7
8 Installing Parallels Cloud Server 6.0 To install Parallels Cloud Server 6.0, follow these steps: 1 Depending on your installation type, configure the server to boot from the DVD-ROM, USB drive, or over the network. 2 Boot the server. 3 Follow the on-screen instructions to install Parallels Cloud Server. Complete installation instructions for Parallels Cloud Server 6.0 are provided in the Parallels Cloud Server 6.0 Installation Guide and in the Installing via PXE guide. Starting to Work with Parallels Cloud Server 6.0 After you have successfully installed the product and restarted the physical server, you can use one of the following way to start working with Parallels Cloud Server 6.0. Using the Parallels command-line utilities Using Parallels Virtual Automation PARALLELS COMMAND-LINE UTILITIES Parallels Cloud Server 6.0 provides a set of command-line utilities for managing Parallels virtual machines and containers both locally and remotely. Connecting to Parallels Cloud Server 6.0 Locally To manage virtual machines and containers locally that is, from the same server on which Parallels Cloud Server 6.0 is installed type root as the user name and enter the password you provided when installing the product. After you have successfully logged onto the server, you can start creating and managing Parallels virtual machines and containers, using the following command-line utilities: prlctl: use this utility to perform day-to-day operations on containers and virtual machines. pstorage: use this utility to create, manage, and monitor Parallels Cloud Storage clusters. pmigrate: use this utility to perform different types of migrations on servers running Parallels Cloud Server 6.0. pstat: use this utility to collect statistics on your virtual machines and containers. For more information on these utilities, see their man pages. 8
9 Connecting to Parallels Cloud Server 6.0 Remotely To connect to Parallels Cloud Server 6.0 remotely, use the IP address indicated on your server's screen. For example, you can use a Secure Shell (SSH) client to connect to the physical server. When logging onto the server, use the root user name and enter the password you provided when installing the product. PARALLELS VIRTUAL AUTOMATION If you prefer working with web-based tools, you can set up Parallels Virtual Automation to remotely connect to Parallels Cloud Server 6.0. Parallels Virtual Automation is automatically set up on your server during the Parallels Cloud Server installation if you select the Install PVA Agent for Parallels Server and Install PVA Management Node options in the Parallels Cloud Server installer. To connect to a server using Parallels Virtual Automation, do the following: 1 On any computer, open your favorite web browser. 2 Make sure that the computer can access the server with Parallels Cloud Server over the network. 3 Type the IP address or hostname of the container acting as the Master Server in the browser window). 4 Log in to the server with root credentials (that is, the root user name and the password you entered during the Parallels Cloud Server installation). For more information on using Parallels Virtual Automation for managing servers with Parallels Cloud Server, consult the Parallels Virtual Automation User's Guide. Known Issues and Restrictions The known issues for Parallels Cloud Server 6.0 are listed below: (#PSBM-12122) Xen virtual machines cannot be migrated to Parallels virtual machines. (#PSBM-11861) Creating an incremental backup of a virtual machine with two virtual hard disk drives may fail. To work around the problem, create a full backup of the virtual machine. (#PSBM-11807) A Linux virtual machine with less than 4 GB of RAM may hang on start-up. To work around the problem, use the iommu=soft option when booting the virtual machine. For more details, see (#PSBM-8528) Creating a virtual machine in Parallels Cloud Server 6.0 set up in a Parallels Desktop for Mac virtual machine may take a long time. (#PSBM-8344) You may fail to assign IPv6 addresses to virtual machines running certain Linux operating systems (e.g., CentOS 5.6). To work around the problem, enable the IPv6 support in the guest operating system (e.g., by editing the /etc/modprobe.conf file). For more details, see 9
10 (#PSBM-7201) Converting a Hyper-V virtual machine to a Parallels virtual machine may fail. To work around the problem, use the --allow-no-os option when converting the virtual machine. (#PSBM-15707) Creating a cache with updates may fail for containers that run Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5. (#PSBM-15403) Running the Iometer tool in a virtual machine with Windows and a small amount of RAM may cause the virtual machine to crash. To work around the problem, increase the amount of RAM or swap allocated to the virtual machine. (#PSBM-14749) Rebooting several servers in a Parallels Cloud Storage cluster simultaneously may cause the servers to hang. To work around the problem, restart one server at a time. (#PSBM-14535) Using snapshots created on systems with Parallels Server 4 Bare Metal and then upgraded to Parallels Cloud Server 6.0 is not supported. (#PSBM-14334) It is impossible to use the iptables functionality on physical servers with Open vswitch bridges enabled. (#PSBM-14260) Traffic shaping may not work for bridged virtual network adapters on physical servers with Open vswitch enabled. (#PSBM-12621) The Bash echo command does not report an error when trying to write to a file located on a Parallels Cloud Storage cluster even if the cluster does not have enough free space. (#PSBM-10985) The CPU hot-plug functionality does not work for virtual machines running Windows Server To work around the problem, restart the virtual machine. (#PSBM-15641) Ebtables rules are flushed after restarting the ebtables service. (#PSBM-14971) Backing up a virtual machine with large virtual disks stored on an LVM partition may take a long time. (#PSBM-14886) Setting encrypted passwords for containers that run Ubuntu is not supported. To work around the problem, set the password in plain text. (#PSBM-14837) Running virtual machines with Windows Server 2012 and Windows 8 is supported only on servers that have CPUs with the NX (No-eXecute) feature enabled. For details, see (#PSBM-14528) On systems upgraded from Parallels Server 4 Bare Metal to Parallels Cloud Server 6.0, prlctl list a may not show the IP addresses of container bridged network adapters. To view such IP addresses, use the vzlist o ip command. (#PSBM-14476) Parallels Cloud Server does not support running containers created in Parallels Server 4 Bare Metal and based on the Fedora 1 standard OS template. (#PSBM-13272) It is impossible to start a suspended virtual machine after upgrading a server with Parallels Server 4 Bare Metal to Parallels Cloud Server. (#PSBM-13963) Soft lockups in the Linux kernel, up to version , may occur on stopping virtual machines. For more information, see 10
11 (#PSBM-13339) Virtual machines running Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.x may not see hotplugged CPUs due to a bug in the Red Hat kernel. The issue should be fixed in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.4. For more information, see https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id= (#PSBM-12812) After migrating physical servers that run one of the latest Fedora versions (e.g., Fedora 16), the resulting virtual machine may fail to start due to a problem with the boot loader. To work around the problem, after migration, mount the Fedora distribution ISO to the affected virtual machine, boot into rescue mode, and repair the boot loader. (#PSBM-12237) Shrinking GPT (GUID Partition Table) virtual disks is not supported. (#PSBM-11871) Creating snapshots of a container that has at least one prlctl enter or prlctl exec session open is not supported. To make a snapshot, close the open sessions first. (#PSBM-9811) Using the WMI console is not supported in Windows virtual machines that you enter with the prlctl enter command. For more information and the ways to work around the problem, see (#PSBM-12213) Parallels Cloud Server may freeze a container trying to consume more disk space than you allocated to it. To solve the problem, increase the amount of disk space for the affected container. The prlctl utility does not support some options for containers that were supported by vzctl in previous versions of Parallels Server Bare Metal. To work around the problem, use the vzctl utility instead. The offline management feature does not work for containers operating in the bridged networking mode. For details, see the KB article at The offline management feature might not work for running virtual machines that operate in the bridged networking mode. The reason for this is that the destination MAC addresses in incoming offline management packets are changed when the packets are processed on the Parallels server. As a result, the processed packets contain a source MAC address different from the destination one in incoming packets and might be dropped by your router. To solve the problem, reconfigure the router to accept packets with the same IP address but different MAC addresses. As an alternative, you can set the network adapter of a virtual machine to operate in the host-routed mode. 11
12 Contact Information Product Web site: 12
13 Parallels IP Holdings GmbH. Vordergasse 59 CH8200 Schaffhausen Switzerland Tel: Fax: Copyright Parallels IP Holdings GmbH and its affiliates. All rights reserved. This product is protected by United States and international copyright laws. The product s underlying technology, patents, and trademarks are listed at Microsoft, Windows, Windows Server, Windows NT, Windows Vista, and MS-DOS are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. Apple, Mac, the Mac logo, Mac OS, ipad, iphone, ipod touch, FaceTime HD camera and isight are trademarks of Apple Inc., registered in the US and other countries. Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds. All other marks and names mentioned herein may be trademarks of their respective owners. 13