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1 Cataract Surgery in Small Eyes Richard S. Hoffman, MD Clinical Associate Professor of Ophthalmology Oregon Health & Science University

2 No Financial Interests

3 Anatomic Classification Short AC depth with short axial length Nanophthalmos (simple microphthalmos) Colobomatousmicrophthalmos Complex microphthalmos Short AC depth with normal axial length Relative anterior microphthalmos Normal AC depth with short axial length Axial hyperopia

4 Nanophthalmos Axial length less than 20.5 mm

5 Nanophthalmos (A) Short axial length (B) Small cornea (C) Shallow AC Marked iris convexity (D) Normal /Increased lens thickness (E) Uveal effusions (F) Thickened sclera Thickened choroid

6 Anatomic Classification Short AC depth with short axial length Nanophthalmos (simple microphthalmos) Colobomatousmicrophthalmos Complex microphthalmos Short AC depth with normal axial length Relative anterior microphthalmos Normal AC depth with short axial length Axial hyperopia

7 Short AC Depth / Normal Axial Length Relative Anterior Microphthalmos More common than nanophthalmos High incidence of NAG (like (like nanophthalmos) High incidence of corneal guttataand and pseudoexfoliation No scleral abnormalities No uveal effusions

8 Anatomic Classification Short AC depth with short axial length Nanophthalmos (simple microphthalmos) Colobomatousmicrophthalmos Complex microphthalmos Short AC depth with normal axial length Relative anterior microphthalmos Normal AC depth with short axial length Axial hyperopia

9 Normal AC / Short Axial Length Axial Hyperopia 83% of hyperopes* No complications High refractive errors IOL calculations * Holladay JR. AAO 1996.

10 Preoperative Assessment

11 Important to identify nanophthalmos preoperatively due to the potential hazards of cataract surgery

12 Nanophthalmos Control Glaucoma Topical medications Laser iridotomy Laser gonioplasty

13 Nanophthalmos UvealEffusion Treat before or with cataract surgery 2 inferior sclerectomies Triangular full-thickness

14 IOL Assessment

15 Axial Length Determination Critical in short eyes Minor error can lead to large refractive error Immersion biometry Optical biometry Partial coherence interferometry

16 Lens Power Calculation Hoffer Q Holladay II

17 Shallow AC depth Lens powers of 30 D IOL Choice Hyperopic Eyes Normal AC depth Lens powers of D Polyspeudophakia(Piggyback)

18 IOL Choice Piggyback IOLs may be better than large powered single IOL Less spherical aberration

19 Piggyback IOLs First report of piggyback use by Gaytonin a case of microphthalmos Gayton JL, Sanders V. J Cataract Refract Surg 1993;19:776-7

20 Historical Overview Complications Both implants placed in the capsular bag Intractable interlenticular membranes Reduced visual acuity Late hyperopic shift Current recommendations 1 IOL in bag / 1 IOL in sulcus Simplifies possible IOL exchange

21 Piggyback IOL Calculations

22 Piggyback IOL Calculations Easily calculated utilizing the Holladay IOL Consultant (R Formula)

23

24

25

26 Piggyback IOL Calculations No Holladay IOL Consultant

27 Piggyback IOL Gills Nomogram Underpowered Pseudophake(Hyperope Hyperope) 1. Short Eye (<21mm): Power = (1.5 x SE) Average Eye (22-26mm): 26mm): Power = (1.4 x SE) Long Eye (>27mm): Power = (1.3 x SE) + 1 Overpowered Pseudophake(Myope Myope) 1. Short Eye (<21mm): Power = (1.5 x SE) Average Eye (22-26mm): 26mm): Power = (1.4 x SE) Long Eye (>27mm): Power = (1.3 x SE) -1

28 Piggyback IOL NichaminNomogram Sulcus IOL : AQ2010V Plus power = 1:1.5 (+5 D SE = +7.5 D IOL)

29 Piggyback IOL Brown s Refractive Reasoning 0.50 D IOL power = 0.37 D at spectacle plane

30 Piggyback IOL Choices

31 AMO Sensar Acrylic 6.0 mm optic 13.0 mm overall length OptiEdge (rounded front) Pigment dispersion to (half-diopter steps)

32 StaarAQ 2010 Thin Optic Edges Silicone 6.3 mm optic ( larger optic = AQ mm length +5 to +9 D (whole D steps) +9.5 to 30 D (half D steps) ( larger optic = iris capture )

33 RaynorSulcoflex Designed for sulcus placement Hydrophilic acrylic Aberration-neutral neutral 6.5 mm aspheric optic Posterior concave surface avoids physical contact between IOLs Undulating haptics with posterior 10 angulation Reduced risk of Pigment Dispersion Syndrome Rotational stability

34 Raynor Sulcoflex Sulcoflex Toric Sulcoflex Multifocal

35

36 Surgical Technique

37 Anesthesia Topical and intracameral Local blocks may increase posterior pressure and vortex vein congestion

38 Technique 20% Mannitol (2 ml/kg) for IOP >25 mmhg Temporal clear corneal incisions Bimanual incisions best in small corneas Avoid hypotony Dispersive OVD Microincision capsulorhexis

39 Technique Limited pars plana vitrectomy may be needed

40 Technique

41 Technique Be aware of short or non-existent pars plana in true nanophthalmos

42 Technique Risk of PC rupture increased Posterior pressure Weakened zonules Floppy capsules Thin capsules Abort or delay surgery for sudden uveal effusion or hemorrhage Suture wound to prevent hypotony

43 Final Comments

44 Cataract in the Small Eye Most cases will be routine Distinguish nanophthalmosfrom relative anterior microphthalmosand and axial hyperopia Hoffer Q or Holladay II Piggyback IOLs for > 34 D Maintain adequate intraoperative IOP Consider PPV for extremely shallow AC

45 Obrigado

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