Poster Tours (Saturday 27th)

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2 Poster Tours (Saturday 27th) PT 1. Work and Employment Location: 102A Posters: Valeria Andreoni: A labour model in a degrowth oriented approach Paul Jones: Quantifying a Meaningful World of Work Samuel Michalon: Panser le Travail Linda Nierling: A sustainable working model on degrowth changing the relationship between paid and unpaid work Héctor Sanjuán: Redondo Decrecimiento, trabajo y Renta Básica Tom Walker: Rethinking the "lump of labor" as a CPR PT 2a. Degrowth: Theory and Ideas I Location: 103A Posters: Jan Otto Andersson: The global ethical Trilemma, growthmania and the idea of Degrowth Iris Borowy: Possible Health Benefits of Degrowth: Lessons of Past Example Gustavo Brito: Le Mythe de la Décroissance Entesa pel decreixement: La Xarxa pel Decreixement (Degrowht Network in Catalonia) and the Local Cooperation Meetings as a network building experience Lucia del Moral Espín: Changing money: opportunities and challenges in relation with degrowth Joana Filipa Dias Vilão da Rocha Dias: Are current international policies on Intellectual Property Rights consistent with socially sustainable economic degrowth? Joan García González: Contribuciones de la termodinámica de los procesos irreversibles en los temas del decrecimiento y de la sostenibilidad Clive Hambridge: Degrowth of military industrial complex: issues around reduction of arm trade and production Donald C. Maclurcan: The struggle for degrowth: Harnessing the peripheral, overcoming the sensational Arnau Matas Morell: Hacia un decrecimiento noviolento Volker Mauerhofer: Social capital, capacity and carrying capacity: exploring basics of socially sustainable economic degrowth PT 2b Degrowth: Theory and Ideas II Location: 104 Posters: Thomas Pongo: Economie et existences modernes. Matthias Schmelzer: Redistribution or growth? Degrowth and social movements Léa Sébastien: The role of attachment to non humans for a sustainable degrowth Harris Topalides: De growth as a contemporary strategy for the sustainable managment of economic development Marko Ulvila: Class, degrowth and transition to a just society Midred Gustack Delambre: Étude empirique et théorique au sein de quatre associations André Lucca: Recommendations for a socio ethical and sustainable approach to the industrial design François Diaz Maurin: The degrowthpedia initiative development plan Marko Ulvila: Transformations to sustainability Combined Responses to the Interconnected Crisis of Ecology and Economy Michela Guerini: Less consumption more wellbeing: evidences from the policies of Italian Virtuous Municipalities Association PT 3. Climate change and energy Location: 108 Posters: Frano Barbir: Role of Renewable Energy in De growth Future Emanuele Campiglio: Economic Growth and the Transition to Renewable Sources of Energy: a two economy model Claudio Cattaneo: Auto producción y autonomía energètica: el caso del Centro Social Okupado Kan Pasqual Amaya Martínez Gracia: Energy degrowth or defossilization? Josep Puig i Boix: Decreixement i energies renovables Stefano Sirilli: CO2 reduction: a dangerous friend Petra Wächter: The Degrowth of Energy Pinar Ertor Akyazi: Time for Change? The Analysis of Public Preferences for Alternative Energy Sources in Turkey 16

3 PT 4. Resources and waste Location: 102B Posters: Jaume Delclós: La mercantilització de l aigua: redueix possibilitats de democratització i augmenta el consum del recurs Laia Domènech: Alternative water resources, democracy and degrowth: a critical appraisal of rainwater harvesting, water reuse and desalination Georgiana Galiussi: Economic growth and dematerialization on the light of the first and the fourth law of thermodynamics: issues and problems Ignasi Puig Ventosa: Instrumentos económicos para incentivar la reducción de residuos Alicia Valero Delgado: Depleting the great mine Earth PT 5. Degrowth beyond Europe and the West Location: 105 Posters: Karen Bell: Degrowth What Can We Learn from Cuba? Gaia Calligaris: Alternatives au développement venant du Sud (Agro écologie, souveraineté alimentaire et décroissance) Francesca Chianese Qamiri: What lessons can be learnt from indigenous peoples? David Llistar: Anticooperació i decreixement, complements per l'equitat Florent Marcellesi: La cooperación internacional a la luz del decrecimiento Elena Masferrer Dodas: Does consumption of market goods relates to well being? An empirical test in the Bolivian Amazon Ricardo Neder: The movement for social technology in Latin America (its meaning for the research about degrowht and ecological sustainability) Juan Alonso Neira Simijaca: Economic degrowth, an option for Latin America Jorge Eduardo Rulli: Los desafíos del descrecimiento en América Latina Bob Thomson: An Indigenous Approach to Degrowth PT 6. Degrowth Economics, the crisis and businesses Location: 203 Posters: Saamah Abdallah: Differential relations between income and aspects of well being Francisco J. Aceves: Degrowing economically might help significantly to reduce the daily aggravation of the actual crisis. Rein Ahas: Tourism and the quality of visits in destination, an Estonian case study Gisella Colares Solidary: Popular bank: compatible practical with the paradigm of the degrowth Jampel Dell'Angelo: Closed cycle criterion: how to eliminate the conditions for the rebound effect Nadia Johanisova: Economic degrowth and New Economic Structures Kent A. Klitgaard: Secular Stagnation, the Failed Growth Economy, and Three Dimensions of the Current Crisis Lisi Krall: Institutional Ambiguity in Ecological Economics Stephan Wolf: Non Growth Market Economies Entesa pel decreixement: El NAP del Camp. A contra hegemonic economy practice in Tarragona Jacques Lauriol: L Economie de la Fonctionnalité: Une voie nouvelle pour une «décroissance soutenable Jin Xue: Arguments For and Against Economic Growth PT 7. Food and agriculture Location: 103B Posters: Sofia Boza Martínez: Los sistemas participativos de garantía como expresión de la agroecología y parte de un programa hacia el decrecimiento: la experiencia andaluza Entesa pel decreixement: La Repera. Meeting point among organic producers and consumers in Catalonia Juan Infante Amate: Agricultura y decrecimiento. Un análisis del ciclo de vida del sistema agroalimentario español (año 2000) Lucia Piani: Alternative circuits on agrifood markets Jean Marc Salmon: Un moratoire des agrocarburants dans les pays tempérés? Bruno Scaltriti: The food short supply chain: a socioeconomic perspective Yves Bonnardel: Les aberrations de la viande: et si on en parlait? 3

4 PT 8. Knowledge, education and technology Location: 112 Posters: François Diaz Maurin: Don t forget the rich: A strategy proposal for spreading the idea of degrowth Adolfo Estrella: Innovación decrecentista Nicolas Lechopier: Science and degrowth: contreproductivity vs democratization of scientific research Tommaso Luzzati: Growth mania and environmental degradation as a product of fast information: learning from H. Simon and W. Wenders Sebastiao Rodrigues: Placing Metal Sensitivity as a pedagogic necessity for social movements Claudio Vitari: The Free/Libre/Open Source Software: an inspiring success for other concrete alternatives Bernard Iaccarini: La Pédagogie de la Décroissance PT 9. Politics and democracy Location: 111 Posters: Isa Gama: Key information conductors : Civil Society Organizations Vincent Liegey: The Political Snail s Strategy Desiree Lucchese: Participative/direct democracy: What forms of 'deep' democracy for a society that degrows? Christos Zografos: Democracy and degrowth: conceptual issues and real life experiences Alfonso López Rojo: Municipalismo y decrecimiento PT 10. Indicators and methods Location: 113 Posters: Simao Dias: Sustainable Economic Well Being in Portugal ( ) Marco Duriavig: A spatial model for local systems definition Wolfgang Fellner: Economic growth and sustainable welfare. Myths and Measurement Anthony Friend: Nonlinear System of National Accounts (SNA): the database for transition policies from growth to steady state Laurent Lievens: Transitory indicator for paradigm shift Nick Meynen: Estimating the ecological debt of an industrial plant in Hoboken, Belgium Fakhri Issaoui: Modèle Optimal de Développement en Afrique : (Approche par les Capabilités) / Optimal Model of Development in Africa (Capabilities Approach) Sibylle Wursthorn: Characterization of the development of European manufacturing industry based on disaggregated decoupling indicators for different environmental impacts PT 11. Transport and cities Location: Sala de Graus Posters: Rein Ahas: The influence of the economic crisis on commuting: Lessons for degrowth strategies in urban planning Luigi Bonatti: Mobility systems and economic growth: A theoretical analysis of the long term effects of alternative transpotation policies Gian Carlo Delgado: Urban metabolism, climate change and poverty, the case and challenge for Mexico City Elisabeth Lorenzi : Usa la bici todos los días, celébralo una vez al mes. Bicicrítica, movilidad urbana sostenible y la importancia de las articulaciones sociales. // Bike every day, celebrate it once a month. Critical Mass, sustainable urban mobility, and the importance of social articulations. Enrique Ortega: Eco units as pradigm to recover world climate Emmanuel Pezrès: Architecture et décroissance? Isabel Martínez Cap a una organització responsable col.lectiva d'habitatge 4

5 Oral Presentations (Sunday 28th ) OS 1.Managing degrowth: Employment, Security and the Economy under a Degrowth trajectory Location: 102A Chair: Gjalt Huppes Presentations: : Blake Alcott: Degrowth and unemployment : Guaranteed jobs? : Colin C.Williams, Richard White: Transcending the depiction of market and non market labour practices: implications for degrowth : Dirk Löhr: Zero growth and zero interests rate: Revival of an old idea : Gjalt Huppes: Degrowth with an aging population; increasing leisure for improving the environment. The key role of pensions and their funding : Richard Douthwaite: Why the global debt burden means there will be no recovery : Common Discussion OS 2. Beyond Sustainable Development: Sustainable Degrowth towards a Steady Location: 103A Chair: Dan O Neill Presentations: : Brian Czech: The Chicken/Egg Spiral: "Reconciling" the Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection with Technological Progress : Daniel W. O Neill: Measuring progress towards a steady state economy : David Gee, Sybille van den Hove, Jacqueline McGlade, Jock Martin, Jean Louis Weber: Common Causes, Consequences, and Solutions to the Financial/Economic, Energy/Climate, and Ecosystems Crises : Ernest Garcia: Sociology and de growth: social change, entropy and evolution in a way down era : Nicholas A. Ashford: Pathways to Sustainable Development: Co optimizing Economic Welfare, Environment, and Earning Capacity in a Time of Diminishing Economic Growth and Increasing Population Growth : Common Discussion OS 3. Degrowth, Capitalist Institutions and Democracy Location: 104 Chair: Pascal van Griethuysen Presentations: : Barbara Muraca: Degrowth and Justice: a scrutiny of ethical and anthropological assumptions in degrowth theories and practices : Frederik Blauwhof: Limits to Growth vs. Capital Accumulation: Radical Analysis and Solutions : Joachim Spangenberg: Wealth is the problem! Revitalising the public sector is a condition for a degrowth economy : Konrad Ott: Variants of degrowth and deliberative democracy : Pascal Van Griethuysen: Implementing Degrowth: An Evolutionary Economic Perspective : Common Discussion OS 4. Growth is unsustainable. Long live degrowth? Location: 105 Chair: Simone D'Alessandro Presentations: : Roefie Hueting: How to correct wrong information about economic growth : Christer Sanne: If there is no turnaround...? : Joaquim Sempere: Degrowth: Proposals and Questions : Mario Giampietro: Metabolic patterns of societies : Ennio Bilancini, Simone D'Alessandro: Happy Degrowth vs Unhappy Growth : Common Discussion OS 5. Production, consumption and the degrowth transformation. Location: 108 Chair: Leida Rijnhout Presentations: : Thomas Schauer: Limits to growth and Degrowth. The view of the Club of Rome : Josh Ryan Collins: The Great Transition 22 5

6 11.40: 12.00: Miriam Kennet: How far is technology a hindrance or a help in achieving Degrowth? : Mauro Bonaiutti: The age of declining marginal returns. Global trends and future scenarios : Willem Hoogendijk: From supply back to demand. Back to an economy geared to demand : Common Discussion OS 6. Making it real. Practical transformations towards degrowth. Location: Sala de Graus Chair: Matthieu Lietaert Presentations: : Richard Register: Roll back sprawl a de paving strategy to replace the city of cars and consumption with ecocities and restored open spaces : Anne D'Orazio: Towards a Third Sector Housing in France: symptom of sustainable degrowth? : Dick Urban Vestbro: Saving by Sharing. Collective Housing for Sustainable Lifestyles : David Barkin: Constructing alternative degrowth strategies: Experience from rural communities in Latin America : Jшrgen S. Nшrgеrd: Sustainable Degrowth through a more amateur economy : Common Discussion 6

7 First Author Index: ABDALLAH, SAAMAH, 10 ACEVES, FRANCISCO JAVIER, 11 ADAMAN, FIKRET, 12 ADAMS, JACK, 13 AHAS, REIN, 14 AHAS, REIN, 14 ALCOTT, BLAKE, 15 ANDERSSON, JAN OTTO, 16 ANDREONI, VALERIA, 18 ANDREONI, VALERIA, 18 ASHFORD, NICHOLAS A., 19 BARBIR, FRANO, 20 BARKIN, DAVID, 20 BATISTA, FRANCISC, 21 BAYOD, ANGEL A., 22 BELL, KAREN, 23 BERNARDO, GIOVANNI, 23 BILANCINI, ENNIO, 24 BLAUWHOF, FREDERIK, 26 BOFFI, MARCO, 27 BONAIUTI, MAURO, 29 BONATTI, LUIGI, 30 BOROWY, IRIS, 30 BOZA MARTÍNEZ; SOFÍA, 31 CALLIGARIS, GAIA, 32 CAMPIGLIO, 33 CATTANEO, CLAUDIO, 34 CHIANESE, FRANCESCA, 34 COHEN, MAURIE J., 35 COLARES, GISELLA, 36 CRABREE, TIM, 37 CZECH, BRIAN, 38 D ORAZIO, ANNE, 39 DELGADO RAMOS, GIAN CARLO, 40 DELL ANGELO, JAMPEL, 40 DIAS VILÃO DA ROCHA DIAS, JOANA FILIPA, 41 DIAZ MAURIN, FRANÇOIS, 42 DOUTHWAITE, RICHARD, 42 ENTESA PEL DECREIXEMENT, 43 ESTRELLA CABRERA, ADOLFO, 44 FELLNER, WOLFGANG, 45 GAMA, ISA, 45 GARCÍA GONZÁLEZ, JOAN, 46 GARCIA, ERNEST, 46 GEE, DAVID, 47 GIAMPIETRO, MARIO, 48 GONZÁLEZ DE MOLINA, MANUEL, 48 HOOGENDIJK, WILLEM, 49 HUETING, ROEFIE, 50 HUPPES, GJALT, 50 IACCARINI, BERNARD, 51 ISSAOUI, FAKHRI, 51 JONES, PAUL, 52 KENNET, MIRIAM, 52 KLITGAARD, KENT A, 53 KRALL, LISI, 54 LA REPERA, 55 LAURIOL, JACQUES, 56 LIEGEY, 60 LIEVENS, LAURENT, 61 LLISTAR, DAVID, 62 LÖHR, DIRK, 62 LÓPEZ ROJO, ALONSO, 63 LORENZI, ELISABETH, 58 LUCCA, ANDRÉ, 64 LUCCHESE, DESIREE, 65 LUZZATI, TOMMASO, 65 MACLURCAN, DONALD C., 66 MARCELLESI, FLORENT, 67 MARCH, HUG, 68 MARTÍNEZ, AMAIA, 68 MASFERRER DODASA, 69 MASTAS MORELL, ARNAU, 70 MAUERHOFER, VOLKER, 71 MEYNEM, NICK, 71 MICHALON, SAMUEL, 72 MILDRED, GUSTACK, 73 7

8 MURACA, BARBARA, 73 NAP DEL CAMP, 58 NEDER, R.T., 74 NEIRA, 75 NICOLAS, LECHOPIER, 60 NIERLING, LINDA, 75 NØRGÅRD, JØRGEN S., 76 O'NEIL, DANIEL W, 77 ORTEGA, E., 78 OTT, KONRAD, 79 PEZRES, 79 PIANI, LUCIA, 80 PIRGMAIER, ELKE, 81 PONGO, THOMAS, 82 PUIG I BOIX, JOSEP, 83 PUIG VENTOSA, IGNASI, 83 REGISTER, RICHARD, 84 RODRIGUES, SEBASTIAN, 84 RULLI, JORGE EDUARDO, 85 RYAN COLLINS, JOSH, 90 SALMON, JEAN MARC, 90 SANJUÁN REDONDO, HÉCTOR, 91 SANNE, CHRISTER, 92 SCALTRITI, BRUNO, 93 SCHMEIZER, MATTHIAS, 93 SCHNEIDER, FRANCOIS, 94 SÉBASTIEN, LÉA, 95 SEMPERE CARRERAS, JOAQUIN, 95 SIRILLI, STEFANO, 96 SPANGENBERG, JOACHIM H, 97 THOMSON, BOB, 98 TOPALIDES, HARRIS, 98 ULVILA, MARKO, 99 URBAN VESTBRO, DICK, 100 VAN GRIETHUYSEN, PASCAL, 101 VITARI, CLUADIO, 102 WÄCHTER, PETRA, 102 WALKER, TOM, 103 WILLIAMS, COLIN C., 104 WOLF, STEPHAN, 104 WURSTHORN, 105 XUE, JIN, 106 ZOGRAFOS, CHRISTOS, 107 8

9 ABDALLAH, SAAMAH ; THOMPSON, SAM: DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS BETWEEN INCOME AND ASPECTS OF WELL BEING The relationship between life satisfaction and income within a national population has been laboured over since the Easterlin Paradox (Easterlin, 1974; Stevenson & Wolfers, 2008; Lora & Chaparro, 2008; Clark et al., 2008). The relationship at a given point in time is clearly not linear and it appears that it is at best logarithmic, and at worst flat beyond a certain level of income (Layard et al. 2008; Kahneman et al. 2006). Several reasons for this have been given, including the suggestion that increasing income is only able to satisfy our intrinsic needs indirectly and therefore is an inefficient means to improve life satisfaction (Ryan et al. 2008). However, concerns have been raised about whether Life Satisfaction, the measure upon which much of the extant research is based, is a sufficiently nuanced indicator of overall well being.this paper represents the first attempt to systematically unpick this relationship by looking at different aspects of well being. Using individual level data from the European Social Survey 2006 well being module, structured based on the National Accounts of Well being (Michaelson et al., 2009), we compare the differential effect of income on 11 aspects of well being, including negative emotions, positive emotions, satisfaction, vitality, psychological resources, competence, autonomy, engagement, meaning and purpose, supportive relationships, and trust and belonging. We find that, at the individual level, income is most strongly and linearly related to engagement and satisfaction, and least strongly or linearly related to autonomy, trust and belonging, and supportive relationships. Meanwhile, at the national level, GDP per capita has weakest relationships with engagement, supportive relationships and meaning and purpose. Whilst causal conclusions cannot be drawn, this research suggests how different aspects of well being may be affected by shifts in income structures, and hence where the most effort will be needed to mitigate any negative effects. The fact that the positive effect of income on life satisfaction is more substantial than on most other aspects of wellbeing also supports the relative income account of the Easterlin Paradox, which claims that income differences in life satisfaction within countries beyond a certain level are due to relative income effects rather than absolute effects wealthier people feel more satisfied because they compare themselves with others who are less wealthy. It also suggests that relationships between income and well being may be slightly exaggerated by focussing exclusively on life satisfaction. References: Clark A, Frijters P & Shields M (2008) Relative income, happiness and utility: An explanation for the Easterlin Paradox and other puzzles Journal of Economic Literature 46: Easterlin RA (1974) Does economic growth improve the human lot? Some empirical evidence in David PA and Melvin WR (eds) Nations and households in economic growth (Palo, Alto, CA: Stanford University Press) Layard R, Mayraz G & Nickell S (2008) The marginal utility of income Journal of Public Economics 92:1846 Lora E & Chaparro J (2008) The conflictive relationship between satisfaction and income Inter American Development Bank, Working Paper #642 9

10 Kahneman D, Krueger A, Schkade D, Schwarz N & Stone A (2006) Would you be happier if you were richer? A focusing illusion Science 312: nef) Michaelson J, Abdallah S, Steuer N, Thompson S & Marks N (2009) National Accounts of Well being (London: Ryan R, Huta V & Deci E (2008) Living well: A self determination theory perspective on eudaimonia Journal of Happiness Studies 9: Stevenson B & Wolfers J (2008) Economic growth and subjective well being: Reassessing the Easterlin Paradox Prepared for Brookings Papers on Economic Activity ACEVES, FRANCISCO JAVIER; JIMÉNEZ LÓPEZ, ELOHIM: DEGROWING ECONOMICALLY MIGHT HELP SIGNIFICANTLY TO REDUCE THE DAILY AGGRAVATION OF THE ACTUAL CRISIS......as soon as the empowered decision makers the owners of the globalized corporations and their accomplices, the governors of wealthy states recognize the critical panorama that was originally generated in the domains of pretended advanced societies due to the insertion of commercial transactions that aimed at manipulating the national and the foreign sociological interactions among them. Gradually, along the last relatively few millennia, the extended commercialism, maneuvered successfully by brilliant minds of every high society constituted, became the pathway to follow for making more and more profitable affairs; it happened similarly everywhere after being announced that it would impulse and even assure the progress of human living (individually and collectively). In fact its evolvement, empirically conducted, drop by drop made necessary to conceive and construct diverse kinds of new systems needed for organizing the manageability of the additional actions brought into existence by the flourishing commercial affaires. It occurred without being noticed that the commercialization cannot continue growing ad infinitum, though being apparently strengthen by the increasing profits, the minds that were taking advantage of the gains did care only on the immediate future; therefore they continue organizing business that may provide preferably quicker, but always higher gains. «Anyone who believes exponential growth can go on forever in a finite world is either a madman or an economist.» Kenneth Boulding And suddenly, as most people did not expected it will happen, the consolidation of economic relations that are generated by larger capitals emerged through the extended use of the commercialized dynamics of civilizing processes. Since then, until today, empowered groups conducted by intelligent fellows, systematically conceive, design and maintain the economic interactions usually rather violently that may assure the functionality of these processes in order to satisfy the needs of the members of the high societies constituted in every land. 10

11 These groups are exclusively interested in being enjoyed continually, but are distracted from time to time when they decide to invent another privilege which will be assigned to themselves thinking quite probably in updating their civilized way of life. How could be generated and are maintained these dangerous circumstances? Some lighten may arise recognizing the validity of the argument expressed by Gordon Childe man makes himself, which in 2010 obliges the present generation of humans to organize their performances realizing the consequences of all what have been done by our ancestors and all what we are doing and also even what we are planning to do tomorrow. Therefore this recognition lead us to accept that we are enjoying and suffering the effects of the actual crisis after accepting that it is the RESULT of human performances that have been structured in accordance with the features of the Western Civilization, which prevails de facto all around the Human World. Consequently, under the assumption that most people alive at present is sufficiently motivated to perform for making possible the presence of our descendants along several millennia ahead, we must encourage ourselves to accept as an indispensable challenge the need of learning to remake ourselves as humans exclusively interested in humanizing each one on her/his own; aiming to humanize as well the civilized environment after recognizing that the civilizing trends has dehumanized the living of the vast majority of human beings. However, to degrow economically must not be implemented as if it were the infallible panacea that may allow humanity to overcome the actual crisis, though it may help a lot for making evident that the facilities that Nature and Gaia offer for the presence of life in time and in space are limited being impossible to increase them for satisfying limitless ambitions. To degrow economically may help also to notice many scientific and technological facts and events that have been the result of abuses and misuses of means of assumed resources taken arbitrarily from one or another natural ambient. In truth the various aspects of the actual crisis must be holistically identified, which means that the ways they are de facto interacting require to be explicitly identified for making feasible to examine how each one needs to be tackled. ADAMAN, FIKRET; ERTÖR AKYAZI, PıNAR; ÖZKAYNAK, BEGÜM; ZENGINOBUZ, ÜNAL: TIME FOR CHANGE? THE ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC PREFERENCES FOR ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES IN TURKEY Despite hopes for dematerialisation of economies, Turkey, as a developing country, with a growing population and economy, finds it difficult to avoid moving towards the use of higher levels of direct material and energy inputs, one manifestation of which is her highest CO2 emissions growth rate in the world. Yet, the Turkish government, instead of attempting to reduce the energy demand and restructure its energy supply towards renewable sources (such as solar and wind), seems to be headed for nuclear energy, as an attractive solution with added connotations of modernization, scientific advancement, and energy independence. 11

12 It is a truism that in any attempt to restructure the energy supply towards renewable sources and facilitate people s adaptation towards them, it is of importance to know well people s alternative energy preferences. Motivated by this, we aim to explore and explain the energy preferences of urban population in Turkey through a survey with a size of 2,400, where respondents were first asked to specify their most and least preferred energy sources and then questioned whether they would change their answers after being informed about the possible negative consequences of their choices (such as higher energy bills and environmental impacts). The analyses of the results together with respondents answers to follow up questions about the underlying reasons of their choices enhance our understanding of energy preferences of the public at large. As such, the survey results are hoped to provide inputs in developing a bottom up policy making style for energy restructuring/reform for countries similar to the case of Turkey. ADAMS, JACK; BOYD, SORAYA; HAMBIDGE, CLIVE: DEGROWTH OF MILITARY INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX: ISSUES AROUND REDUCTION OF ARM TRADE AND PRODUCTION This paper explores the arm, fist and 'muscle' power of the USA, its veins and sclerotic arterial networks between the financial, political and military elites and the international banking system that control Main Street, Wall Street, Congress, the White House, extending to old media, and increasingly, new media, this on a global scale, all, in the name of growth and progress. The oversight, coming from the military industrial complex, ultimately aims to dominate all systems of human interaction. This, a clear and developing pathology for failure, can only lead to incalculable human suffering and cataclysmic environmental disaster. The on going politicisation and militarization of every field of human endeavour has resulted in de growth, and, encouragingly the sustainable solution, namely de growth. Even though the authors accept that the USA is not alone in spinning webs, those webs have a dominant spider, and that spider has the stars and stripes on its thorax. This paper submits that self sustainability removes the predatory nature of expansionism and leads to peace: the notion then of might replaced by the truth of strength in cooperative and creative experiment. This paper will further submit that America has seen the rise of Third World Conditions resulting in the immiserization of Americans, 30 million of which endure deep hunger, whilst, the state year by year allocates ever greater sums to the military budget ($570 billion for 2008, $52.4 billion of which spent on nuclear weapons). America must attest to then embrace through necessity, the ideas of de growth, thereby becoming a model of and for sustainability. This paper will highlight selected events that seemingly protected, then, projected America and the world into the present day crisis by means of forced liberalization linked to gross breaches of human rights and International Law, aid dependency, and a continuum of elitist and factional governments often dictatorships. Crucially, the Volker Recession which undermined and effectively ended the Carter Administration and inaugurated the Reagan Doctrine and the so called Reagan Revolution which espoused the attacking of small nations for strategic resources whilst 12

13 placing them under the control of the international banking community and corporate conglomerates inter alia and America, de facto. This crisis for change calls for the reclamation of the moral and democratic high ground for those that would survive. May this new way be in the ascendancy of humanity s consciousness and its collective actions. AHAS, REIN ; SILM; SIIRI; SALUVEER,ERKI: THE INFLUENCE OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS ON COMMUTING: LESSONS FOR DEGROWTH STRATEGIES IN URBAN PLANNING Cities have become islands of economic prosperity, and their economic capacity is often expressed in the size and strength of their commuting areas. We have mapped the commuting areas of Estonian cities since 2006 with the precision of one calendar month, using mobile telephone positioning data from operators. The locations of home, work and other important anchor points have been determined for each commuter using a special model. The anchor points of 350,000 respondents over a period of 39 months have been included in the research. In the analysis, we reveal how the economic boom that peaked in 2007 and the crisis that had become increasingly severe by the end of 2009 influenced cities commuting areas. Has the crisis caused a reduction in commuting, because there is a shortage of resources and work? Has the crisis conditioned the increase in the commuting, because people are searching for work farther and farther from home, and are willing to spend more on travelling? Are changes noticeable at all, or are urban regions more complex systems, which are not immediately influenced even by external impacts? Results of analysis are used for developing degrowth strategies for urban planning as home work relation is one of the most permanent axis in the human activity space. Estonia is a good example for such exercise, because thanks to its small and open economy, the boom and crisis have had a particularly radical influence. AHAS, REIN; AASA, ANTO; TIRU, MARGUS: TOURISM AND THE QUALITY OF VISITS IN DESTINATION, AN ESTONIAN CASE STUDY The flow of foreign tourists into Estonia has been an indicator and initiator of economic development. Tourism has been an engine that has generated success for cities and the Estonian economy as a whole. After Estonia regained its independence in 1991, the number of foreign visitors who stayed overnight in Estonia rose from 594,000 in 1994 to 3,020,000 in Since 2006, however, a decrease has taken place in the number of foreign visitors, and the duration and purposes of visits have started to change. The objective of this presentation is to determine how the quality of tourism changed in Estonia after boom. Are quick one day visits being replaced by longer, more varied stays? Is the geography of visits changing? Is it step towards more sustainable tourism practices? We will analyse tourists space time movements within destination, with the aim of determining whether the quality of visits has increased over quantity: a) time: duration and loyalty of visits; b) geography: places, objects and visiting patterns. The results help one tounderstand how to measure quality and sustainability of tourism in destination and to develop strategies for degrowth in this sector. 13

14 ALCOTT, BLAKE: DEGROWTH AND UNEMPLOYMENT : GUARANTEED JOBS? A shrinking economy (defined in terms of material energy throughput) under real world institutional circumstances is accompanied by increased unemployment. How should policy react, if at all? Society could simply accept that full employment is in theory secured by falling real wages, and at most remove institutional hindrances thereto such as minimum wage laws and some aspects of labour union power and remove whatever barriers to selfemployment and the informal economy that may exist. It could on the other hand leave nothing to chance and establish a right to paid work: a person could count on some job, at some wage. Judging whether state guaranteed paid work is desirable or not depends on social contexts, expectations and definitions of work : In the OECD, a job is by definition within the formal economy, its loss accompanied by psychological pain, social isolation and the spectre of geographical displacement. If society however provides purchasing power safety nets (first unemployment payments then the dole), job loss does not lead to abject poverty. The costs consist of lack of activity, loss of status, loss of social embeddedness and a feeling of mooching, not paying one s way, etc. In the rich world, moreover, unemployment itself is variously defined, and the political units responsible for solutions vary in size. Concerning perceptions in non OECD societies this paper must resort largely to conjecture: Is the informal economy, somehow defined, open and large enough to render conscious employment policy during and after degrowth superfluous? Is paid work either defined differently and/or less important? Are self esteem and social embeddedness less bound to paid employment? Is policy even meaningful for societies which, under any scenario of fair world wide degrowth, should not or cannot shrink? Under contraction and convergence for example at least half the people must not reduce their throughput. Reduced economic activity elsewhere in the world could, nevertheless, have employment consequences anywhere. In richer economies, at least, the case is made that two of the social problems arising from economic shrinkage should be approached politically instead of, as is customary, economically. These are 1) income inegality and 2) worklessness. [ Egality is an attempt to avoid the absolutism of equality and denotes narrowing the gap between richest and poorest; quality of work is here ignored.] In politics, press, academia and common parlance full employment and economic growth are almost indistinguishably cemented together and somewhat less so economic growth and income disparity. Decoupling them from the size, resp. growth, of the economy is imperative. In the nineteenth century Owen, Say, McCulloch, Marx and even Sismondi recognized that it isn t machines that destroy jobs: job distribution is a political question. Regarding guaranteed income we needn t re invent the wheel, but literature is thinner regarding guaranteed jobs. The paper thus collects a few examples such as the experience of former communist bloc nations, of India since the December, 2004 enactment of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, of municipalities such as Zürich that have begun offering paid employment to those whose unemployment insurance has ended, or the Sheffield 14

15 Employment Bond (home of The Full Monty ). If society wishes to secure benefits going beyond maintained purchasing power and material welfare justice, schemes for guaranteed paid work must be developed. Finally, concerning the social marketing of degrowth, ecological goals shouldn t be sacrificed on the altar of full employment. As I experienced in many Greenpeace actions, workers in fishing, nuclear power, tropical lumber and automobile transport immediately cry foul when their sectors are threatened: Our jobs! The paper attempts a map, or general conceptualisation, of this issue. Literature: Alcott, Blake, At > gerecht (in German) Atkinson, A.B., 1995/2004. Public Economics in Action. Oxford U. Press, Oxford. Paris. Bastiat, Frédéric, Ce qu on voit et ce qu on ne voit pas, ou, l Économie politique en une leçon. Guillaumin, Echeverri Gent, John, Guaranteed employment in an Indian state: The Maharastra experience. Asian Survey Vol. VIII (12): Jochimsen, Maren, & Ursula Knoblauch, Making the hidden visible: The importance of caring activities and their principles for any economy. Ecological Economics 20 (2): Mellor, Mary, Women, nature and the social construction of economic man. Ecological Economics 20 (2): Mena, Ramiro, and Blake Alcott, Discussions/interviews regarding the Zürich program of guaranteed paid work. Siegel, Richard Lewis, Employment and Human Rights. Pennsylvania U. Press, Philadelphia. Squire: H.pp.9.S.2 Steensland, Brian, The Failed Welfare Revolution: America s Struggle over Guaranteed Income Policy. Princeton U. Press, Princeton. Wood, E.M., Democracy against Capitalism: Renewing Historical Materialism, Cambridge University Press, New York. ANDERSSON, JAN OTTO: THE GLOBAL ETHICAL TRILEMMA, GROWTHMANIA AND THE IDEA OF DEGROWTH There are three goals that most of humankind subscribes to prosperity, justice and sustainability but to combine the three goals on the global level is a challenge that is hard to confront. Let us discuss this global ethical trilemma with the help of the following figure. 15

16 The global ethical TRILEMMA Pick two ignore the third Mass consumption Prosperity Global social democracy Eco efficient capitalism Global justice Ecological sustainability Red green planetarism The corners of the triangle correspond to the three components often included in the definitions of sustainable development: the ecological, the economic and the social dimensions. The difficulty to achieve all three on a global level is an enormous challenge for all who see sustainable development as the central political goal of our age. We shortly describe three growth mechanisms: profit driven capitalism, status driven consumerism, international rivalry, and their interconnections. We shall also present some ideas for degrowth that is curtailing the urge to grow. Which possibilities do we have to reverse the current trends and make a transition to a just and ecologically sustainable economy? We shall discuss the concept of prosperity, outline the conditions for sustainable macroeconomics and emphasise the need for a global ethic. A change of the Zeitgeist the spirit of the time in the direction of degrowth would affect the three growth mechanisms presented above. Since the positional competition between individuals is largely dependent on the dominating social values it would probably be directed into modes that are less damaging to the environment. The rivalry between nation states is less sensitive to new values, but the insight that we have only one planet that we must care for together if humanity is to prosper, would certainly be more widespread and influential. Even if the establishment of a democratic world government seems to be a utopian project, a reduction of growthmania would improve the chances of a resolute international cooperation on global environmental issues. 16

17 ANDREONI, VALERIA; DURIAVIG, MARCO: A LABOUR MODEL IN A DEGROWTH ORIENTED APPROACH In the last years, many movements of degrowth emerged in western societies. Oriented to reduce the human pressure on environment and go beyond the profit centred economic approach based on ever increasing consumption, they propose alternatives based on small scale, self production, conviviality and sharing. The groups of purchasing, the time banking or the co housing are some practical experiences that emerged in France, Italy, Belgium and Spain. Despite more and more people are beginning to question about an alternative economic theory of socioenvironmental sustainability, the neoclassical economic approach considers degrowth idea as a simple sum of alternative practises relegated to small groups of persons and unable to relate with economic realities and theory. That is because, the concept of degrowth has not been formalized in a specific economic theory. Since degrowth is not an aim in itself but represents a choice of life, generated by a questioning about values, principles and priority, the formalization in terms of economic theory is not needed. However, conventional economic approach can be used to represent the alternative economic paradigm proposed by degrowth. In this paper we present a degrowth approach to the labour. Using a macro foundation theoretical model based on the traditional production theory and the Solow growth model, we present a model to maintain the quantitative growth (production) in a steady state level and translate technological improvement to a labour substitution, from paid work to reciprocity work. The expected impacts of this approach are: (1) reduce the environmental impacts of economic activities, both maintaining the quantitative production in a steady state level and promoting small scale and self producing activities; (2) improve the social relationships based on reciprocity work, conviviality and sharing and consequently maintain a constant level of life quality in the de growth sense. ANDREONI, VALERIA; DURIAVIG, MARCO: A SPATIAL MODEL FOR LOCAL SYSTEMS DEFINITION Based on thermodynamic laws and mass balance principle, Bioeconomy acknowledges that, in a finite ecosystem, an infinite economic growth is impossible and it enforces ecological constraint to societies. According to Bioeconomics paradigm, we think that economy can no longer ignore the biophysical constraint. Economic and political science has to take into account that immutable laws of nature exist and a degrowth process from our patterns of resources use is necessary to aim at sustainability. Moreover, we consider that sustainability is not an issue of maximisation but an issue of scale. Social economic systems should have an optimal 17

18 scale relative to the total ecosystem. For this reason, we propose a scale approach for sustainable degrowth. We believe that the degrowth process should be aimed to reduce the scale of consumption and production. In terms of consumption, the degrowth process has to decrease the quantitative scale of exploitation of natural resources (material and energy), while, in terms of production, it has to reduce the spatial scale of productive systems. To achieve both these objectives, it s strictly necessary to give birth to new social economic systems mainly based on local production that can generate, as first positive result, the reduction of international trade pollution and environmental load displacements. Based on this idea, many degrowth s experiences are starting to spread in different countries (e.g. Italy, France, Spain). These initiatives are mainly based on the idea of local system for production consumption processes. This approach aim to i) improve product s quality, ii) reduce costs, iii) decrease CO2 emissions, iv) support local economy and v) promote solidarity at the same time. Nevertheless many difficulties still exist to identify the suitable spatial scale of local systems. In this paper we present a simple spatial model to support the definition of local systems. Using GIS tools we combine production and consumption aspects to delineate potential degrowth s local systems. ASHFORD, NICHOLAS A.: PATHWAYS TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: CO OPTIMIZING ECONOMIC WELFARE, ENVIRONMENT, AND EARNING CAPACITY IN A TIME OF DIMINISHING ECONOMIC GROWTH AND INCREASING POPULATION GROWTH Those that argue that the industrialized state whether developed or developing is currently unsustainable emphasize a number of problems. One central problem reflected in the concept of economic welfare is the failure of government and the private sector to provide needed goods and services for all its citizens. These goods and services include manufactured goods, food, housing, transportation, and information and communication technology (ICT), among others. The environmental problems include toxic pollution, climate change, resource depletion, and problems related to the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem integrity. The environmental burdens and efforts to ameliorate them are felt unequally within nations, between nations, and between generations, giving rise to inter national, intranational, and intergenerational equity concerns that are often expressed as environmental injustice. The environmental problems stem from the activities concerned with agriculture, manufacturing, extraction, transportation, housing, energy, and services all driven by the demand of consumers, commercial entities, and government. In addition, there are effects of these activities on the amount, security, and skill of employment, the nature and conditions of work, purchasing power associated with wages, and earning capacity of the world s citizens. An increasing concern is economic inequity stemming from inadequate and unequal earning capacity within and between nations and for the workers and citizens of the future. Whether solutions involving education and human resource development, industry initiatives, government intervention, stakeholder involvement, and financing can resolve these unsustainability problems depends on correcting a number of fundamental flaws in the characteristics of the industrial state: fragmentation and inadequacy of the knowledge base leading to myopic understanding of fundamental problems and the creation of single purpose or narrowly fashioned solutions by technical and political decision makers; the inequality of access to economic and 18

19 political power; the tendency towards gerontocracy governance of industrial systems by old ideas leading to both technological and political lock in; the failure of markets both to correctly price the adverse human and environmental consequences of industrial activity; the failure of markets to deal sensibly with effects which span long time horizons for which pricing and markets are inherently incapable of solving; and the failure to engage individuals (workers and citizens) in the society to realize their human potential. While these defects are well understood and solutions have been proposed it has increasingly been suggested that the most fundamental flaw is the expectation that economic growth can and must continue. As the world experienced almost unprecedented economic slowdown and contraction in the last year, the most immediate challenge is how to fashion a more sustainable economic system in a period of no, little, or even negative economic growth and positive population growth. It is towards this challenge that the presentation is directed. BARBIR, FRANO: ROLE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY IN DE GROWTH FUTURE It is relatively easy to envision a future based on renewable energy. Present day renewable energy technologies could technically replace the existing fossil fuel based technologies. Electricity could be produced by solar and wind power plants. Fuels could be produced from biomass or from electricity. Heat could be produced by solar panels or from electricity. There would be no pollutants and greenhouse gases emissions. However, energy in such a future would be far more expensive than it is today. This would have dramatic effects on global economy, social order and everyday life, and therefore on the patterns of energy use. The question is whether such a system would be still better than the clearly unsustainable present system continuing in the future with all its problems (such as volatile prices, global warming and climate change, wars over remaining scarce resources, etc.) which in the future would only get worse. Such a question could only be answered with a help of complex energy and economic models that attempt to simulate the future, and only with a great deal of uncertainty associated with such a complex task. Even if the results indicate that such a system would be better it would be impossible to impose and implement the transition to an energy system that should have such dramatic and unforeseeable consequences. This paper will evaluate the use of renewable energy technologies in a future where they do not simply replace the existing technologies in both quantity of energy and the type of services they provide, but in a future where they satisfy the basic needs of individuals and sustainable communities. Transition to such a system would be possible but only on individual and local levels. BARKIN, DAVID; CONSTRUYENDO ESTRATEGIAS ALTERNATIVAS PARA EL DECRECIMIENTO: LA EXPERIENCIA DE LAS COMUNIDADES RURALES EN AMÉRICA LATINA Aunque las sociedades Latinoamericanas están en crisis, actualmente importantes grupos de sus pobladores rurales están forjando nuevos entornos que les prometen una mejor calidad de vida y una cierta autonomía de los embates del neoliberalismo. Su praxis refleja un rompimiento histórico, un abandono de procesos de colaboración y acomodo en el proceso de modernización globalizante mediante su participación en los programas oficiales. Frente a la 19

20 política de integración internacional y modernización urbano industrial que ha forjado estructuras de marginalización, sustanciales segmentos de la sociedad rural están proponiendo sus propias estrategias alternativas, una nueva ruralidad comunitaria que insiste en sustituir al mercado para definir como asignar recursos, como garantizar un nivel de vida digna para todos sus miembros y respeto a las exigencias ambientales. Esta nueva comunalidad hace posible una verdadera sustentabilidad, fincada en los atributos de responsabilidad social y ambiental. Sus experiencias nos enseñan algo muy significativo: para que estas sociedades tradicionales sobrevivan, para que puedan definir y realizar sus propios modelos, tendrán que seguir innovando; la milenaria experiencia de innumerables pueblos ha enseñado que la tradición sólo puede mantenerse con vitalidad a través de un proceso de cuidadosa y continúa innovación. Estas estrategias y experiencias constituyen lecciones claves para debatir sobre las posibilidades del decrecimiento, su carácter y su viabilidad en un mundo dominado por procesos de integración económica internacional. Hoy en día, estas comunidades están implementando nuevas propuestas para producir las condiciones necesarias para su propio progreso social y económico un progreso alejado de los valores mundanos de un mundo de consumo y derroche fincado en una vida comunitaria y un respeto para los ecosistemas de que dependemos todos. Sus respuestas contribuyen a forjar otros mundos, resultados de ambiciosos esfuerzos de importantes grupos de comunidades colaborando entre sí o construyendo alianzas para apropiarse de los territorios de estos pueblos y sus recursos. El documento propuesto para esta conferencia ofrece un análisis de este nuevo movimiento, ejemplificado con varios proyectos en proceso de operacionalización; es una propuesta de cómo diversos grupos sociales están logrando disfrutar algunos de los beneficios de un nuevo modelo, incluyendo los de una mejor calidad de vida y de manejo ambiental más equilibrado, así como algunos nuevos productos y servicios que ofrecen para el disfrute de pueblos dispuestos a entrar en relaciones solidarias de apoyo e intercambio con los productores. BATISTA, FRANCISC; BRITO, GUSTAVO: LE MYTHE DE LA DÉCROISSANCE Cet article propose comme thématique de communication la question de la décroissance, en considérant ces définitions, en analysant le paradigme brésilien de croissance et en proposant la construction d un concept mythique de décroissance. Le concept de décroissance est souvent présenté comme ce qu'il n'est pas, en dévoilant une compréhension fragile de ce qu'il peut être ou de ce qu'il pourrait signifier. Cette absence de sens rationel justifie le dévelopement d'une perspective différente de connaissance du monde, d'un angle plutôt magique (croyance). Suite à la constatation de l insufisance des définitions sur le sujet, nous avons entrepris une recherche bibliographique sur l état de l art du concept de décroissance (chez des auteurs comme Georgescu Roegen, Latouche, Illich, Grinevald, Gras et autres), de manière à exposer le caractère rationaliste des définitions qui s opposent au mécanicisme de la croissance actuelle, nous amènant à considérer le scepticisme comme résultante dans la société. Inseré dans une réalité de crise climatique, énergétique, de ressources naturelles et croissance démographique, le débat autour des alternatives à la socíété thermo industrielle et aux modeles de bien être n'est fertile que dans une 20

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