1 Learning Objectives Dr. Chen, Data Base Management Chapter 6: Big Data and Analytics Jason C. H. Chen, Ph.D. Professor of MIS School of Business Administration Gonzaga University Spokane, WA Learn what Big Data is and how it is changing the world of analytics Understand the motivation for and business drivers of Big Data analytics Become familiar with the wide range of enabling technologies for Big Data analytics Learn about Hadoop, MapReduce, and NoSQL as they relate to Big Data analytics Understand the role of and capabilities/skills for data scientist as a new analytics profession (Continued ) 2 Learning Objectives Opening Vignette Compare and contrast the complementary uses of data warehousing and Big Data Become familiar with the vendors of Big Data tools and services Understand the need for and appreciate the capabilities of stream analytics Learn about the applications of stream analytics Big Data Meets Big Science at CERN Situation Problem Solution Results Answer & discuss the case questions. 4 Questions for the Opening Vignette What is CERN, and why is it important to the world of science? How does the Large Hadron Collider work? What does it produce? What is the essence of the data challenge at CERN? How significant is it? What was the solution? How were the Big Data challenges addressed with this solution? What were the results? Do you think the current solution is sufficient? 1. What is CERN, and why is it important to the world of science? CERN is the European Organization for Nuclear Research. It plays a leading role in fundamental studies of physics. It has been instrumental in many key global innovations and breakthrough discoveries in theoretical physics and today operates the world s largest particle physics laboratory, home to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)
2 2. How does Large Hadron Collider work? What does it produce? The LHS houses the world s largest and the most sophisticated scientific instruments to study the basic constituents of matter the fundamental particles. These instruments include purpose-built particle accelerators and detectors. Accelerators boost the beams of particles to very high energies before the beams are forced to collide with each other or with stationary targets. Detectors observe and record the results of these collisions, which are happening at or near the speed of light. This process provides the physicists with clues about how the particles interact, and provides insights into the fundamental laws of nature 7. What is the essence of the data challenge at CERN? How significant is it? Collision events in LHC occur 40 million times per second, resulting in 15 petabytes of data produced annually at the CERN Data Centre. CERN does not have the capacity to process all of the data that it generates, and therefore relies on numerous other research centers all around the world to access and process the data. Processing all the data of their experiments requires an enormously complex distributed and heterogeneous computing and data management system. With such vast quantities of data, both structured and unstructured, information discovery is a big challenge for CERN What was the solution? How were the Big Data challenges addressed with this solution? CMS s data management and workflow management (DMWM) created the Data Aggregation System (DAS), built on MongoDB (a Big Data management infrastructure) to provide the ability to search and aggregate information across this complex data landscape. MongoDB s non-schema structure allowed flexible data structures to be stored and indexed What were the results? Do you think the current solution is sufficient? DAS is used 24 hours a day, seven days a week, by CMS physicists, data operators, and data managers at research facilities around the world. The performance of MongoDB has been outstanding, with an ability to offer a free text query system that is fast and scalable. Without help from DAS, information lookup would have taken orders of magnitude longer. The current solution is outstanding, but more improvements can be made and CERN is looking to apply big data approached beyond CMS. 10 Big Data - Definition and Concepts Big Data means different things to people with different backgrounds and interests Traditionally, Big Data = massive volumes of data E.g., volume of data at CERN, NASA, Google, Where does the Big Data come from? Everywhere! Web logs, RFID, GPS systems, sensor networks, social networks, Internet-based text documents, Internet search indexes, detail call records, astronomy, atmospheric science, biology, genomics, nuclear physics, biochemical experiments, medical records, scientific research, military surveillance, multimedia archives, Technology Insights 6.1 The Data Size Is Getting Big, Bigger, Hadron Collider - 1 PB/sec Boeing jet - 20 TB/hr Facebook TB/day YouTube 1 TB/4 min The proposed Square Kilometer Array telescope (the world s proposed biggest telescope) 1 EB/day
3 Big Data - Definition and Concepts Big Data is a misnomer! Big Data is more than just big The Vs that define Big Data Volume Variety Velocity Veracity Variability Value ERP SCM CRM Images Audio and Video Machine Logs Text Web and Social A High-Level Conceptual Architecture for Big Data Solutions (by AsterData / Teradata) MOVE UNIFIED DATA ARCHITECTURE System Conceptual View DATA PLATFORM EVENT PROCESSING MANAGE INTEGRATED DATA WAREHOUSE ACCESS DISCOVERY PLATFORM Marketing Applications Business Intelligence Data Mining Math and Stats Languages Marketing Executives Operational Systems Customers Partners Frontline Workers Business Analysts Data Scientists Engineers BIG DATA SOURCES ANALYTIC TOOLS & APPS USERS 1 14 Fundamentals of Big Data Analytics Big Data by itself, regardless of the size, type, or speed, is worthless Big Data + big analytics = value With the value proposition, Big Data also brought about big challenges Effectively and efficiently capturing, storing, and analyzing Big Data New breed of technologies needed (developed or purchased or hired or outsourced ) 15 Big Data Considerations You can t process the amount of data that you want to because of the limitations of your current platform. You can t include new/contemporary data sources (e.g., social media, RFID, Sensory, Web, GPS, textual data) because it does not comply with the data storage schema You need to (or want to) integrate data as quickly as possible to be current on your analysis. You want to work with a schema-on-demand data storage paradigm because of the variety of data types involved. The data is arriving so fast at your organization s doorstep that your traditional analytics platform cannot handle it. 16 Critical Success Factors for Big Data Analytics A clear business need (alignment with the vision and the strategy) Strong, committed sponsorship (executive champion) Alignment between the business and IT strategy A fact-based decision-making culture A strong data infrastructure The right analytics tools Right people with right skills Critical Success Factors for Big Data Analytics Personnel with advanced analytical skills The right analytics tools A strong data infrastructure A Clear business need Keys to Success with Big Data Analytics A fact - based decision - making culture Strong, committed sponsorship Alignment between the business and IT strategy 17 18
4 Enablers of Big Data Analytics In-memory analytics Storing and processing the complete data set in RAM In-database analytics Placing analytic procedures close to where data is stored Grid computing & MPP Use of many machines and processors in parallel (MPP - massively parallel processing) Appliances Combining hardware, software, and storage in a single unit for performance and scalability 19 Challenges of Big Data Analytics Data volume The ability to capture, store, and process the huge volume of data in a timely manner Data integration The ability to combine data quickly and at reasonable cost Processing capabilities The ability to process the data quickly, as it is captured (i.e., stream analytics) Data governance ( security, privacy, access) Skill availability ( data scientist) Solution cost (ROI) 20 Business Problems Addressed by Big Data Analytics Process efficiency and cost reduction Brand management Revenue maximization (e.g., cross-selling/ up-selling/ bundled-selling) Enhanced customer experience Churn identification, customer recruiting Improved customer service Identifying new products and market opportunities Risk management Regulatory compliance Enhanced security capabilities 21 Application Case 6.2 Top 5 Investment Bank Achieves Single Source of the Truth Questions for Discussion 1. How can Big Data benefit large-scale trading banks? 2. How did MarkLogic s infrastructure help ease the leveraging of Big Data?. What were the challenges, the proposed solution, and the obtained results? 22 Application Case 6.2 Moving from many old systems to a unified new system Before After 1. How can Big Data benefit large-scale trading banks? Big Data can potentially handle the high volume, high variability, continuously streaming data that trading banks need to deal with. Traditional relational databases are often unable to keep up with the data demand. Before it was difficult to identify financial exposure across many systems (separate copies of derivatives trade store) After it was possible to analyze all contracts in single database (MarkLogic Server eliminates the need for 20 database copies)
5 2. How did MarkLogic infrastructure help ease the leveraging of Big Data? MarkLogic was able to meet two needs: (1) upgrading existing Oracle and Sybase platforms, and (2) compliance with regulatory requirements. Their solution provided better performance, scalability, and faster development for future requirements than competitors. Most importantly, MarkLogic was able to eliminate the need for replicated database servers by providing a single server providing timely access to the data.. What were the challenges, the proposed solution, and the obtained results? The Bank s legacy system was built on relational database technology. As data volumes and variability increased, the legacy system was not fast enough to respond to growing business needs and requirements. It was unable to deliver real-time alerts to manage market and counterparty credit positions in the desired timeframe. Big data offered the scalability to address this problem. The benefits included a new alert feature, less downtime for maintenance, much faster capacity to process complex changes, and reduced operations costs Big Data Technologies There are a number of technologies for processing and analyzing Big Data, but most have some common characteristics. Namely: take advantage of commodity hardware to enable scale-out and parallel-processing techniques; employ non-relational data storage capabilities to process unstructured and semi-structured data; apply advanced analytics and data visualization technology to Big data to convey insights to end users. Three major technologies will transform the business analytics and data management markets: MapReduce, Hadoop, and NoSQL 27 Big Data Technologies MapReduce Hadoop Hive Pig Hbase Flume Oozie Ambari Avro Mahout, Sqoop, Hcatalog,. 28 Big Data Technologies - MapReduce MapReduce distributes the processing of very large multi-structured data files across a large cluster of ordinary machines/processors by breaking the processing into small units of work is a programming model not a programming language Goal achieving high performance with many simple computers processing and analyzing large volumes of multi-structured data in a timely manner Developed and popularized by Google Example tasks: indexing the Web for search, graph analysis, text analysis, machine learning, 29 MapReduce Processes Objective: to count the number of squares of each color Input: a set of colored squares Responsibility of programmers: coding the map and reducing programs; the remainder of the processing is handled by the software system implementing the MapReduce programming model Processes: the MapReduce system first reads the input file and splits it into multiple pieces. In this example, there are two splits, but in a real-life scenario, the number of splits would typically be much higher. These splits are then processed by multiple map programs running in parallel on the nodes of the clusters. Role of each map program: groups the data in a split by color, the MapReduce system then takes the output from each map program and merges (shuffle/sort) the results for input to the reduce program, which calculates the sum of the number of squares of each color. In this example, only one copy of the reduce program is used 0 5
6 Big Data Technologies MapReduce Big Data Technologies Hadoop How does MapReduce work? 4 Raw Data Map Function Reduce Function Fig. 6.4 A Graphical Depiction of the MapReduce Process 1 Hadoop is an open source framework for storing and analyzing massive amounts of distributed, unstructured data in a cost- and time-effective manner. Originally created by Doug Cutting at Yahoo! Hadoop clusters run on inexpensive commodity hardware so projects can scale-out inexpensively Hadoop is now part of Apache Software Foundation Open source - hundreds of contributors continuously improve the core technology MapReduce + Hadoop = Big Data core technology 2 Big Data Technologies Hadoop How Does Hadoop Work? Access unstructured and semi-structured data (e.g., log files, social media feeds, other data sources) Break the data up into parts, which are then loaded into a file system made up of multiple nodes running on commodity hardware using Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS). Each part is replicated multiple times and loaded into the file system for replication and failsafe processing A node acts as the Facilitator and another as Job Tracker Facilitator: communicate back to the client information such aws which nodes are available, where in the cluster certain data resides, and which node have failed Job Tracker: determine which data it needs to access to complete the job and where in the cluster that data is located. The job Tracker submits the query to the relevant nodes rather than bringing all the data back into a central location for processing. Processing then occurs at each node simultaneously, or in parallel an essential characteristics of Hadoop. Big Data Technologies Hadoop How Does Hadoop Work? (cont.) - Jobs are distributed to the clients, and once completed, the results are collected and aggregated using MapReduce When each node has finished processing its given job, it stores the results. The client initiates a Reduce job through the Job Tracker in which results of the map phase stored locally on individual nodes are aggregated to determine the answer to the original query, and then are loaded onto another node in the cluster. The client accesses these results, which can then be loaded into one of a number of analytic environments for analysis. The MapReduce job has now been completed. Once the MapReduce phase is complete, the processed data is ready for further analysis by data scientists and others with advanced data analytics skills. 4 Big Data Technologies Hadoop Big Data Technologies Hadoop - Demystifying Facts Hadoop Technical Components Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) Name Node (primary facilitator) Secondary Node (backup to Name Node) Job Tracker Slave Nodes (the grunts of any Hadoop cluster) Additionally, Hadoop ecosystem is made up of a number of complementary sub-projects: NoSQL (Cassandra, Hbase), DW (Hive), NoSQL = not only SQL 5 Hadoop consists of multiple products Hadoop is open source but available from vendors too Hadoop is an ecosystem, not a single product HDFS is a file system, not a DBMS Hive resembles SQL but is not standard SQL Hadoop and MapReduce are related but not the same MapReduce provides control for analytics, not analytics Hadoop is about data diversity, not just data volume Hadoop complements a DW; it s rarely a replacement Hadoop enables many types of analytics, not just Web analytics 6 6
7 Data Scientist Skills That Define a Data Scientist The Sexiest Job of the 21st Century Thomas H. Davenport and D. J. Patil Harvard Business Review, October 2012 Data Scientist = Big Data guru One with skills to investigate Big Data Very high salaries, very high expectations Where do Data Scientists come from? M.S./Ph.D. in MIS, CS, IE, and/or Analytics There is not a specific degree program for DS! PE, PML, DSP (Data Science Professional) Communication and Interpersonal Curiosity and Creativity Domain Expertise, Problem Definition and Decision Modeling DATA SCIENTIST Internet and Social Media / Social Networking Technologies Data Access and Management ( both traditional and new data systems ) Programming, Scripting and Hacking 7 8 A Typical Job Post for Data Scientist Application Case 6.4 Big Data and Analytics in Politics Questions for Discussion 1. What is the role of analytics and Big Data in modern-day politics? 2. Do you think Big Data analytics could change the outcome of an election?. What do you think are the challenges, the potential solution, and the probable results of the use of Big Data analytics in politics? 9 40 Application Case 6.4 Big Data and Analytics in Politics INPUT: Data Sources Census data Population specifics, age, race, sex, income, etc. Election Databases Party affiliations, previous election outcomes, trends and distributions Market research Polls, recent trends and movements Social media Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Newsgroups, Blogs, etc. Web (in general) Web pages, posts and replies, search trends, etc. Other data sources Big Data & Analytics (Data Mining, Web Mining, Text Mining, Multi-media Mining) Predicting outcomes and trends Identifying associations between events and outcomes Assessing and measuring the sentiments Profiling (clustering) groups with similar behavioral patterns Other knowledge nuggets OUTPUT: Goals Raise money contributions Increase number of volunteers Organize movements Mobilize voters to get out and vote Other goals and objectives What is the role of analytics and Big Data in modern day politics? Big Data and analytics have a lot to offer to modern-day politics. The main characteristics of Big Data, namely volume, variety, and velocity (the three Vs), readily apply to the kind of data that is used for political campaigns. Big Data Analytics can help predict election outcomes as well as targeting potential voters and donors, and have become a critical part of political campaigns
8 2. Do you think Big Data analytics could change the outcome of an election? It may well have changed the outcome of the 2008 and 2012 elections. For example, in 2012, Barack Obama had a data advantage and the depth and breadth of his campaign s digital operation, from political and demographic data mining to voter sentiment and behavioral analysis, reached beyond anything politics had ever seen. So there was a significant difference in expertise and comfort level with modern technology between the two parties. The usage and expertise gap between the party lines may disappear over time, and this will even the playing field. But new data regarding voter sympathies may itself change the thinking and ideological directions of the major parties. This in itself could shift election outcomes.. What do you think are the challenges, the potential solution, and the probable results of the use of Big Data analytics in politics? One of the big challenges is to ensure some sort of reliability in news media coverage of election issues. For example, most people, including the so-called political experts (who often rely on gut feelings and experiences), thought the 2012 presidential election would be very close. They were wrong. On the other hand, data analysts, using data-driven analytical models, predicted that Barack Obama would win easily with close to 99 percent certainty. The results will be an ever-increasing use of Big Data analytics in politics, both by the parties and candidates themselves and by the news media and analysts who cover them Big Data And Data Warehousing Two paradigms in BI: Data Warehouse and Big. Data Both are competing each other for turning data into actionable information. However, in recent years, the variety and complexity of data made data warehouse incapable of keeping up the changing needs. Big Data A new paradigm that the world of IT was forced to develop, not because the volume of the structured data but the variety and the velocity. Big Data And Data Warehousing What is the impact of Big Data on DW? Big Data and RDBMS do not go nicely together Will Hadoop replace data warehousing/rdbms? Use Cases for Hadoop Hadoop is the repository and refinery for raw data Hadoop is a powerful, economical, and active archive Use Cases for Data Warehousing Data warehouse performance Integrating data that provides business value Interactive BI tools Hadoop versus Data Warehouse When to Use Which Platform Coexistence of Hadoop and DW The following scenarios support an environment where the Hadoop and RDBMS are separate from each other and connectivity software is used to exchange data between the two systems: 1. Use Hadoop for storing and archiving multi-structured data 2. Use Hadoop for filtering, transforming, and/or consolidating multi-structured data. Use Hadoop to analyze large volumes of multi-structured data and publish the analytical results 4. Use a relational DBMS that provides MapReduce capabilities as an investigative computing platform 5. Use a front-end query tool to access and analyze data
9 Coexistence of Hadoop and DW Big Data Vendors connectivity Big Data vendor landscape is developing very rapidly A representative list would include Claudera - claudera.com Software, MapR mapr.com Hardware, Service, Hortonworks - hortonworks.com Also, IBM (Netezza, InfoSphere), Oracle (Exadata, Exalogic), Microsoft, Amazon, Google, Source: Teradata Top 10 Big Data Vendors with Primary Focus on Hadoop Technology Insights 6.4 How to Succeed with Big Data $70 $60 $50 $40 $0 $20 $10 $0 1. Simplify 2. Coexist. Visualize 4. Empower 5. Integrate 6. Govern 7. Evangelize Big Data And Stream Analytics Data-in-motion analytics and real-time data analytics One of the Vs in Big Data = Velocity Analytic process of extracting actionable information from continuously flowing/streaming data Why Stream Analytics? It may not be feasible to store the data, or may lose its value Stream Analytics vs. Perpetual Analytics Stream analytics involves applying transaction-level logic to realtime observations. Used when transaction volumes are high and the time-to-decision is too short, Perpetual analytics is the term describing the process of performing (near) real-time analytics on data streams. Used when the mission is critical and transaction volumes can managed in real time. 5 Q: Why is stream analytics becoming more popular? Stream analytics is becoming increasingly more popular for two main reasons. First, time-to-action has become an ever decreasing value, and second, we have the technological means to capture and process the data while it is being created. Application Case 6.7: Turning Machine-Generated Streaming Data into Valuable Business Insights 54 9
10 Stream Analytics A Use Case in Energy Industry Stream Analytics Applications Sensor Data (Energy Production System Status) Meteorological Data (Wind, Light, Temperature, etc.) Usage Data (Smart Meters, Smart Grid Devices) Energy Production System (Traditional and/or Renewable) Data Integration and Temporary Staging Permanent Storage Area Capacity Decisions Streaming Analytics (Predicting Usage, Production and Anomalies) e-commerce Telecommunication Law Enforcement and Cyber Security Power Industry Financial Services Health Services Government Energy Consumption System (Residential and Commercial) Pricing Decisions End-of-Chapter Application Case Discovery Health Turns Big Data into Better Healthcare Questions for Discussion 1. How big is big data for Discovery Health? 2. What big data sources did Discovery Health use for their analytic solutions?. What were the main data/analytics challenges Discovery Health was facing? 4. What were the main solutions they have produced? 5. What were the initial results/benefits? What do you think will be the future of big data analytics at Discovery? How big is big data for Discovery Health? Discovery Health serves 2.7 million members, and its claims system generates a million new rows of data each day. For analytics purposes, they want to use three years of data, which comes to over a billion rows of claims data alone. 2. What big data sources did Discovery Health use for their analytic solutions? The data sources include members claims data, pathology results, members questionnaires, data from pharmacies, hospital admissions, and billing data, to name a few. Looking to the future, Discovery is also starting to analyze unstructured data, such as text-based surveys and comments from online feedback forms. 58. What were the main data/analytics challenges Discovery Health was facing? The challenge faced by Discovery Health was similar to that faced by any company operating in a Big Data environment. Given the huge amount of data that Discovery Health was generating, how could they identify the key insights that their business and their members health depend on? To find the needles of vital information in the big data haystack, the company not only needed a sophisticated data-mining and predictive modeling solution, but also an analytics infrastructure with the power to deliver results at the speed of business What were the main solutions they have produced? To achieve this transformation in its analytics capabilities, Discovery worked with BITanium, an IBM Business Partner with deep expertise in operational deployments of advanced analytics technologies. The solution included use of IBM s SSPS and PureData System for Analytics
11 5. What were the initial results/benefits? What do you think will be the future of big data analytics at Discovery? Discovery Health is now able to run three years worth of data for their 2.7 million members through complex statistical models to deliver actionable insights in a matter of minutes. This helps them to better predict and prevent health risks, and to identify and eliminate fraud. The results have been transformative. From an analytics perspective, the speed of the solution gives Discovery more scope to experiment and optimize its models. From a broader business perspective, the combination of SPSS and PureData technologies gives Discovery the ability to put actionable data in the hands of its decision makers faster. End of the Chapter Questions, comments
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