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4 Grades 3-5 At the upper elementary grades, engineering design engages students in more formalized problem solving. Students define a problem using criteria for success and constraints or limits of possible. Students research and consider multiple possible to a given problem. Generating and testing also becomes more rigorous as the students learn to optimize by revising them several times to obtain the best possible design. Define Specify criteria and constraints that a possible solution to a simple problem must meet Improve a solution based on results of simple tests, including failure points Research and explore multiple possible Grades 6-8 At the middle school level, students learn to sharpen the focus of problems by precisely specifying criteria and constraints of successful, taking into account not only what needs the problem is intended to meet, but also the larger context within which the problem is defined, including limits to possible. Students can identify elements of different and combine them to create new. Students at this level are expected to use systematic methods to compare different to see which best meet criteria and constraints, and to test and revise a number of times in order to arrive at an optimal design. April 2013 NGSS Release Page 4 of 7

5 Define Attend to precision of criteria and constraints and considerations likely to limit possible Use systematic processes to iteratively test and refine a solution Combine parts of different to create new Grades 9-12 Engineering design at the high school level engages students in complex problems that include issues of social and global significance. Such problems need to be broken down into simpler problems to be tackled one at a time. Students are also expected to quantify criteria and constraints so that it will be possible to use quantitative methods to compare the potential of different. While creativity in solving problems is valued, emphasis is on identifying the best solution to a problem, which often involves researching how others have solved it before. Students are expected to use mathematics and/or computer simulations to test under different conditions, prioritize criteria, consider trade-offs, and assess social and environmental impacts. April 2013 NGSS Release Page 5 of 7

6 Define Attend to a broad range of considerations in criteria and constraints for problems of social and global significance Prioritize criteria, consider tradeoffs, and assess social and environmental impacts as a complex solution is tested and refined Break a major problem into smaller problems that can be solved separately Conclusion The inclusion of engineering design within the fabric of the NGSS has profound implications for curriculum, teaching, and assessment. All students need opportunities to acquire engineering design practices and concepts alongside the practices and concepts of science. The decision to integrate engineering design into the science disciplines is not intended either to encourage or discourage development of engineering courses. In recent years, many middle and high schools have introduced engineering courses that build students engineering skill, engage them in experiences using a variety of technologies, and provide information on a range of engineering careers. The engineering design standards included in the NGSS could certainly be a component of such courses but most likely do not represent the full scope of such courses or an engineering pathway. Rather, the purpose of the NGSS is to emphasize the key knowledge and skills that all students need in order to engage fully as workers, consumers, and citizens in 21 st century society. Performance Expectations That Incorporate Engineering Practices Physical Science Life Science Earth and Space Science Engineering K K-PS2-2 K-PS PS4-4 1-LS1-1 K-ESS3-2 K-ESS3-3 K-2-ETS1-1 K-2-ETS1-2 K-2-ETS PS1-2 2-LS2-2 2-ESS PS2-4 3-LS4-4 3-ESS ETS1-1 April 2013 NGSS Release Page 6 of 7

7 4 4-PS PS4-3 4-ESS ETS ETS MS-PS1-6 MS-LS2-5 MS-ETS1-1 MS-PS2-1 MS-ETS1-2 MS-PS3-3 MS-ETS1-3 MS-ETS HS-PS1-6 HS-LS2-7 HS-ESS3-2 HS-ETS1-1 HS-PS2-3 HS-LS4-6 HS-ESS3-4 HS-ETS1-2 HS-PS2-6 HS-ETS1-3 HS-PS3-3 HS-ETS1-4 HS-PS4-5 References National Research Council (NRC) A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Committee on a Conceptual Framework for New K-12 Science Education Standards. Board on Science Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Science Foundation. (2010). Preparing the next generation of STEM innovators: Identifying and developing our nation s human capital. Washington, DC: Author. April 2013 NGSS Release Page 7 of 7

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