# Chapter 12. Current Liabilities and Payroll. Account for current liabilities of known amount. Learning Objectives. Objective 1

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1 PowerPoint to accompany Current Liabilities and Payroll Chapter 12 Learning Objectives 1. Account for current liabilities of known amount 2. Account for current liabilities that must be estimated 3. Calculate payroll amounts 4. Record basic payroll transactions 5. Use a payroll system 6. Report current liabilities on the balance sheet Objective 1 Account for current liabilities of known amount.

2 Accounts payable... are amounts owed to suppliers for goods or services purchased on account. do not bear interest expense for the debtor. Accounts payable example Suppose that on June 3, Lloyd s Sporting Store purchased \$1,000 of goods on account from Woo Wholesaler. What is the journal entry? Inventory 1,000 Accounts Payable 1,000 Purchase inventory on account Short-term bills payable... are promissory notes payable due within one year. In addition to recording the bill payable, the business must also pay interest expense. If interest expense is accrued at the end of the period, interest payable must also be recorded.

3 Short-term bills payable example On May 30, Woo purchased inventory for \$10,000 by issuing a 90-day, 10% bill payable. What is the journal entry? Inventory 10,000 Bills Payable 10,000 Purchase inventory on a 90-day, 10% bill Short-term bills payable example Assume the accounting period ended June 30. How much interest was accrued as of June 30? \$10,000 10% 31/365 = \$84.93 How does Woo record the payment at maturity? Short-term bills payable example August 29 Bill Payable 10, Interest Payable Interest Expense Cash 10,250.00

4 Short-Term Bills Payable Issued at a Discount Issuing a bill at a discount means the bank subtracts the interest from the bill s face value. Suppose that on February 25, Sarah discounts a \$10,000, 90-day bill, payable to the bank at 12%. The business will receive \$9, \$10, /365 = \$ Goods and Services Tax (GST) payable example Australia has a 10% GST on most goods and services. Suppose that a store made sales of \$3,300 on a given day. Included in the sales price is 10% in GST. How much is the GST liability? \$300 Accrued expenses (accrued liabilities)... are expenses that have been incurred but not recorded. salaries taxes withheld interest utilities (electricity, gas, waste disposal) payroll

5 Unearned revenue example Assume that on June 1, Dennis s Landscaping collected \$1,500 for services to be provided during the months of June, July, and August. June 1 Cash 1,500 Unearned Revenue 1,500 Received cash in advance Unearned revenue example What entry does Dennis record on June 30? June 30 Unearned Revenue Service Revenue Earned service revenue that was collected in advance Objective 2 Account for current liabilities that must be estimated.

6 Estimated warranty payable The matching principle says that the company record the warranty expense in the same period that the business recognises sales revenue. Estimated warranty payable example Fisher and Paykel made sales of \$200,000 subject to warranties In the past years, claims have averaged 3%. Warranty Expense 6,000 Estimated Warranty Payable 6,000 To accrue warranty expense Estimated warranty payable example During the year F&P paid a total of \$5,800 in payments Estimated Warranty Payable 5,800 Cash (Inventory) 5,800 To record refund under warranty This would leave a balance of \$200 in the Warranty Payable account

7 Contingent liability A contingent liability is a potential liability. AASB 137 requires details of a contingent liability to be disclosed in the notes to the financial statement. Contingent liabilities may arise from current and threatened litigation. Objective 3 Calculate payroll amounts. Payroll Can be calculated different ways Salary a set amount per week, month or year Wages paid at an hourly rate Commission based on a % of sales Bonus paid in addition to normal pay normally to reward performance Benefits additional items paid on behalf of the employee, e.g. insurance, superannuation

8 Gross pay and net pay Income tax and Medicare Levy The tax deducted from your salary has two components: 1 Income Tax (progressive based on your income) 2 Medicare Levy (minimum 1.5% applied to all employee earnings if earning more than about \$15,000) Other deductions Include Superannuation Union fees Insurance Membership fees (e.g. social clubs)

9 Payroll taxes State government tax. Paid by businesses with annual salaries above a threshold amount (\$500,000 - \$1,000,000 depending on the state). Paid by the employer in addition to gross salary. Breakdown of payroll costs p. 481 Objective 4 Record basic payroll transactions.

10 Salary expense Salary expense to the employer is the gross salary of all employees. Employees pay their own income tax, Medicare levy as well as union fees, etc. The employer serves as a collecting agent and sends these amounts to the Australian Taxation Office and union, etc. Accounting by the employer 3 Parts a) Salary Expense Dr Gross wage Cr any deductions Cr the difference as payable (cash) b) Benefits expense Dr any benefits expense Cr benefits payable c) Payroll tax expense Dr Payroll tax expense Cr Payroll tax payable Objective 5 Use a payroll system.

11 Payroll system components payroll record. payroll cheques (direct deposit record). earnings record (for each employee). Payroll record... is also referred to as the payroll journal. lists payroll data for each employee. serves as a cheque register. provides information for recording payroll expenses and related deductions (withholdings). Payroll bank account When companies use a payroll bank account, the company draws one cheque (or electronic funds transfer) for the net amount of salary ypayable to employees on its regular bank account. The company deposits this cheque in the special payroll bank account.

12 Payroll cheques The company writes pay cheques to employees out of the payroll account. Or EFT The employee will receive a copy of the cheque or a summary See page 483 for examples At the end of the financial year the employee also receives a PAYG payment summary for the year Paying the payroll When the employer pays the employees, the company debits Salary Payable to Employees and credits Cash. The liabilities to the government, unions, and other parties are also debited when cash is paid. Internal control over payroll controls for efficiency. controls for safeguarding payroll payments.

13 Controls for efficiency Payroll transactions are good for computer processing. All data stored in a file Computer makes all calculations, Prints the cheques (or makes EFT) Updates all records If paying by cheque some firms will use two accounts and alternate between pays to make reconciling easier Controls for safeguarding payroll payments Large organisations must establish controls to ensure that payroll payments are made only to legitimate employees. Duties of hiring and firing should be separated from the duties of accounting for payroll and distributing pay cheques. Controls for safeguarding payroll payments Requiring an identification badge bearing an employee s photograph also helps internal control (especially access control). A formal time-keeping system helps ensure that employees have actually worked.

14 Objective 6 Report current liabilities on the balance sheet. Reporting current liabilities Companies report current liabilities on the balance sheet: current liabilities of known amount (e.g. payroll) current liabilities that must be estimated (e.g. warranties). Report current liabilities At the end of the year, companies report the amount of payroll liabilities owed to all parties. The liability at year end is the amount of the payroll expense that is still unpaid.

15 Ethical issues High level profits may make managers appear more successful Failing to accrue expenses and liabilities can increase appearance of profit Contingent liabilities also pose a challenge as they are not real liabilities PowerPoint to accompany End of Chapter 12

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