Purchasing/Human Resources/Payment Process: Recording and Evaluating Expenditure Process Activities

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1 Chapter 8 Purchasing/Human Resources/Payment Process: Recording and Evaluating Expenditure Process Activities McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 What are the 4 Primary Expenditure Process Activities? Determine the need for goods/services Select suppliers and order goods/services Receive goods/services Pay suppliers of goods/services 8-2 The last two are considered accounting events. Specific to the entity, Measurable in monetary terms, Impact assets, liabilities or owners equity.

3 What is the Basic Flow of Information as Described in the Flowchart? Inventory control determines the need for inventory and notifies purchasing Purchasing places an order with a vendor Receiving notifies accounts payable that goods have been received Accounts payable compares the purchase order, receiving report, and vendor s invoice and notifies the cashier Cashier pays the vendor General ledger updated 8-3

4 What is the Difference between Merchandising and Manufacturing Inventories? Merchandising Inventory purchased to be resold Merchandise Inventory account Manufacturing Inventory purchased to be used to make products Raw Materials Inventory account 8-4

5 What is the Difference between Periodic and Perpetual Inventory Systems? Periodic Determine ending inventory and cost of goods sold (Chapter 10) at the end of the period Perpetual Determine cost of goods sold (Chapter 10) and ending inventory on a continuous basis 8-5

6 How are Inventory Activities Recorded in a Periodic System? Purchase Debit Purchases Credit Accounts Payable Return or allowance Debit Accounts Payable Credit Purchase Returns and Allowances Freight or insurance on purchases Debit Freight-in (Insurance-in) Credit Accounts Payable (Cash) 8-6

7 How are Inventory Activities Recorded in a Perpetual System? Purchase Debit Inventory Credit Accounts Payable Return or allowance Debit Accounts Payable Credit Inventory Freight or insurance on purchases Debit Inventory Credit Accounts Payable (Cash) 8-7

8 What is the Difference between the Net Price and Gross Price Methods? Net price Purchases and purchase returns/allowances are recorded net of the available discount Discounts lost are recorded separately Gross price Purchases and purchase returns/allowances are recorded at the gross price Discounts taken are recorded separately 8-8

9 Example A company purchases $1,000 (gross) of inventory (terms: 2/10, n/30), subsequently returns $200 (gross) of the inventory, and pays for the inventory within the discount period. 8-9

10 Net Price Method/Perpetual Purchase Increase (debit) inventory by $980 ($1,000 * 0.98) Increase (credit) accounts payable by $980 Return Decrease (debit) accounts payable by $196 ($200 * 0.98) Decrease (credit) inventory by $196 Payment within discount period Decrease (debit) accounts payable by $784 ($980 - $196) Decrease (credit) cash by $

11 Gross Price/Perpetual 8-11 Purchase Increase (debit) inventory by $1,000 Increase (credit) accounts payable by $1,000 Return Decrease (debit) accounts payable by $200 Decrease (credit) inventory by $200 Payment within discount period Decrease (debit) accounts payable by $800 ($1,000 - $200) Decrease (credit) cash by $784 ($800 * 0.98) Recognize discount taken (credit inventory) for $16

12 What is the Balance in Inventory under Each Pricing Method? Net price Inventory = $980 - $196 = $784 Gross price Inventory = $1,000 - $200 - $16 = $

13 What if the Payment is Made After the Discount Period has Expired? Net price Decrease (debit) accounts payable by $784 ($980 - $196) Recognize discount lost (debit Discounts Lost) for $16 Decrease (credit) cash by $800 ($784/0.98) Gross price Decrease (debit) accounts payable by $800 ($1,000 - $200) Decrease (credit) cash by $

14 Now What is the Balance of Inventory under Each Pricing Method? Net price Inventory = $980 - $196 = $784 Gross price Inventory = $1,000 - $200 = $800 Does this mean that the inventory under the gross price method is worth more? No, it simply reflects management s beliefs concerning discounts. Gross = cost reduction when taken Net = financing cost when lost 8-14

15 What is the Basic Flow of Information in the Payroll Process? 8-15 Employees record time worked on time cards and factory records time worked on time tickets Timekeeping compares time cards and time tickets Payroll records time worked, deductions, etc. Accounts payable approves payroll and notifies cashier Cashier pays employees

16 What is the Difference between Gross and Net Pay from the Employer s Point of View? Gross pay salary and wage expense (amount incurred in an attempt to generate revenue) Net pay cash outflow to employees Withholdings liabilities to pay the entity to which the funds belong 8-16

17 What is the Difference between Salary/Wage Expense and Payroll Tax Expense? Salary/wage expense expense incurred from using employees in an attempt to generate revenue Payroll tax expense expense incurred due to having employees (matching FICA and unemployment taxes) 8-17

18 When are Expenses Recognized? When incurred, regardless of when cash is paid. Assume December 31 year for examples that follow. Example #1 receive a utility bill in December, pay the bill in January, expense is recognized in? December Example #2 pay insurance for 6 months in November, recognize 2 months of insurance expense in? December Example #3 pay the local newspaper in December for an ad to be run in December, recognize expense in? December 8-18

19 Inventory Example Inventory is an asset when purchased When inventory is sold, we recognize the expense, called Cost of Goods Sold 8-19

20 How are Expenditure Process Activities Communicated to Users? 8-20 Income statement Discounts lost, Loss on Inventory, other expenses Cost of goods sold (Chapter 10) Balance sheet Ending balance of inventory, other assets, and liabilities Statement of cash flows Cash paid for inventory and other expenditure process items

21 How can we Estimate the Cash Paid for Inventory? Beginning inventory (balance sheet) + Net purchases (calculated) = Maximum inventory available Cost of goods sold (income statement) = Ending inventory (balance sheet) Then, 8-21

22 Estimating Cash Paid for Inventory, Continued Beginning accounts payable (balance sheet) + Net purchases (from inventory account) = Maximum amount owed to suppliers Cash paid for inventory (calculated) = Ending accounts payable (balance sheet)

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