1 A SYSTEMS MODEL OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT Richard Brian Barber Research Student School of Civil Engineering Australian Defence Force Academy Canberra ACT Australia 2600 INTRODUCTION management as a profession is remarkably consistent in its approach. Although there are a number of endorsed project management standards throughout the world, these exhibit a great deal of similarity with each other. Even where they differ it is arguable that the differences are more form than substance (Crawford, 2001). Given this virtual unanimity it might seem reasonable to expect that the profession is mature in its development and effective in its delivery of successful projects. managers who apply the project management standards effectively should be able to expect project success to follow. In fact this is not the case. The standards are collections of commonly agreed principles, tools and techniques for project management, but have not generally been tested properly from first principles (Crawford,2001). Although used for teaching, for regulation of the profession, and in practice, the standards are commonly understood by experienced project managers to be significantly inadequate by themselves as a basis for ensuring project success. Despite this, the standards are evolving very slowly and in detail rather than fundamentally. From a systems thinking perspective this is an interesting situation and invites the obvious question of why inadequate standards would be both universally agreed and perpetuated. It also begs a further inspection of the mental model of project management represented by the standards. This paper deals with the second question, first by looking briefly at existing models of project management and then proposing a systems model from first principles. EXISTING PROJECT MANAGEMENT MODELS The existing approach to project management is typified by that described in the Management Institute s (PMI) Guide to the Management Body of Knowledge (PMI,1996). Figure 1 below is reproduced from the Guide. It shows that project management is considered to be a group of processes that repeat during different phases of projects. Each phase has different process emphasis, according to its needs. Ini tiating De sig n Pha se Pl anning Ini tiating Impl ementation Pha se Pl anning Controlling Ex ecuting Controlling Ex ecuting Figure 1. The PMI Process model of project management is made up of a repeating set of process groups across project phases, for the life of the project. Levels of activity vary between phases both as a whole, and within each process group. The phases and the processes within them tend to overlap considerably. 1
2 The thinking behind the model is revealed as much by what is not included, as it is by those elements included. The major underlying assumptions appear to be: 1. Complex tasks can be managed by breaking them down into smaller sub-tasks until they become understandable and manageable by individuals, then using processes to ensure that those tasks are carried out in a coordinated, integrated and managed manner. 2. Major task management activities can be broken down into phases and then managed using interrelated but discrete processes that repeat for each phase. There are a range of other assumptions underlying current project management practice that may not be immediately obvious in the model shown above, but that are implied in the written guidance in the Guide to the PMBOK. These include: 1. Tasks can be successfully managed as though independent of each other, with coordination provided through process based management. 2. Complexity is additive - it is made up of simple tasks which when added together make an overall task that is progressively more complex. 3. Feedback systems are generally unimportant. 4. Uncertainty and risks to success can successfully be managed through specific processes for that purpose. Taking this as a whole, the current project management model becomes as shown in Figure 2. To be effective it requires that processes are in themselves fully capable in the real world. For example, it requires that risk management processes identify and effectively deal with all risks. This is inherently a reductionist view of the world, since it requires that a bounded linear process deal successfully with complexity and uncertainty within the whole project management system. Despite the fact that there is some feedback between processes within phases, taken as a whole the phased model implies continuing linear progress towards the ultimate goal of project completion. Many of the complexities of project management, especially those involving human behaviour and other causes of uncertainty, are at best only alluded to. Phase. Start State Phase. Initiating Phase. Initiating Phase. Initiating Controlling Executing Initiating Controlling Executing Controlling Executing Controlling Executing End State Figure 2. The overall process based model. management researchers such as Morris have challenged the effectiveness of the standards and the usefulness of current models (Morris,1994). Although some of those models look very different to Figure 2, they reflect the same underlying reductionist approach to project management thinking. Morris recognises and discusses the complexity of project management in terms of external forces, internal behavioural issues, politics, project organisational structures and more. Despite this, he does not take the next step of dealing with that complexity using a whole of systems approach. He appears to remain in the underlying reductionist thinking paradigm embodied in the project management standards and visible in the model in Figure 2. A SYSTEMS THINKING ALTERNATIVE The alternative model is based upon the assumption that the world is uncertain, changing and very complex. Interrelationships are common between tasks, events, risks and issues. To manage successfully, we must consider all project related events and issues as part of a single complex system. We should also accept that uncertainty arising from systemic complexity always involves some degree of unknowability (unpredictability).
3 A systems model of project management 3 Given this, it is appropriate to consider project management not from a task or planning perspective, but rather as a continuing series of events or changes that when added together over time lead to the final project result. We deal with the uncertain and unpredictable nature of the world by continually re-assessing the current of the project and taking actions, then reassessing its new, taking actions, and so on. In a mathematical sense, this is represented in Equation  where ƒ(m) is the impact upon the project of ongoing management action and ƒ(ew) is the impact upon the project of the external world. End State = Start State + (ƒ(m) + ƒ(ew))dt  The focus of the new model lies in the management process ƒ(m) and its relationship with the external world ƒ(ew). ƒ(m) can be described as a process of transformation - taking an of the world and transforming that into actions with impacts upon the project. Looked at more closely, the process involves a series of transformations - of information into knowledge, knowledge into, into decisions and decisions into action. Finally, the actions taken have an impact upon the project. At the same time, the external world continually changes the rules by not remaining constant or even predictable. The overall impact upon the project is therefore the combination of management actions and the changes in the external world. These functions are not independent - that is, ƒ(m) + ƒ(ew) are related. As we will see from the model, this occurs largely through a feedback mechanism. Following these ideas, the development of the new model commences by considering the nature of the work undertaken whenever a project is managed. Rather than viewing this in the traditional way and describing the nature of the task, this can be done in terms of the role of managers. Whether dealing with short or long term issues, managers gather data about their tasks and the world around them, apply rules, tools and experience, make judgements (decisions) and then implement the actions necessary. Managers follow such processes at all levels in any organisation, for varying complexity and timeframes. Most do so for many tasks simultaneously for example they manage short term work as it arrives on their desk at the same time as dealing with long term issues they have been managing for some time. All of the time they are assessing information and its context, making decisions, and carrying them out. A knowledge management and decision view of project management is shown in Figure 3. cues and indicators External environment direct impact on project delayed and filtered external feedback delayed and filtered internal feedback New cues, indicators, information Existing information and knowledge of the world of its current of success criteria risks and opportunities options, priorities, preferences decision (plan) management action future project management internal environment Figure 3. By nature, project management involves a series of transformations. New cues and indicators are combined with existing knowledge to provide a current of the world, of the project, and of the criteria for success. This translates in an inter-related and complex manner into an of what the risks and opportunities are, together with the options, priorities and preferences that apply. Further transformations occur first into a decision on how to act, and then into implementing action leading to a new future for the project.
4 As knowledge is processed it provides new feedback. There is direct feedback from the management action into the perceived risks and opportunities, since there is an expectation that actions taken will have the intended impact (whether they do or not). Finally, the real new of the project provides feedback, although this new reality may or may not reflect the intended outcome. The project does not exist in isolation, and the overall impact of the real external world is included at the top of Figure 3. It provides cues and indicators, and directly affects what is happening to the project. The project also has an impact back into the external world, adding a second feedback loop to the overall process. This is intuitively correct, since the external world will react to what the project is doing and will modify its cues and indicators accordingly i.e. feedback is occurring. This model demonstrates some of the real-world complexity involved in decision making and it also illustrates some of the major feedback affects involved. Despite this, it is a very much simplified view of project management, leaving out some of the most important factors determining the success or failure of projects. The first of these is the complex structure of the project s external world, included in Figure 4. Larger environment External stakeholders Host organisation and stakeholders * Portfolio organisation and stakeholders * * if applicable delayed and filtered external feedback delayed and filtered internal feedback New cues, indicators, information of the world risks and opportunities Existing information and knowledge of its current of success criteria options, priorities, preferences decision (plan) management action future project management internal environment Figure 4. The complexity of the external world of a project. Figure 4 shows the added complexity many projects experience when dealing with the external world, especially when part of a portfolio of projects and of a larger host organisation. The project and its portfolio organisation (if one exists) are both part of the host organisation. In the external environment, stakeholders are shown separately from the rest of the world because they are of special interest to project managers and because they behave differently than the larger generally disinterested world. Each of these is also interrelated, as shown by the vertical flows. This makes sense, since we know that there will be exchanges of information and activity between portfolio management and the host organisation, and between the larger environment and the portfolio level, for example. These exchanges will indirectly influence the cues and indicators received by the project, and the project s future. Figure 4 still does not represent the full complexity of the project management world, since it does not show some powerful forces that determine how information is processed and understood. These are shown in the complete model (Figure 5).
5 A systems model of project management 5 Larger environment External stakeholders Host organisation and stakeholders * Portfolio organisation and stakeholders * * if applicable delayed and filtered external feedback project management internal environment delayed and filtered internal feedback New cues, indicators, information Existing information and knowledge of the world of its current of success criteria risks and opportunities options, priorities, preferences decision (plan) management action future Powerful filters, constraints and influences from: internal culture, values, behaviour, capacity, capability, leadership, tools, techniques and processes Organisation Design Values, behaviour, capacity, capability, leadership, tools, techniques & processes, of: Portfolio, Host Organisation, External Stakeholders, Larger Environment Organisational design (and relationships between) the environment, host organisation and portfolio Figure 5. The complete systems model of project management. The shaded areas indicate the powerful and complex influences of a combination of factors upon how knowledge is transferred, processed, perceived, understood and interpreted. Such influences occur whenever a transformation takes place that involves human interpretation. For example, in Figure 5 they determine which new cues and information become part of (future) existing information and knowledge, and in what form. The same complex factors also influence decisions and actions, and how actions are carried out. They have a potentially powerful impact on everything the project does. As implied in the current project management standards, these influences include the tools and techniques applied and the skills and competence of the people involved. However this model also emphasises a multitude of other factors, including the affects of morale, culture, values and leadership. For example, two individuals with the same background and skill sets but with different cultures or values may form very different views of the facts, the risks, the options and the preferred actions. Such influences may be subtle in that they are difficult to see, understand or measure, but they are powerful since they tend to drive the perceptions, decisions and behaviour of individuals. Figure 5 also infers interrelationships between organisational design and these influences. The values, culture, behaviour and leadership within a project will over time be substantially controlled by the project organisation design. This can be illustrated by considering questions such as What kind of people tend to be selected to work in (and lead) the project? Are roles and accountabilities clear? Is individual performance monitored and managed effectively? Answering these questions requires an of the project organisation (structures, systems and processes) and of the links that exist between organisational design and individual behaviour. As also shown in Figure 5, it is likely (over time) that the leadership behaviour, values and culture at portfolio level will affect those at the project level, and also impact upon the project organisational design. This repeats itself at the next
6 level, where the host organisation and the external world impact upon the portfolio level design and upon its behaviour, values and culture. CONCLUSIONS The emphasis of this model is not on individual processes or phases, nor is it on skills, tools and techniques. Unlike existing models, this model does not seek to represent the project task. Instead the model seeks to represent what project management is about. By taking this approach it is able to consider project management from a systems perspective and without being in any way constrained by any specific type or form of project task. An immediate difference from previous models is that the tools, techniques and skills applied in the project will influence the project organisation s capacity and capability (and hence the outcomes) but they will not necessarily predominate. There are other potentially much more powerful forces at work, such as the direct influence of the world on the project s future and the impacts of culture, values and leadership. In its detail, the model contains many assumptions and permits many hypotheses. Major assumptions at the macro level are: 1. A project s future is determined by its current, by the activity of project managers and by direct external intervention. 2. management activity is made up of a number of interrelated transformations including information into knowledge and, into decisions and decisions into actions. 3. Those transformations are not simple, nor necessarily predictable. They are powerfully affected in complex ways by many factors, including human factors such as culture, values, and leadership. 4. External influences may have many inter-related components and may affect the project s future directly, through cues and indicators, or through their influence on the transformations involved in the project. 5. organisation design is a factor in determining the nature of many of the influences on project management transformations and hence is important to project performance. REFERENCES Adams, J.R. and Martin, M.D. (1987). Professional Management: A Practical Guide, Universal Technology Corporation, Dayton. Crawford, L.H. (2000). PhD Thesis - Management Competence: The Value of Standards, UTS Printing Services, Brunel University. Dinsmore, P.C. (1999). Winning in Business with Enterprise Management, Amacom, New York. Dobie, C. (2001). Organisational Maturity and Individual Competence, AIPM National Conference Proceedings, Graham R.J. and Englund R.L. (1997). Creating an Environment for Successful s, Jossey-Bas Publishers, San Fransisco. Halling, G. (2001). Customising a Management Methodology Matrix - Providing Lasting Results for Organisational Maturity, AIPM National Conference Proceedings, Jaques, A. (1998). Requisite Organisation A Total System for Effective Managerial Organisation and Managerial Leadership for the 21 st Century, Cason Hall & Co, Arlington. Mant, A. (1999). Intelligent Leadership, Allen & Unwin, Sydney. Morris P.W.G. (1994). The Management of s, Thomas Telford Books, London. Morris P.W.G. (2001). Updating the Management Bodies of Knowledge, Management Journal, September Issue: Management Institute (PMI) Standards Committee (1996), A Guide to the Management Body of Knowledge, PMI Publishing Division, North Carolina. Sterman, J.D. (2000). Business dynamics: systems thinking and modeling for a complex world, McGraw-Hill, Boston. White, P. (2001). s Culture - The Route to High Performance, AIPM National Conference Proceedings, 2001.
International Journal of Project Management 23 (2005) 584 590 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT www.elsevier.com/locate/ijproman Understanding internally generated risks in projects Richard B.
Exploring the Role of the Project Sponsor Lynn Crawford and Christine Brett Project Management Program University of Technology, Sydney Abstract To be effective, project managers are expected to get upper
International Centre for Complex Project Management The Management of Projects in Complex Environments Deborah Hein Managing Director and CEO ICCPM Presentation Outline ICCPM and why we exist The Complex
Aligning Projects to Strategy using Balanced Scorecards and Benefits Models G J Rankins CPPD Goal Professional Services Pty Ltd, www.goalgroup.com.au Mobile 0407 011 077 +61 407 011 077, email@example.com
Tasmanian State Service Senior Executive Whole-of-Service SES Communicates with influence Communicates Clearly Listens, Understands and Adapts to Audience Negotiates Persuasively SES LEADERSHIP CAPABILITY
ENGINEERING COUNCIL Guidance on Risk for the Engineering Profession www.engc.org.uk/risk This guidance describes the role of professional engineers and technicians in dealing with risk, and their responsibilities
Achieving Estimation Accuracy on IT Projects By Chris Dwyer 16 October 2009 Overview This whitepaper continues on from the paper presented by Martin Vaughan at PMOZ Conference Canberra 2009 Improving Estimating
Chapter 2 A Systems Approach to Leadership Overview 2.1 Introduction Developing a high performance organisation is an appropriate and achievable goal in today s business environment. High performance organisations
the Defence Leadership framework Growing Leaders at all Levels Professionalism Loyalty Integrity Courage Innovation Teamwork Foreword One of the founding elements of Building Force 2030, as outlined in
AITSL is funded by the Australian Government Australian Professional Standard for Principals July 2011 Formerly the National Professional Standard for Principals 2011 Education Services Australia as the
International Journal of Project Management 20 (2002) 185 190 www.elsevier.com/locate/ijproman The real success factors on projects Terry Cooke-Davies Human Systems Limited, 4 West Cliff Gardens, Folkestone,
Integrated Risk Management As A Framework For Organisational Success Dr David Hillson PMP FAPM FIRM MCMI Director, Risk Doctor & Partners firstname.lastname@example.org, www.risk-doctor.com Abstract Risk management
University Reviews: Exploring a New and Coordinated Approach Abstract Sue Leahy University of Technology Sydney The University of Technology, Sydney (UTS) has endorsed the implementation of a new model
Avondale College Limited Enterprise Risk Management Framework 2014 2017 President s message Risk management is part of our daily life, something we do regularly; often without realising we are doing it.
The integrated leadership system ILS support tools Leadership pathway: Individual profile APS6 APS 6 profile Supports strategic direction Achieves results Supports productive working relationships Displays
in Project Management A Simple View of Complexity in Project Management Patrick Weaver PMP, FAICD, FCIOB. email@example.com See also: Risk Management and Complexity Theory - The Human Dimension
DRAFT NATIONAL PROFESSIONAL STANDARDS FOR TEACHERS Teachers Registration Board of South Australia Submission 21 May 2010 Table of Contents 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 2. TEACHERS REGISTRATION BOARD OF SOUTH
Australian Graduate School of Leadership at Torrens University Australia Doctor of Business Leadership Course Information Contents An Important Business Career Landmark... 3 Course Outcomes... 3 Course
August 2007 Ten Steps to Comprehensive Project Portfolio Management Part 3 Projects, Programs, Portfolios and Strategic Direction By R. Max Wideman This series of papers has been developed from our work
MSc in Management Course structure and content 2016-2017 The Cranfield MSc in Management is a 13 month programme starting in September each year. Term 1: 26 September 2016 to 16 December 2016 Term 2: 9
2012 15356 Reflective Project Practice Individual Assignment Learning Through Reflection while implementing an Agile Software Development Methodology at a Major Telecommunications Company Report to Mrs
Metrics 101: Implementing a Metrics Framework to Create Value through Continual Service Improvement By David Smith It s often been said that you can t manage what you don t measure, which is true. Without
The integrated leadership system ILS support tools Leadership pathway: Individual profile Executive Level 1 profile Shapes strategic thinking Achieves results Cultivates productive working relationships
Public Record Office Victoria PROS 10/10 Strategic Management Guideline 5 Records Management Strategy Version Number: 1.0 Issue Date: 19/07/2010 Expiry Date: 19/07/2015 State of Victoria 2010 Version 1.0
RIBA Plan of Work 2013: Consultation document The RIBA is undertaking a comprehensive review of the RIBA Plan of Work. This document sets out the reasons and the rationale behind that review as well as
Professor A. Jaafari, ME, MSc, PhD, CPEng, FIEA Online Project Diagnostics: A Tool for Management of Project Complexities There is evidence that the current project management models and practices do not
Self assessment tool for APS 5 Capabilities Supports strategic direction Supports shared purpose and direction Understands and supports the organisation's vision, mission and business objectives. Identifies
Partnering for Project Success: Project Manager and Business Analyst Collaboration By Barbara Carkenord, CBAP, Chris Cartwright, PMP, Robin Grace, CBAP, Larry Goldsmith, PMP, Elizabeth Larson, PMP, CBAP,
Project Risk Management Study Notes PMI, PMP, CAPM, PMBOK, PM Network and the PMI Registered Education Provider logo are registered marks of the Project Management Institute, Inc. Points to Note Risk Management
A methodology for knowledge based project management (Work in progress) Patrick Onions firstname.lastname@example.org 23 January 2007 The characteristics of our late 20th century society demand the development
Project management skills for engineers: industry perceptions and implications for engineering project management course Kriengsak Panuwatwanich Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia email@example.com
Business Analyst Corporate ICT Development Team Leader None May 2013 This job exists to provide the organisation with quality software development analysis and project management. The position achieves
On Services for Collaborative Project Management Martin Ollus, Kim Jansson, Iris Karvonen, Mikko Uoti, Heli Riikonen Vuorimiehentie 5, Espoo P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Finland firstname.lastname@example.org
1 Doctor of Education - Higher Education The University of Liverpool s Doctor of Education - Higher Education (EdD) is a professional doctoral programme focused on the latest practice, research, and leadership
THE VOCATIONAL GRADUATE CERTIFICATE IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT MANAGEMENT IT S THE CAREER ACCELERATOR FOR COUNCIL MANAGERS SUBJECT CHOICES Govern councils Manage the human resources process in local government
Overview of A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) Fourth Edition Topics for Discussion PMI Foundational Standards Harmonization of PMI s Foundational Standards Top 10 changes
1) Explain management spectrum or explain 4 p s of software system. Effective software project management focuses on the four P s: people, product, process, and project. The People People factor is very
The Role of Programming in Informatics Curricula A. J. Cowling Department of Computer Science University of Sheffield Structure of Presentation Introduction The problem, and the key concepts. Dimensions
s A 1 will have various roles and responsibilities according to whether the service (or support) is focused at the project, program or portfolio level. Project management offices (PjMO) provide centralised
Working together to achieve maximum results COMPLIANCE & RISK MANAGEMENT THE FOUNDATION Presented By: Mr Graham Caddies (CPRM, FRMIA, FSIA, FAIM, Grad MAICD) Advance Profitplan 173 Ross River Road Mundingburra
The National Health Plan for Young Australians An action plan to protect and promote the health of children and young people Copyright 1997 ISBN 0 642 27200 X This work is copyright. It may be reproduced
Strategic Management Managing Change Graham Manville Senior Lecturer University of East Anglia 1 Learning Outcomes Differences in scope of strategic change Effect of organisational context on design of
White Paper Managing TM1 Projects What You ll Learn in This White Paper: Traditional approaches to project management A more agile approach Prototyping Achieving the ideal outcome Assessing project teams
A Systems Approach for the ment and Management of Physical Infrastructure Dr D.S. Thorpe Queensland Department of Main s, Australia E-mail: David.S.Thorpe@Mains.qld.gov.au ABSTRACT: A methodology has been
SIMULATION MODEL VERIFICATION AND VALIDATION: INCREASING THE USERS CONFIDENCE Stewart Robinson Operations and Information Management Group Aston Business School Aston University Birmingham, B4 7ET, UNITED
MODULE 10 CHANGE MANAGEMENT AND COMMUNICATION PART OF A MODULAR TRAINING RESOURCE Commonwealth of Australia 2015. With the exception of the Commonwealth Coat of Arms and where otherwise noted all material
Two broad dimensions of program management By ABSTRACT This short paper briefly discusses two broad dimensions of program management. One is the internally-focused dimension of coordinating the program
Benefits and Value The only purpose of undertaking any business activity is to create value! If undertaking the work destroys value the activity should not be started. Any value proposition though is in
Improving Project Governance By Phil Mann 31 October 2012 Overview This whitepaper provides a synopsis of the Victorian Government s Ombudsman s Own motion investigation into ICT-enabled, November 2011.
Guidance Organisation & Management National Standards for Headteachers Staff Management Status: Information Date of issue: 10/2004 Ref: DfES/0083/2004 Contents Introduction 2 Shaping the Future 6 Leading
A Study of the Skills of Construction Project Managers in Australia and Their Needs for Training and Certification Abstract Tony Ma 1, Cuong Luong 2, and Jian Zuo 3 Project management as a discipline began
THE PROJECT MANAGER S ROLE ONE CRITICAL PROJECT SUCCESS FACTOR Helena Hrůzová Jean-Michel Viola Maroane Aouni Abstract All organisations confront the challenges of managing projects and implementing strategic
Guidelines on continuing professional development Introduction These guidelines 1 have been developed by the Psychology Board of Australia under s. 39 of the Health Practitioner Regulation National Law
Higher National Unit specification: general information Unit code: H18H 35 Superclass: PJ Publication date: March 2012 Source: Scottish Qualifications Authority Version: 02 Unit purpose: This Unit is designed
Introduction EC2000 CRITERION 2: A PROCEDURE FOR CREATING, ASSESSING, AND DOCUMENTING PROGRAM EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES Michael Carter, Rebecca Brent, Sarah Rajala North Carolina State University Criterion
Quality Framework The Quality Framework completes work begun in 1996 with a meeting jointly convened by the CEAV and the Dusseldorp Skills Forum (DSF), of key careers education representatives from across
Civil Service 2012-2017 Level 3 HEO and SEO or equivalent Level 3 I n s p i r i n g E m p o w e r i n g C o n fi d e n t About this framework The Civil Service competency framework supports the Civil Service
Primero Knowledge Solution Centre for Project Management Presents: Project/Program Diagnostics - A Systemic Approach Monday, 26 th April 2010 8:30 to 10.00 AM, Chennai Confederation of Real Estate Developers
Integrated Planning & Reporting Framework Frequently Asked Questions and their answers August 2009 Question Why are the planning and reporting requirements for local councils being changed? Page 3 What
Succession Planning and Leader Development Reducing the Risk of Wrong Choices and Poor Investment Decisions Unleash Capability Reduce Risk Gain Competitive Advantage The New Normal Once reserved for the
The Role of Function Points in Software Development Contracts Paul Radford and Robyn Lawrie, CHARISMATEK Software Metrics email@example.com Abstract Software development contracts often lead to disputes
RISK MANAGEMENT OVERVIEW - APM Project Pathway (Draft) Risk should be defined as An uncertain event that, should it occur, would have an effect (positive or negative) on the project or business objectives.
COMPETENCY STANDARDS FOR SPECIALIST PALLIATIVE CARE NURSING PRACTICE Introduction to Using this Framework: This framework provides a set of competency standards for specialist palliative care nursing practice.
Australian Curriculum: Technologies with a focus on critical and creative thinking Julie King Curriculum Lead, Technologies October 2015 Overview Curriculum development Australian Curriculum: Technologies
PALADIN RISK MANAGEMENT TRAINING ACADEMY Creating Risk Gladiators NOW ONLY $4400 Qualifications issued by McMillan Staff Development Advanced Diploma of Governance, Risk and Compliance Contact Rod Farrar
Background to the Literacy and Numeracy short course senior syllabuses March 2010 Background to the Literacy and Numeracy short course senior syllabuses The State of Queensland (Queensland Studies Authority)
Overview of A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) Fourth Edition Overview of: A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) Fourth Edition 1 Topics for Discussion
How to audit your business strategy Andrew Carey Why conduct a business strategy audit? Nearly all the major initiatives undertaken by corporate executives today are called strategic. With everything having
A NATIONAL OVERVIEW OF TEACHER EDUCATION IN AUSTRALIA Dr Cheryl Sim Faculty of Education, Griffith University As the world increasingly becomes interconnected, the content of teacher education and student
Day 5: Project Management, Program Management, and Trends Allan McLaughlin Owner/CEO: JTA Enterprises, LLC Introduction of Topic How did you get here this morning? Did it just happen? Or was there a plan?
Risk Based Software Development Reducing Risk and Increasing the Probability of Project Success IT Software Development Just Isn t Working! IT systems are at the heart of modern business and the development
Causal Loop Diagramming of the Relationships among Satisfaction, Retention, and Profitability Gerard King School of Management Information Systems, Deakin University, Australia 3217 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
CRICOS Code: 01899K / Provider Code 6554 CANTERBURY BUSINESS COLLEGE TRAINING & ASSESSMENT STRATEGY BSB60407 Advanced Diploma of Management CBC 2014 published by the Canterbury Business College (CBC) email:
Project Services Pty Ltd A SIMPLE VIEW OF COMPLEXITY IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT Presented at 14-16 November 2007 Patrick Weaver, PMP, FAICD, FCIOB. Director, Mosaic Project Services Pty Ltd For more communications
INSTITUTE OF CERTIFIED PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS OF KENYA ASSET MANAGEMENT SEMINAR SEPTEMBER 9 TH -11 TH, 2015 Asset Information Credibility. Professionalism. AccountAbility 1 Asset Information 2 Content 1. Stakeholders
Project Evaluation Guidelines Queensland Treasury February 1997 For further information, please contact: Budget Division Queensland Treasury Executive Building 100 George Street Brisbane Qld 4000 or telephone
MARCH 2011 Certificate IV in Frontline Management Ai Group is pleased to provide you with information regarding the Certificate IV in Frontline Management - BSB40807. BENEFITS OF TRAINING Effective training
Balancing social and commercial objectives within business organisations what can we learn from social enterprise? Introduction The accepted role of business in our society has changed in the last 15 years.
About this research note: Technology Insight notes describe emerging technologies, tools, or processes as well as analyze the tactical and strategic impact they will have on the enterprise. Project Management:
Organisational culture Broadly speaking there are two schools of thought on organisational culture. The first, suggests that culture is tangible and exists in much the same way an organisation chart can
www.plg-uk.com Business Development & Licensing Journal For the Pharmaceutical Licensing Groups Consolidation in the generics sector Integrating business development Cross-cultural negotiations Self-reporting
ABSTRACT Notes on programs vs. standalone projects By This paper discusses some similarities and differences between programs and standalone projects. A distinction is first made between standalone projects,