Voyages to the Orient

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1 NW NE W MIM January 2010 SW SE S Voyages to the Orient NOAA S CLIMATE DATABASE MODERNIZATION PROGRAM Discoloured Laura Maersk

2 Ship in the spotlight! Photo: Hans Hillewaert Laura Maersk Build: 2001, Owner: A.P. Muller-Maersk A/S, Denmark, VOS: April 2009, OBS: MIM January 2010

3 From the editors desk Voyages to the Orient The PMO-Office announces Herfst 2005/2006 nog zachter NOAA s Climate Database M.H. Jansen Certificates Results Discoloured Laura Maersk Dutch PMO-Office /678 René Rozeboom PMO Bert de Vries PMO Peter Westenbrink Assistent PMO Publicationyear 23, number 83 ISSN: Adress: KNMI, Sector I-WIS PMO- Office Postbus AE De Bilt Red.Telephone: Colophon MIM is a quarteredition from the Department Observations Systems Oparations of the KNMI. This magazine is ment for those who take part on board of ships and platforms, which accomplisch and release meteorological observations. Using articles is permitted when the source is mentioned and an example of the publication is forwarded to the KNMI. Editing: * P.M. Westenbrink Colleagues De Bilt: R.J. Rozeboom/A.A. de Vries Corrector English text: D. Suri (Met Office) Fotographs (unless different):knmi Satellite images: Meteosat and Goes: NERC satellite receiving station, Dundee University, Scotland Terra and Aqua: Image courtesy of MODIS Rapid Response project at NASA/GSFC Lay-out and printing: Studio/Printcentre KNMI MIM January

4 From the editors desk Peter Westenbrink Een plotseling opdoemende stratusbank maakt als bij toverslag van het Utrechtse NH Hotel een echte wolkenkrabber. De zon is uit het zicht verdwenen en de dag is een grijsaard geworden. Met zijn Bus stoplicht ogen kijkt hij je dreigend aan. Dagelijks bewegend door een zee van mensen, verkeer, winkels, kantoren en huizen neemt een landrot zoals ik ook wel eens een bijzonder verschijnsel waar. Leuk om het nieuwe jaar mee te beginnen. Geen optimistisch begin hoor ik u vast zeggen als u naar de foto hiernaast kijkt. Toch wel, want achter de spookachtige verschijning gloort het zoals u ziet. Nog even en het NH Hotel werp weer een weidse blik over de stad, staat er weer uitnodigend en gastvrij bij. Niets wat ons tegenhoudt om met een opgeruimd gevoel 2010 vorm te geven, waar ook ter wereld. The sudden appearance of a patch of stratus turns the Utrecht NH Hotel into a real skyscraper like magic. The sun has gone out of sight and the day has turned into a grey-haired old man looking and scowling at you with his traffic light eyes. Moving daily through an ocean of people, traffic, shops, office buildings and houses a landlubber like me sometimes observes a special phenomenon as well. Quite nice to start this new year with one, in fact. Not the most optimistic starts I hear you say when you re looking at the picture alongside. But it is, because behind the spooky manifestation you can see it s glimmering. In just a moment the NH Hotel will once again look inviting and hospitable, throwing us a grand view over the city. Nothing can stop us giving 2010 a shape with a bright feeling, wherever we are. 4 MIM January 2010

5 The editors picture Landlubber s phenomenon MIM January

6 Voyages to the Orient: the climatic data legacy from the age of sail Dennis Wheeler University of Sunderland, UK When, on the last day of 1600, Elizabeth I of England granted the privilege of trade between what is now the Cape of Good Hope and the Straits of Magellan to a group of London merchants she and her court could hardly have imagined the enduring nature of the undertaking upon which they were embarking. But in this enterprise the English were not alone, and two years later the Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie) was founded to encourage and control oriental trade from the Netherlands and other similar organisations were to be found in, for example, Sweden (the Swedish East India Company or Svenska Ostindiska Companiet was set up in 1731) and elsewhere. These were the forerunners of today s planetembracing merchant marine tradition. Ships of the East India Company at Sea. By Nicholas Pocock. This depiction of the Hindustan was commissioned by the captain of her 1803 voyage, Captain George Millet, to mark her safe return. By kind permission of the NationalMaritime Museum, Greenwich, UK 6 MIM January 2010

7 But it was the English East India Company (EEIC) that was to establish the most successful and persisting of these ventures and over the next two and a half centuries it came to dominate British trade with Asia and acted as a quasi-government to control much of the Indian sub-continent and the surrounding Indian Ocean. Its power only began to pass away in the 1830 s and diminished further as a result of the Indian Mutiny, with its Charter expiring in But this paper is not primarily concerned with the historical, political and economic aspects of the EEIC and these can be found in texts such as Sutton (2000) or Lawson (1993), interest is here concentrated on the rich legacy of documents that it has bequeathed to the modern world. These documents range across the usual letters, accounts and business correspondence and can be freely consulted in the India Office collection of the British Library but include also a notable collection of nearly 4000 logbooks and journals carefully written by the intrepid officers who navigated their way annually between the EEIC docks in London and the company s factories in India, the East Indies and China, especially Canton, to bring back the profitable cargoes of silks, spices and porcelain. All of these venerable documents, the majority of which are in an excellent state of preservation, can be found in the British Library (http://www.bl.uk/) and the marine journals have been catalogued and cross-referenced by Farrington (1999). In the early days these journals were very much in the form of narrative diaries and many of them, containing as they do, some of the first descriptions by Europeans of these exotic and fabled regions have been transcribed by the Haklyut Society for more general consultation. A good example is that of the first voyage in 1600/01 under the leadership of General James Lancaster and included in the edited volume by Foster (1940). EEIC logbooks But from the middle of the seventeenth century these diaries began to assume the form of logbooks in the sense with which we become more familiar with them in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, which is to say daily records of the weather and life on board set out in an increasingly formalised and standardised fashion Figure 1. Page from the logbook of EIC vessel Airley Castle for 21st October Cat. Ref. L/ MAR/B/321-I. By kind permission of the British Library that reached its peak of development and uniformity by the eighteenth century. The recently-concluded CLIWOC project (Climatological Database for the World s Oceans: , see and Garcia-Herrera et al. (2005)) has done much to provide information on the character and potential of the climatological content of these documents but paid relatively little attention to EEIC logbooks. So how do the EEIC logbook pages appear, and what information do they contain? Figure 1 is typical of those from the late eighteenth century. This is a page from the logbook of the Airley Castle from her voyage to Bengal and Madras in 1804 (BL catalogue number L/MAR/B/321-I), this page being from the leg from Madeira southwards to the Cape of Good Hope. It was written by the Chief Mate William Burgess following the death of the captain but is otherwise typical of the period, and it should be noted that by this time printed sheets, with the Company s arms in the corner, were used throughout with little scope therefore for variation in style and content. As with all logbooks of the time, and as might be expected from the name, it is a record of the ship s log, a simple wooden instrument (Figure 2) thrown overboard with a line attached to it MIM January

8 with which the speed of the vessel is noted hourly (for a description of these procedures see a standard text such as Norrie, 1889) the hour being given in column H figure 1. The columns headed by K and F indicate the hourly estimate of ship s speed in terms of knots and fathoms, although it should be noted that this fathom is not the 6 foot depth measure but an eighth of a nautical mile (253 yards). Either side of these columns are found notes on the course of the ship and the wind direction. The blank area on the right is set aside for general notes on the weather and the management of the ship. In this case we have Pleasant breezes and fair throughout. A.M. Performed Divine Service on the Quarter Deck. In those distant times the nautical day began 12 hours ahead of the civil day (Harries,1928) as a consequence of which the ordering of the above quotation has the PM notes preceding those for AM. It does however mean that the day s series of weather for 21st October was actually started at midday on 20th October. Wind direction and weather observations were made at intervals during the day, particularly when notable changes occurred that would require some action such as adjusting course or trimming the sails. There were of course no anemometers in those distant times but it is clear from contemporary documents that such observations were using methods not wholly unfamiliar to those who provide data through the presentday VOS system, and by reference to such things as the state of sea. Figure 2. Wooden log and line typical of those instruments used in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The log was cast overboard and the line then run out at a rate determined by the forward motion of the ship Pre-Beaufort wind force vocabularies The wind force vocabulary of mariners before the advent and later adoption of the Beaufort Scale has been studied as part of the CLIWOC project (Wheeler and Wilkinson, 2005). This early vocabulary developed over the decades from its beginnings in the seventeenth century and the mariner s need to provide a reliable description of the conditions so crucial to the movement and security of his vessel. For the most part it was an unofficial but standardised vocabulary that was shared by officers of the naval and merchant services. But that of the EEIC officers, whilst rooted firmly in the English traditions of the Royal Navy offered a more detailed interpretation of the conditions. Most pre-beaufort wind force vocabularies were, understandably, concerned with the strength of the wind, and gales and breezes were qualified as light, easy, fresh or strong etc. while storms and tempest and calms and light airs defined the upper and lower ends of the range. EEIC officers paid however additional attention to the nature of the winds and made reference also to trades and monsoons indicating a then well-understood distinction in terms of origin between those winds and the more general gales and breezes. Table 1 lists the most frequently used wind force terms in the three dominant branches of the eighteenth and early nineteenth century English marine services; those of the Royal Navy, the Hudson s Bay Company and the EEIC. Only in the EEIC vocabulary do trades appear (monsoons were used less commonly and appear lower down the list of descriptors in terms of frequency of use.) but, of course, their voyages took them into waters where such winds would be expected, and they seem to have been informed enough to recognise the distinctions. It can also be noted that the EEIC vocabulary much wider than that used by the royal Navy and Hudson s Bay Company officers, with 74 different terms being encountered as opposed to the 53 and 37 of the other two services. Many of these terms have passed out of use and only a few were retained under the Beaufort system, but the high percentage of total usage embraced by the 13 most commonly used items testifies to a consistency of application of these unofficial systems of description. The problem presented by these data are of course how they can be expressed in present-day Beaufort force terms and therefore being of some scientific value. The CLIWOC project addressed this very issue and prepared a dictionary allowing for such translations to be made not only from English but also from Dutch, French and Spanish sources (Garcia-Herrera et al., 2006). Interested readers might like also to consult the recently-published item by Wallbrink and Koek (2009) in which the history of wind force terms and the problems of their translation is reviewed. It must be added that terms such as trades and monsoons were not used indiscriminately, and are found only in those logbook entries where the vessels are placed in exactly those areas where today they be expected to occur and testify to a deep knowledge of the forces that controlled, very often, their destinies. Further meteorological data Such non-instrumental observations, by themselves, provide a valuable body of meteorological information but at the foot of each daily register can be found important navigational and further meteorological data as follows: Course and distance: this is the overall course since midday on the previous day and the distance sailed in nautical miles. Both are determined in relation to the estimated positions from successive midday observations having already taken into account any tacking or wearing of the ship. In this example the course was N15E 146 miles. 8 MIM January 2010

9 XLat: difference in latitude from the previous day in nautical miles. This can be by observation (of the midday sun) or by account, i.e. dead reckoning estimation. XLong: difference in longitude from previous day again in nautical miles. This can be by account or by chronometer. Lat: latitude (in degrees and minutes), again by observation or account. Long: this is here recorded in degrees and minutes and can be made, in or by chronometer. Longitude made is the longitude with respect to the zero, in this case Greenwich, meridian, and is estimated to be 107º 59 (east in this case although it is not stated). The depiction of the moon indicates that the estimate was made using the system of lunar distances. Longitude by chronometer was estimated on the basis of this highly reliable timepiece that had been in use for only some two decades at the time, while longitude in indicated the use of one standard or prime meridian, which in the case of EEIC vessles was Greenwich. Longitude acc was an estimat by dead reckoning. Var: this is the degree to which magnetic north departs from true north. Departure: this is the distance measured in nautical miles (or minutes of a degree) irrespective of latitude from the last recognisable and mapped landmark or point of departure, and, most relevant to this paper because of their scientific significance: Barometer: measured in inches and hundredths of inches of mercury. Temperature: measured in degree Fahrenheit. Such meteorological inclusions were almost entirely unknown in the Royal Navy documents of the period, but were commonplace in those of the EEIC, and provides them with a unique value to present-day climatological research as they represent the only substantial body of marine instrumental data for late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. There are some 900 logbooks for the period from 1780 to 1836 (when the series concludes) almost all of which contain such information and the data to be derived from them enjoy important characteristics: the data set is large, it covers what is regarded by many as a pre-instrumental period, and it embraces the oceans, some of them far distant from Europe regions for which meteorological data are in desperately short supply from before the midnineteenth century. Given also that these observations were, as noted above, timed, often to the nearest hour, and the point of observation noted with reasonable, if not precise, accuracy, they provide the foundation for a database of welcome significance. Alexander Dalrymple This unusual dedication to the gathering of meteorological data resulted from the activities of the Company s hydrographer, Alexander Dalrymple ( ). Dalrymple was concerned to gather as much information as possible in order to establish the best and fastest sailing routes between Britain and the Orient. He was also, and incidentally, the first proposer of a wind force scale later to be offered by Francis Beaufort whose name it still, perhaps erroneously, bears (see Wheeler and Wilkinson, 2004). Dalrymple, never one for timorous conduct, kept the first such logbook in 1775 when he sailed to the Orient on the Grenville under the command of Burnet Abercrombie. His daily observations of air pressure and temperature and of sea temperatures together much other navigational and scientific information was published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society on his return (Dalrymple, 1778) and repays its reading. We find, usefully for example, that the thermometer belonged to Mr. Russell, and hung in the open air in the balcony (p.389). The barometer was of Nairn and Blunt manufacture and a quicksilver thermometer being fixed to it for the Rank by usage Royal Navy East India Co. Hudson Bay Co. 1 moderate fresh breezes fresh gales 2 fresh breezes light airs incl. clam fresh breezes 3 fresh gales fresh gales strong gales 4 light airs incl. calm* light breeze stiff gales 5 little wind moderate breezes moderate 6 moderate breezes pleasant breezes moderate breezes 7 light breezes variable light airs incl. calm 8 calm little wind light breezes 9 strong gales fresh trades stiff breezes 10 strong breezes moderate trades little wind 11 moderate gales pleasant trades light winds 12 hard gales moderate pleasant breezes 13 variable strong breezes easy breezes Cumulative percentage for that source Total number of terms Table 1. The thirteen most frequently used wind force terms by Royal Navy, EEIC and Hudson s Bay Company officers. Those items later adopted by Beaufort in his wind force scales are printed in bold. *indicates light airs inclinable to calm. MIM January

10 sea temperatures together much other navigational and scientific information was published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society on his return (Dalrymple, 1778) and repays its reading. We find, usefully for example, that the thermometer belonged to Mr. Russell, and hung in the open air in the balcony (p.389). The barometer was of Nairn and Blunt manufacture and a quicksilver thermometer being fixed to it for the sake of correcting its height (p.389). He also proposes a weather scale not unlike that which was later promoted by Francis Beaufort and his chronometer a then newly-invented time piece for estimating longitude was made by Arnold. From about 1780 Dalrymple, doubtless inspired by his own efforts, issued the pre-printed pages seen in figure 1 and expected his officers to make notes as dutifully as he had done. Inevitably not all did so, but a very large number did. With the support of funding from the UK and US Governments this remarkable collection of logbooks has now been fully imaged and the meteorological data are being abstracted and quality-controlled by the US partners - the partners in this project are the University of Sunderland, the UK Met Office Hadley Centre and the Climate Database Modernisation Program (part of NOAA). It is remarkable that this fund of information has been called upon in the past, and the only climate research thus far carried out is that by Farrington et al. (1998) who used the logbooks of South Atlantic legs of the voyages to reconstruct the long-term fluctuations on the intensity of the south-east Trades. It is anticipated that the images and the data of the current undertaking will be freely available through ICOADS (International Comprehensive Atmosphere- Ocean Database go to noaa.gov/) sometime in 2010 allowing research hers to draw upon this unrivalled fund of early instrumental data. Alexander Dalrymple. Keying conventions for standardising the abstracted data and metadata have been agreed and the task of data transcription is proceeding under the direction of CDMP and its associates. When completed these data will add substantially to our knowledge if what is, in respect of this activity, inappropriately termed the pre-instrumental period. REFERENCES Dalrymple, a. (1778) Journal of a Voyage to the East Indies, in the ship Grenville, Captain Burnet Abercrombie. Phil. Trans. Royal Society London, 68, Farrington, A., Lubker, S., Radok, U. and Woodruff, S. (1998) South Atlantic winds and weather during and following the Little Ice Age a pilot study of English East India Company ship logs. Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, 67, Farrington, A. (1999) Catalogue of the East India Company Ships Journals and Logs British Library, London. Foster, W (ed) (1940) The Voyages of Sir James Lancaster to Brazil and the East Indies Hakluyt Society, 2nd series 85, London. Garcia-Herrera, R., Können, G.P., Wheeler, D., Prieto, M.R., Jones P.D., and Koek, F.B. (2005) CLIWOC: A climatological database for the world s oceans Climatic Change, 73, Garcia Herrera, R., Können, G.P., Wheeler, D., Prieto, M.R., Jones P.D., and Koek, F.B CLIWOC multilingual meteorological dictionary. Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute (KNMI) publication. De Bilt, The Netherlands., Harries, H Nautical time. Mariner s Mirror, no vol. number, Lawson, P. (1993) The East India Company: a history, Longmans, London. Norrie, J. W. (1889) A Complete Epitome of Practical Navigation and Nautical Astronomy. Norrie & Wilson, London. Sutton, J. (2000) Lords of the East: the East India Company and its ships ( ). Conway Maritime Press, London. Wallbrink, H. and Koek, F.B. (2009) Historical Wind Scales until KNMI Memorandum, Hisklim 12. De Bilt, The Netherlands. Wheeler, D. and Wilkinson, C. (2004) From calm to storm: the origins of the Beaufort Wind Scale. Mariner s Mirror, 90, Wheeler, D. and Wilkinson, C. (2005) The determination of logbook wind force and weather terms: the English case. Climatic Change, 73, MIM January 2010

11 Bert de Vries The PMO Office announces Thank you again for your cooperation and for your contribution to the VOS. As usual I kindly ask you to check the numbers of observations we received, and see if they are consistent with the numbers you ve sent. If in doubt please contact us. Furthermore I would like to draw your attention to the delivery confirmation option if you use sac 41 Inmarsat configurations. When we receive communication bills from Stratos (Station 12) it appears that many vessels have standard delivery confirmation on in the options menu. First of all if the OBS is received at the LES, it does not mean that the processing and final distribution onto the GTS is administered for certain. Many obstacles like format errors or timeliness errors (main hours, non standard hours etc) might cause your OBS to be rejected. So to have your OBS received at the LES is no guarantee for correct processing at the Meteorological Centre. Secondly this (rather useless) option is added to the total amount of communication costs we have to pay. So please refrain from the use of it. All too often we still encounter problems with the time component of the observations. I dare say the most likely cause is probably that the number of OBSs being sent and received are not the same. A brief summary of problems we encounter concerning timeliness and the solutions follows: For correct TurboWin/PC settings:. Make sure the settings in TurboWin\ station data are correct. (If your computer time is set on UTC then check this box accordingly). Make sure your clock displays the correct time (and date). (UTC) For correct barometer reading:. Always read the barometer three hours before the OBS and take a note (tendency). Read barometer as close as possible to H+0 (main hour) For correct OBS sending:. Preferably main hours UTC, then intermediate hours.. Non standard hours to station 12 only North Atlantic Ocean. Other regions non standard hours to Goonhilly UK. Send in OBS a.s.a.p. (within 20 minutes after H+0) Finally, once again I d like to express my gratitude for all the OBS s you ve made, and look forward to meeting you onboard. MIM January

12 Zeer zacht, aan de zonnige kant en de normale hoeveelheden neerslag. Rob Sluijter Klimaatdata en advies, KNMI Herfst 2009 In ruim een eeuw was alleen de herfst van 2005 en 2006 nog zachter. De herfst was zeer zacht. In De Bilt werd een gemiddelde temperatuur van 11,7 C tegen 10,2 C normaal gemeten. In de lijst van zachtste herfsten sinds 1901 staat de herfst van 2009 op een gedeelde derde plaats, samen met die van Alleen de herfsten van 2005 en 2006 waren nog zachter met een gemiddelde temperatuur van 12,0 C, respectievelijk 13,6 C. Temperatuur Met in De Bilt een gemiddelde temperatuur van 15,0 C tegen een langjarig gemiddelde van 14,2 C, was september een vrij warme maand. Aan het begin van september veroorzaakten lagedrukgebieden een wisselvallig weertype. Vanaf de 6e tot aan het einde van de maand waren hogedrukgebieden aan zet. Het was daarbij overwegend droog en rustig nazomerweer. Op 8 september werd in De Bilt de laatste zomerse dag van het seizoen genoteerd (maximumtemperatuur 25,0 C of hoger). In het zuidoostelijk deel van het land werden op sommige plaatsen drie zomerse dagen geregistreerd. In het Limburgse Ell werd op de 8e met 30,3 C zelfs nog tropisch warm (maximumtemperatuur 30,0 C of hoger). Ook oktober was aan de zachte kant met in De Bilt een gemiddelde maandtemperatuur van 10,7 C tegen een langjarig gemiddelde van 10,3 C. De regionale verschillen waren echter opvallend groot. In het noordoosten van het land was oktober ongeveer een halve graad te koud, in het zuidwesten lokaal een graad te zacht. Aan het begin van oktober lag de temperatuur rond de normale waarde voor de tijd van het jaar. Op 6 en 7 oktober werd korte tijd zeer zachte lucht aangevoerd. Tijdens de nacht van de 6 op 7 oktober bleef de temperatuur 17 tot 18 C; bijzonder hoog voor de tijd van het jaar. Op de 7e werd het in het zuidoosten de laatste warme dag (maximumtemperatuur 20,0 C of hoger) van het jaar genoteerd. In De Bilt werd de grens van 20 graden in oktober niet meer bereikt. Normaal telt oktober daar twee warme dagen. In De Bilt werden in de herfst tien warme dagen genoteerd tegen 12 normaal, Rond het midden van de maand oktober was het duidelijk te koud voor de tijd van het jaar. In De Bilt daalde de temperatuur op 14 oktober voor het eerst na de zomer tot onder het vriespunt. In totaal werden deze herfst in De Bilt twee vorstdagen (minimumtemperatuur lager dan 0,0 C) geregistreerd, allebei in oktober. Het normale aantal voor de herfst bedraagt zeven vorstdagen. De landelijk laagste temperatuur, -4,9 C, werd op 15 oktober gemeten op de vliegbasis Twenthe. Met in De Bilt een gemiddelde temperatuur van 9,5 C tegen 6,2 C normaal, eindigde november 2009 op de tweede plaats in de rij van zachtste novembermaanden sinds Alleen november 1994 was met 10,2 C nog veel zachter. Lagedrukgebieden veroorzaakten de gehele maand november uitermate wisselvallig weer. Daarbij was vooral het tijdvak van 13 tot en met 25 november uitzonderlijk zacht. De gemiddelde temperatuur, ruim 10 C, lag toen iedere dag 12 MIM January 2010

13 Aantal uren zonneschijn, De Bilt, herfst 2009 Som herfst uur 334 = 34% (nor. 298 uur = 30 %) 30 Temperatuurverloop De Bilt, herfst 2009 herfst 11,7 C (normaal 10,2 C) Laagste -1,5 C (15-10), hoogste 27,6 C (8-9) uren Graden Celsius maximale mogelijke duur etmaalsom gem.temp min.temp max.temp normaal Hoeveelheid neerslag, De Bilt, herfst 2009 Som herfst 243 mm (normaal 230 mm) millimeters etmaalsommen vijf tot zeven graden boven de normale waarde voor de tijd van het jaar. Deze temperaturen komen normaal voor in de eerste helft van mei. Koud is het in november op geen enkele dag geweest. Alleen in de vroege ochtend van 8 november en late avond van de 30e kwam het plaatselijk tot lichte vorst. Neerslag Met gemiddeld over het land 219 mm neerslag tegen 235 mm normaal had de herfst vrijwel de normale hoeveelheid neerslag. De herfst begon droog met in september landelijk gemiddeld 30 mm tegen 75 mm normaal. Maar de regionale verschillen waren groot; in het zuidwesten van het land viel op een aantal plaatsen minder dan 15 mm neerslag. In een smalle strook van t Gooi naar Apeldoorn viel 65 tot 75 mm. Tijdens de eerste vijf dagen van de maand viel landelijk bezien 23 mm van de totale maandsom van 30 mm. In oktober viel 71 mm tegen 78 mm normaal. November was juist nat met landelijk gemiddeld 118 mm tegen een langjarig gemiddelde van 82 mm. De meeste neerslag viel in oktober in de Achterhoek en Limburg. Dat had alles te maken met zware buien die op 7 oktober vooral in deze gebieden 50 tot 75 mm neerslag achterlieten. Het natste KNMIstation was Ell met een maandtotaal van 125 mm. De minste neerslag viel in het noordwestelijk kustgebied. Dat is a-typisch voor een herfstmaand, waarin het kustgebied normaal gesproken juist het natst is. Terschelling was met 34 mm het droogste KNMI-station. Met gemiddeld over het land 118 mm tegen een langjarig gemiddelde van 82 mm, was november nat. De vele opeenvolgende depressies brachten vrijwel iedere dag wel enige neerslag. Op de 23e veroorzaakte een actieve randstoring vooral in het zuiden zware buien. Daar viel in een brede strook 40 tot 55 mm neerslag. Bovendien gingen de buien plaatselijk vergezeld van onweer en zeer zware windstoten tot ca. 100 km/uur. Ook op 18 november stond er veel wind. Een depressie die over de Noordzee oostwaarts trok, veroorzaakte in het noordwesten enige tijd storm, kracht 9. Zonneschijn Met gemiddeld over het land 327 zonuren tegen normaal 302 was de herfst aan de zonnige kant. September was een zonnige maand met landelijk gemiddeld 161 zonuren tegen 136 normaal. In oktober werden 113 zonuren geregistreerd tegen 105 normaal, in november 54 tegen 60 normaal. De herfst was het zonnigst in het zuidwesten. Vlissingen noteerde 362 zonuren. Eelde was het somberste KNMI-station met 296 uren. In De Bilt scheen de zon 334 uren tegen 298 normaal. Normaal = het langjarig gemiddelde over het tijdvak MIM January

14 NOAA S CLIMATE DATABASE MODERNIZATION PROGRAM (CDMP): Sailing to the Future with Historical Marine Observations J. Eric Freeman, T. F. Ross, National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC, USA The Climate Database Modernization Program (CDMP) is a program of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) designed to preserve historic climate and environmental data and make them available online. Under the auspices of NO- AA s National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), the world s largest active environmental data archive, CDMP works with national and international agencies to preserve historic records, some dating back to the mid-eighteenth century. CDMP preserves various types of data including: surface marine/terrestrial weather observations, upper air observations, biological data, historic photographs, plus much more. Although CDMP preserves a wide variety of environmental data, there is also a long term commitment to digitize marine observations and make them available to national and international databases. Working with the US Voluntary Observing Ships (VOS) program, CDMP digitizes all delayed-mode observations from participating ships that are recorded on handwritten, paper forms. The forms are imaged, keyed and then made available online. Similarly, Canadian VOS records have also been digitized by CDMP. The data is archived in its original format and also translated to various formats for blending into global ocean databases, such as the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Dataset (ICOADS: (Woodruff et al. 1987). Many new and existing NOAA and international projects are planned for blending into ICOADS in the future as outlined in the figure below (Woodruff, 2009). The data will then be used for climate monitoring and related studies. CDMP strives to locate early US ship logbooks held at various national archives and institutions and also works with international partners to digitize logbooks which may be held in their archives. A significant project in 2007 rescued 1.5 million marine observations from UK Royal Navy logbooks around WWII, (Brohan et al. 2008). This is a major contribution in a period where weather records were very sparse. A current international project aims to digitize early instrumental records from the original East India Company logbooks held at the UK s British Library. Observations from these logbooks will extend marine instrumental records back to the year Since marine instrumental records are few and far between before 1850, daily observations of tempera- ture and pressure will dramatically extend coverage in this early period. In addition to digitizing climate and environmental data, CDMP also preserves historic observing practices and metadata by imaging various reference manuals and instructional materials for observers, national and international. This includes items such as the National Weather Service Observing Handbook No. 1 Marine Surface Weather Observations and the WMO s ship metadata publication WMO-No. 47 International List of Selected, Supplementary and Auxiliary Ships. Rare books such as M.F. Maury s Explanations and Sailing Directions to Accompany the Wind and Current Charts are also imaged due to their significance in early marine observing practices, which have helped to shape the way observations are taken today. Images from CDMP projects are available online through the Environmental Data Access and Display System (EDADS), developed by one of CDMP s private partners. The images are user and password protected and restricted to government and educational institutions. Database details and access information can be located through CDMP s website (http://www. ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/cdmp/cdmp. html) or by contacting Cindy Karl Marine observations digitized in CDMP projects will also be available free of charge through NCDC s Climate Data 14 MIM January 2010

15 Logbook image from the East India Company Ship Berwickshire. CDMP is currently Sample image from the Maury Journal involved in an international effort to digitize East India Company logbooks held (German) Cabinet.. at the British Library. Online system (http://www7.ncdc.noaa. gov/cdo/cdomarineselect.jsp). In support of NOAA s mission to understand and predict changes in Earth s environment, CDMP will continue its vital role in rescuing, archiving, and digitizing historical data to provide invaluable sources of information to the global research community. As more untapped sources of historic marine observations, instructional materials, and marine publications are routinely being discovered, the possibilities to extend marine records (instrumental and non-instrumental) are vast. With the help of programs like CDMP, the past is being revealed and preserved and made available, virtually, for all future generations. The article was produced by NOAA/ CDMP and was originally published in the US VOS publication Mariners Weather Log (April 2009). Affiliations: Freeman Sourcecorp/ CDMP/NCDC, Ross NOAA/NES- DIS/NCDC Contact: References: Brohan, P., R. Allan, J.E. Freeman, A.M. Waple, D. Wheeler, C. Wilkinson, and S. Woodruff, 2008: Marine observations of old weather. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Early online release, doi: /2008bams Woodruff, S., E. Freeman, C. Wilkinson et al, ICOADS Marine Data Rescue: Status and Future CDMP Priorities. Online at noaa.gov/reclaim/pdf/marine-data-rescue_v15.pdf Woodruff, S. D., R. J. Slutz, R. L. Jenne, and P. M. Steurer, 1987: A Comprehensive Ocean- Atmosphere Data Set. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 68 (10), MIM January

16 M.H. Jansen Certificates During the past period were 46 M.H. Jansen Certificates awarded for 50 OBS, 7 for 250 and 3 for 500 OBS. Together with the 250 and 500 certificates a set of pens and a coat of arms were awarded respectively as well. The PMO-Office would like to congratulate the officers and apprentices who have received a certificate from us this time. Anthony Veder Rederijzaken Gachkevych V. Langeveld J. Leonov D.O. Novickis J.N. Vainovskis V.O 2 Mudakarana G Flinter Groningen B.V. Boykov J. Duiker A.H. Holland America Line Barker A.N. Beirnaert K.M.M.D. Kalkman N. Peteroff R.C.A. 2 Williams C.D. Jo Tankers B.V. Bagual R.B. Magno P. Spoolder S. 2 Fillekes E.H. Kahn Scheepvaart B.V. James B.B. Maersk Ship Management Capelle van D.A.A. Carstensen J.L. Cartagena A.C.J.R. Codamon C.K. Kuhlman J.H.D. Mejorada A.S. Prahoveanu N.I. Quiachon F.E. Santos R.P.S. Shukla A. 500 OBS: Meilink J.H. Oldendorff Carriers Pinchukoff A.A. Ycoy M. Rederij Bark Europa B.V. Bouma S. Seatrade Groningen B.V. Alfeche E.C. Bogdanu S.T. Coyoca E.T. Giletskiy S. Karelse F. Kuznetsov D.V. Nikishov D.N. Prikhod ko M.A. Thanhtai T.T. 2 Korzhov I.V. Pacursa H.S Svitzer Ocean Towage B.V. Drent K. Veen van der M.J.W. 2 Pronk A.C. Spliethoff Beheer B.V. Ermakov V. Khitin P.V. Koers M.G. 2 Booij J.F. 500 OBS: Maters L.F.M. Zon van E.M.P. Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut Vroon B.V. Bentov C.L. Bezuijen I. Salinas D.O. Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut Instituut Instituut Meteorologisch Meteorologisch Nederlands Koninklijk Wagenborg Scheepvaart B.V. Castillo J.G.S. 16 MIM January 2010 Konink

17 RESULTS The list always refers to the past 12 months dec jan feb mrt apr mei juni juli aug sep okt nov Total AALSMEERGRACHT PCAM ACHTERGRACHT PCCL ADMIRALENGRACHT PCDE AFRICABORG PHMH AGULHAS STREAM PJKV ALBLASGRACHT PCIG ALEXANDERGRACHT PCKU AMERICABORG PHKT AMSTELGRACHT PCPR ANJELIERSGRACHT PCGQ ANKERGRACHT PCQL ANTILLA PJJI APOLLOGRACHT PCSV ARCHANGELGRACHT PCTG ARDEA PCHW ARNEBORG PHHD ARTISGRACHT PCUI ARUBA PJJH ASIABORG PHIW ASIATIC C6KE ATLANTICBORG PHNG ATLASGRACHT PCVX AVATAQ PFPT BASTIAAN BROERE PCZM BENGUELA STREAM PENR BERGE PACIFIC LAIK BERGE STAHL LATO BUZZARD BAY A8JH COLD STREAM PJRH COMOROS STREAM A8IP COOL EXPRESS PDKK CORAL CARBONIC TBA CORAL FAVIA TBA CORAL MEANDRA TBA CORAL METHANE CORAL MILLEPORA TBA CORAL OBELIA TBA CORAL PALMATA TBA CORAL PAVONA ELXG CORAL RIGIDA TBA CORAL RUBRUM TBA DANIELLA PDNN DUTCH AQUAMARINE PCHS DUTCH EMERALD PCIP DUTCH FAITH PDTM DUTCH MARINER PDTT DUTCH MATE PDTQ DUTCH NAVIGATOR PDTP DUTCH PROGRESS PDTV DUTCH SPIRIT PDTO EAGLE BAY A8JH EDAMGRACHT PDWZ EDISONGRACHT PDUJ EDITH MAERSK OXOR EEMSGRACHT PDXQ EENDRACHT PDVN EGELANTIERSGRACHT PDWT EGMONDGRACHT PDWG ELANDSGRACHT PDYI ELLY MAERSK OXHY ELSEBETH A8IO ELVIRA A8IP EMERALD A8IP EMMAGRACHT PDYX EMMA MAERSK OYGR ERASMUSGRACHT PDYV ESMERALDA A8IN MIM January

18 dec jan feb mrt apr mei juni juli aug sep okt nov Total EUROGRACHT PDZR EUROPA PDZS EVA N A8QJ EVELYN MAERSK OXHV FAIRLANE PBFW FAIRLIFT PEBM FAIRLOAD PEBP FAIRMAST PHEB FAIRPARTNER PHEC FALCON BAY A8JI FLINTERDUIN PEBT HAPPY BUCCANEER PEND HAPPY RANGER PCER HAPPY RIVER PCAW HAPPY ROVER PCBZ HAWK BAY A8JH HOLLAND KLIPPER PESF IVER EXACT PHJV IVER EXCEL PCBU IVER EXPERIENCE PECF IVER EXPERT PCEX IVER EXPORTER PFBF JACOBUS BROERE PEYU JO SYCAMORE LAOO JOHANNES MAERSK OWFDZ JOINT FROST PJOJ JUMBO CHALLENGER PHED JUMBO SPIRIT PFFH JUMBO VISION PBBG KLIPPER STREAM PHBO LAURA MAERSK OWKI LICA MAERSK OWAY LOMBOK STRAIT A8IO LONDON PCBI LUZON STRAIT A81O MAERSK INNOSHIMA PHPP MAERSK INVERNESS PBDH MAERSK IZMIR PHOB MAERSK KALMAR PDHP MAERSK KAMPALA PFDH MAERSK KIMI PDHO MAERSK KLAIPEDA PBAS MAERSK PALERMO PHDW MAERSK PEMBROKE PDHY MAERSK PENANG TBA MAERSK SALALAH PHPG MAERSK SALINA PHPR MAERSK SAVANNAH PHPS MAERSK STEPNICA PHNH MAERSK STOCKHOLM PHPQ MAGDALENA GREEN PBCK MAKIRI GREEN C6VX MARINUS GREEN PECS MARISSA GREEN PBAG MARLENE GREEN PBCJ MIGHTY SERVANT 1 PJVZ NASSAUBORG PHDU NICKERIE PJJL NLL BARENTSZ PHKL NLL MERCATOR PCIM NOVA CALEDONIA 9HIH NOVA TERRA C6IZ NOVA ZEELANDIA PJHA ORANJEBORG PIAG PACIFIC PGQI PELAGIA PGRQ POLARSTREAM DDBR MIM January 2010

19 dec jan feb mrt apr mei juni juli aug sep okt nov Total PRINCE OF SEAS A8JI PRINSENBORG PBJF PRINS J. WILLEM FRISO TBA RHONEBORG PEDS ROTTERDAM PDGS ROTTERDAM (smitwijs) PHPO ROYAL KLIPPER PCIH RUHR NEU A8KU SAIMAAGRACHT PHCQ SAMPOGRACHT PHDL SANTA LUCIA A8IP SANTA MARIA A8IN SCHELDEGRACHT PFAQ SCHIPPERSGRACHT PCGR SINGAPORE PHHB SINGELGRACHT PCGM SLOTERGRACHT PDBP SLUISGRACHT PFBE SNOEKGRACHT PCHF SPAARNEGRACHT PDBO SPIEGELGRACHT PCEO SPRING BOB PCBT SPRING BOK PBFM SPRING DELI PJFF SPRING PANDA PHQX SPRING TIGER PCBV SPUIGRACHT PBBB STAD AMSTERDAM PECA STADIONGRACHT PDBY STATENGRACHT PHAQ STELLA NOVA PHQW STELLA PRIMA PHEA SUOMIGRACHT PHBT TIMCA PHFL TIMOR STREAM A8IN TRACER PHAC TRAMPER PHAA TRANSPORTER PHAL TRAVELLER PHAM UAL ABERDEEN PBHZ UAL TEXAS PBEN UMIA VUT PFQE SUM ROYAL NAVY - From the participating navy vessels 801 observations were received via de GTS. THE FLEET THE FLEET During the fourth quarter of 2009 six ships stopped making observations: the Stella Wega, the Jumbo Javelin, the Jo Spruce, the Jo Cedar, the Jo Selje and the Jo Sypress. We would like to welcome two new ships: the Agulhas Stream and the Jumbo Vision. Change of names: none. The Dutch VOS-fleet is made up of 183 Selected Ships and 31 Royal Navy ships. MIM January

20 10 TOP RANKING 2009 The Top 10 list looks at the calander year. There will always be a difference in number of OBS s with the list of results. January Sum 1 KLIPPER STREAM ROTTERDAM PELAGIA ANKERGRACHT NOVA CALEDONIA TRAMPER DUTCH EMERALD EDAMGRACHT TRAVELLER ATLASGRACHT Febuary Sum 1 KLIPPER STREAM PELAGIA ROTTERDAM NASSAUBORG EDAMGRACHT CORAL MILLEPORA SAIMAAGRACHT TRAMPER IVER EXACT ROYAL KLIPPER March Sum April Sum 1 KLIPPER STREAM PELAGIA ROTTERDAM NASSAUBORG DUTCH AQUAMARINE EDAMGRACHT SAIMAAGRACHT DUTCH EMERALD IVER EXACT LICA MAERSK KLIPPER STREAM PELAGIA DUTCH AQUAMARINE HAPPY RIVER ROTTERDAM NASSAUBORG SAIMAAGRACHT EDAMGRACHT HAWK BAY LICA MAERSK MIM January 2010

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