Vocational And Technical Education From The Eyes Of An Instructor1

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1 Mevlana International Journal of Education (MIJE) Vol. 4(2), pp , August, 2014 Available online at Vocational And Technical Education From The Eyes Of An Instructor1 Mehmet Arif Ozerbas Gazi University, Faculty of Education, Department of Elementary Education, Ankara, Turkey Article history Received: Received in revised form: Accepted: Key words: Vocational and technical education, Modular Teaching Program, Sector Canan Ucar MEB Teacher, Ankara, Turkey The aim of this study is to define the opinions of instructors about the current situation of vocational and technical education in our country and their perspectives on the problems that they encounter in vocational and technical education. A qualitative approach was used in this study and the sample of the study consists of 6 instructors who work in Gazi University, Gazi Vocational School of Higher Education and Atatürk School of Higher Education in city center of Ankara. This is a case study of qualitative approach of which aim is to define the opinions of instructors about the current situation of vocational and technical education in our country and their perspectives on the problems that they encounter in vocational and technical education and interlocking case study model was used. In order to gather the data standardized openended interview form was used and the data was analyzed by the content analysis method. It is stated in the study that a revision is needed in vocational and technical education and the complaints of the instructors about vocational and technical education should be taken into consideration. Also it was seen that all of the participants find the modular teaching program up-to-date and they support it. Especially it was state that EU supported projects are important and they should increasingly continue. Introduction In its broadest meaning, vocational and technical education is the process of balanced development of individual in intellectual, emotional, social, economic and personal aspects by helping to gain knowledge, skills, manner and professional practice needed for an occupation imperative for personal and social life (Şahinkesen, 1992: 691). When contemporary vocational and technical education system is concerned, there are two education models at hand. These are full-time vocational education and apprenticeship education models (Anapa, 2008). The continuous increase of knowledge and constant renewal of technology in parallel with the development of science affects every country's education process. Therefore, education programmes need to be up to date and education and teaching environments must be suitable with the terms of the period. Especially, the needs of society and employment fields of the country shouldn't be neglected in the development of vocational and technical 1 Ijonte symposium held in Antalya between May of this article is presented as papers. Dr.Associate professor in the field of Educational Technology. Working areas of instructional design, distance learning, e- learning, information technologies and new approaches to teaching and learning are themes such as. Contact: Gazi University, Faculty of Education, Department of Elementary Education, K-block Z-26 Besevler Ankara. Tel: Fax: ,228,483.

2 Mevlana International Journal of Education (MIJE), 4(2); 12-26, 1 August, 2014 education programmes; for vocational and technical education schools and institutions are charged with providing the students it graduates as skilled workers for the sector. Developed countries consider it important that individuals whom they train in vocational and technical education have the basic skills to understand and use technology, have the ability to communicate and solve problems and have the discipline to work in cooperation. Ninth Quinquennial Development Plan ( ) is very important for vocational and technical education in today's Turkey. According to Ninth Quinquennial Development Plan (2006) as a result of the lack of program integrity between polytechnics and secondary vocational and technical schools and inability to update vocational and technical programmes according to needs of labor market, employment of vocational education graduates cannot be increased and graduates' demand for vocational education decreases. For this reason, it's stated in the plan that in vocational and technical education will be transformed to modular and flexible system; vocational education in higher and secondary levels will be converted into single structure based on programme integrity; applied training, which has important place in educating qualified workforce, will be emphasised in vocational education. It's highlighted that vocational education system will train students who'll have the basic skills like teamwork, decision making and problem solving and taking responsibility which are demanded by labor market(d.k.p, 2006:40). Institutional changes were made in the field of vocational education and training during EU membership process. National Agency which will take responsibility in EU Community Programs participation and Professional Competency Board which sets essential standards for successful performing of a profession were established. National Agency was ordered to form a legal infrastructure to promote, coordinate and carry out Community Programs. Professional Competency Board was founded to provide equivalence by specifying national profession standards and to enable execution of licensing and certification systems (Anapa, 2008:117 ). However, cause of lack of expected success in secondary vocational and technical education despite all these efforts is assumed as inability of physical infrastructure to meet the increasing demand. According to Updated Status Analysis in Vocational and Technical Education prepared by Koç Holding (2012), as of school year, in secondary vocational and technical education institutions there were 18 students per teacher, and 38 students per classroom. This sharp increase in number of students per classroom can be tied to making of only classrooms for secondary education in Whereas, as was stated in Education Monitoring Report 2008, in order that in every province the number of students per classroom be 30 at most when schooling in secondary education reaches 90%, thousand classes will be needed. Moreover, since some portion of general high schools will be converted to anatolian high schools, and the rest will be converted to vocational and technical high schools including imam hatip high schools in the next three years, changes in coefficiency application in university entrance exam and as a result of this, rise in demand for vocational and technical secondary education will increase the number of students per classroom. It's thought that this situation will negatively affect learning and teaching processes. Problem What are thoughts of vocational and technical education lecturers about vocational and technical education's current situation in Turkey and what are their views on problems experienced in vocational and technical education? What are the opinions of vocational and technical education instructors about the current situation of vocational and technical -13-

3 Vocational And Technical Education M.A. Ozerbas & C. Ucar education in our country and what are their perspectives of the problems they encounter during vocational and technical education? Sub-Problems Vocational and technical education lecturers/ instructors; (1) Thoughts about vocational and technical education's current situation in Turkey. (2) Their views about problems experienced in vocational and technical education. Methodology Research Model Case study, which is one of qualitative research methodologies, was used in the study to determine thoughts of vocational and technical education lecturers about vocational and technical education's current situation in Turkey and their views on problems experienced in vocational and technical education. Case study can be used in examining contemporary events within their own life frameworks and when there is multiple evidence or data source. In other words, case study is used when researcher wants to investigate the intended situation in depth and detail by concentrating on questions why? and how? (Yin, 2003). In this study, embedded case study was used as a design, which is one of case study designs. In embedded case study, there may be multiple sub-layers or sub-units within one single case (Yıldırım & Şimşek, 2005). In present study, approached single case is views of lecturers of Faculty of Technology and Gazi Polytechnic about vocational and technical education system. The sub-units of analysis of this case consist of Faculty of Technology (machinery, metal, automotive) and Polytechnic ( levelling, woodwork, metal cutting). The in-depth analyse of defined sub-analyse units' embedded structure is thought to explain study case in detail. With this purpose in mind, drawing conclusions regarding the whole study case were attempted from data obtained separately from sub-analyse units (faculty and polytechnic). Study was performed with lecturers (3 Professors, 2 Associate Professors and 1 prelector) in the fall semester of academic year at Faculty of Technology, Gazi University, Atatürk and Gazi Polytechnics, City of Ankara. Convenience sampling, one of the methods of purposeful sampling, was used in the study. Data Collecting Method Data in the study was collected through Standardized Open Ended Interview Questionnaire. This approach consists from a set of carefully written and specifically arranged questions and addressed to every participant in the same manner and order (Yıldırım & Şimşek, 2000:96). Questions in interview questionnaire were prepared to research thoughts of vocational and technical education lecturers about vocational and technical education's current situation in Turkey and their views on problems experienced in vocational and technical education. Submission and verification of standardized open ended interview questionnaire by specialist is an important criterion which provides credibility to study. Within this scope, two prelectors from university, five teachers from polytechnic and 10 teachers from vocational and technical secondary education institution were consulted. Another point that adds credibility is that participants' opinions are showed in Findings section by means of direct citation. Hence, teachers' opinions are quoted as they were. Attention was paid to make questions clear and explicit for teachers and not to make questions -14-

4 Mevlana International Journal of Education (MIJE), 4(2); 12-26, 1 August, 2014 complicated, obscure and in uncertain terms. According to Yıldırım & Şimşek (2006) this way, it was intended to prevent credibility and validity from negative effects. During the interview, participants' answers were t down and only one participant's interview was both written down and recorded by his permission. Interview questionnaire consists of 6 standardized open ended questions. Interview were performed in lecturers' rooms in Faculty of Technology and in Polytechnic and lasted 30 minutes on average. Voice record was made during the interviews which were then transcribed and sent to interviewed lecturers for control and were approved by them. Questions in questionnaire were arranged from different types of questions so as to let respondents. The questions in the interview form were prepared as easy to understand, open ended, detailed and explanatory in order to grasp the participants opinions about research problems. Respondents ' confirmation was received for validity of data collecting method. Interviews with lecturers were based on voluntariness and to ensure their sincerity in answering the questions, it was stated that their names will be kept confident and will never be disclosed. Yıldırım & Şimşek (2006) emphasize that volunteering of participants is important to ensure validity and credibility of study. For this reason, importance of the study and its contribution to vocational and technical education were explained. According to Yıldırım & Şimşek (2006) another important point for the validity of data collection method is collection of data in detailed, one to one interviews. Another important point is that the thoughts and perspectives put forward by instructors were consistent with the research questions.hence, comfortable atmosphere was created so that lecturers could comment on problems experienced in vocational and technical education and their suggestions on solutions. All these are accepted to be criteria proving internal validity of study. Validity and Credibility In qualitative study, validity is concerned with accuracy of scientific findings, while credibility is connected with the ability to repeat scientific findings (Yıldırım & Şimşek, 2005). In this direction, to improve the reliability and validity of the research, some measures have been taken. a) In order to increase internal validity of study (credibility), conceptual framework pertaining to the subject was formed by investigation of the related literature during interview questionnaire development. After the interview, participants' speeches were transcribed and these texts were again sent to respective participants for control and thus, participant confirmation was received. Moreover, in performed content analysis, attempt was made to define themes as wide as possible to cover related concepts and as narrow as possible to leave the irrelevant concepts out. Integrity was achieved by controlling relations between these themes and sub-themes that constitute themes and relation of every single theme with other themes. On the other hand, interviews were performed with permission and support of deanship of Faculty of Technology and directorate of Polytechnic and preliminary interviews made in courtesy visits to lecturers before interviews were an important factor in maintaining mutual confidence. Thus, it was ensured that the data collected during interviews would reflect the factual situation. Böylece görüşme sürecinde toplanan verilerin gerçek durumu yansıtması sağlanmıştır. b) In order to increase external validity (transferability) of study, an attempt was made to explain the study process and steps carried out during this study in detail. In this context, study model, work group, data collecting method, data collecting process, analysis and interpretation of data were described in detail. -15-

5 Vocational And Technical Education M.A. Ozerbas & C. Ucar c) In order to increase internal credibility (dependability) of study, all findings were presented directly, without interpretation. Moreover, researcher and qualitative study specialist independently coded the data obtained from interviews and consistency ratio was calculated by comparing these codes. d) In order to increase external credibility (confirmability) of study, researcher described the steps carried out during the process in detail. Analysis of Data Inductive approach was used to analyse data obtained from the study. Inductive approach is used to uncover through coding concepts underlying the data and relations between these concepts ( Yıldırım & Şimsek 2005). Inductive approach was carried out in three stages. In the first stage, data obtained as recording was transcribed. In the second stage, researcher and qualitative study specialist independently coded the data. Data obtained from lecturers was studied by coding and points important for study were determined. Corresponding codes in researcher's and specialist's codings were taken as a base in reaching themes. Data was classified under these categories and was made meaningful for reader. Findings Question 1: What do you think about vocational and technical education? Responses given by participants are presented in Table 1. Table 1. Analytical Results of Participants' Responses to Question 1 CATEGORIES Participants Actuality of Programme Positive Aspects of Programme Negative Aspects of Programme K 1 K 2 K 3 Not up to date Not up to date Not up to date Heading towards professional specialisation started as modular education programme has been adopted Programme studies are assisted by projects supported by EU within the EU harmonization process. At the present time, many efforts are taking place to structure the programmes. It's assertive that within the programme there are both core curriculum and technical courses. There are errors and mistakes in modular education programme implementations. Programme should be based on mutual aspects of profession family. Curriculum in vocational schools resembles that of vocational courses. Programme should be revised by specialists. Even though programme studies are supported by EU projects, programme haven't achieved its goal. There are mistakes in modular education programme implementations. Core curriculum courses have extensive place in the programme. Programme should be formed taking into account student profiles since vocational education is generally preffered by students whose academic performance is low. -16-

6 Mevlana International Journal of Education (MIJE), 4(2); 12-26, 1 August, 2014 K 4 K 5 K 6 Not up to date Not up to date Not up to date Today, many efforts are taking place to structure the programmes. Contents of modules which will prepare individual to professional life are appropriate. Purpose is to become a bridge between individual and his professional life. Amaç bireyin iş hayatıyla köprü vazifesini sağlamak. Applied section of the programme is carried out by school industry cooperation with internship support. Programların uygulamalı tarafı okul-sanayi işbirliği ile stajlarla desteklenerek yürütülmektedir. Theoretical section of programme predominates over applied section because of infrastructure incapability. There is a need for updates in programmes. The outputs of the programmes couldn't be fully evaluated. Educational level taught to students isn't discussed, thus isn't reflected to programmes When Table 1 is examined, it can be seen that participants' responses to Question 1 is clustered in three main subjects. There are: Programme Actuality, Positive Aspects of the Programme and Negative Aspects of the Programme. Every and each participant argued that programme needs to be updated. When positive aspects of the programme are examined, two of the participants emphasized that modular educational programme is supported by efforts with the words Today, many efforts are taking place to structure the programmes. Other participants evaluate programme's positive aspects from different points of view, as can be seen in Table 3. When negative aspects of the programme are examined, two of the participants complain about modular educational programme implementation with the words there are errors and mistakes in modular education programme implementations. When answers given by participants to first question are examined, we see that secondary vocational and technical education programmes lack actuality. We believe that the insufficiencies in programme's implementing can be eliminated only by constantly evaluating the programme and keeping the modules up to date and by resolving infrastructure deficiencies. Despite the programme's negative aspects, its supportive nature of school industry cooperation and its preparation of an individual for life by giving qualifications through programme activities supported by projects are viewed as important. Question 2: How are the environments where vocational and technical education is taught and materials used must be? Responses given by participants to Question 2 are presented in Table

7 Vocational And Technical Education M.A. Ozerbas & C. Ucar Table 2. Analytical Results of Participants' Responses to Question 2 CATEGORIES Participants Applied Education Financial Possibility Use of Technology K 1 K 2 K 3 K 4 K 5 K 6 Even though instruments cannot be procured by schools, they are offered to students at business enterprises. Applied training which suits sector's needs must be given. There aren't suitable environments for applied education in accordance with modular education programme. There are schools that were opened without establishing substructure. There isn't suitable environment for applied education in accordance with modular education programme. Applied training section must be emphasized by project and production engineerings, experience must be transferred to technical personnel. It's difficult for student to construe the subject due to the lack of equipment. There isn't suitable environment for applied education in accordance with modular education programme. Law no came into effect for equipment training that can't be afforded by schools due to financial problems. Students are directed to business enterprises. Inability to purchase some equipments because of financial difficulties requires cooperation with industry. Students redirected to business enterprises. There are difficulties in infrastructure because of finances. Infrastructure must be improved by transferring resources to schools. There are difficulties in infrastructure because of finances. There is no need to push limits by saying that there aren't devices in schools which match today's technology. Logic of the equipments must be taught to the students. Value of the country must be appreciated by correctly using what is accessible. Necessary devices, test and measure equipment can't be used due to budget deficiency. In order to keep tabs on technology, companies give their employees synchronous or asynchronous in-service training. Within Megep project, expensive equipments training to students is given through distance education. With constant increase in knowledge, it's necessary to use technology in education. With constant increase in knowledge, it's necessary to use technology in education. Some companies are organizing their own vocational and technical education systems so as to facilitate adaptation to technology. There are schools which don't have equipment suitable with technology and metric system used in the country. Instead of buying new equipment as technology advances, R&D centres must be established or use of these equipments must be taught in places where internship is done. Slideshow and video supported instruction is limited. -18-

8 Mevlana International Journal of Education (MIJE), 4(2); 12-26, 1 August, 2014 When Table 2 is examined, it can be seen that participants' responses to Question 2 are grouped in three main topics. These are divided into Applied Education, Financial Resource and Use of Technology. Bearing in mind the environments where vocational and technical education is taught and materials used should be; under the Applied Education category, three participants complain about environment where vocational and technical education is given by words There isn't suitable environment for applied training considering modular education programme. Even though there are different evaluations under the Financial Possibility category, two participants complained about general infrastructure deficiency in schools due to financial impossibilities by words There are difficulties in infrastructure because of finances. Two participants indicated that students are able to use some of the equipments in industry owing to school industry cooperation by words students are directed to business firms. Following words of participant K4 who mentions infrastructure difficulties are striking: There is no need to argue about the fact that right now infrastructure is not suitable for applied education. Absolutely and clearly its not providing even 10% of intented applied education. Vocational schools' conditions are even ahead of many universities because in vocational schools, workshops and infrastructure where they can ply on that field, are received by Ministry of Education in finished condition, then installed and then a section is opened. In universities, there is no such thing; moreover, you don't have any chance of forming an infrastructure based on YÖK (Counsil of Higher Education)'s budget. You don't have the possibility of getting an equipment. Chances are few; you can only obtain through projects. Under the category Use of Technology, respectively, following sentences of participants K2, K5 and K6 are remarkable: Participant K2: Fast advance of the informatics enabled very important progress in mechanization. Because of this, education environments and technology must be definitely used, must keep up with rapid development of the sector and suitable education must be given by maintaining further unity with sector. Participant K5: If we look at workshops, we can see that vocational and technical education is an expensive education. There are very expensive equipments. For example, one device is worth $1 million. It's not wise to continuously buy such expensive devices. For this, R&D centres can be established or student can be sent to ASELSAN and so on for internship. I know that by working in industrial establishments during summer internships plus one semester, students make contributions and get training at the highest level of technology Participant K6: If not visually supported by slideshows and videos, it would be hard for students to comprehend, imaginary and would be very difficult to explain only through abstract forms shaped in their imagination. When answers given by participants to second question are examined, there aren't suitable environments in schools for carrying out the implementation of modular education programme and there is shortage of equipment in schools; however there are participants who have different points of view for the problem. Even though schools lack infrastructure, bringing all the equipment and instruments to schools so as to carry out implementation of modules in vocational and technical education would mean forcing of financial situation of our country and for this reason, cooperation of schools with industry becomes important at this point. Students should make sufficient hands-on-training with instruments they can't find in their schools during internship period. Even the teachers should use these industrial environments to become familiar with instruments suited for new technologies. -19-

9 Vocational And Technical Education M.A. Ozerbas & C. Ucar Question 3: What should be the cooperation of vocational and technical education schools with industry? Responses given by participants are presented in Table 3. Table 3. Analytical Results of Participants' Responses to Question 3 CATEGORIES Participants K 1 K 2 K 3 K 4 K 5 K 6 School Industry Cooperation Law no anticipates school industry cooperation By this regulation student and teacher have the opportunity to handle infrequently used equipment. Cooperation is unavoidable due to fast development of technology and schools' inability to follow it up financially. Opening schools in organized industrial parks is important. Lack of financing. Schools' adaptation to technology is difficult. Private sector must give support. Handling contemporary problems in industry is important for training qualified personnel. Important activities for cooperation should be put into practice. Output of universities must unite with industry. It's important both for training qualified personnel and to address student's employment problems after graduation. When Table 3 is examined, every participant made different evaluations in single School Industry Cooperation category. Of these, most remarkable are evaluations made by participants K1, K3 and K4. Participant K1: Apprenticeship and Vocational Education Law anticipates cooperation between school and industry. This law enables performing of practical training in business firms. Also, here teachers have the opportunity to see and familiarize with machines that they use more rarely. Theoretical deficiencies are eliminated in establishments. Participant K3: Private sector's support of vocational technical education and having schools for its own demands. Vocational technical education needs to be privatized, supported by scholarships and needs to be employment guaranteed. It have to teach foreign language. ASO (Ankara Chamber of Industry) and Sincan Organized Industry Park have appealing projects on this matter. For example, enterpreunership courses are given for 2 to 3 months, then you announce business ideas contest and support the most successful ones. These enterpreunership programmes should continue and become widespread. Participant K4: Let's think about it: let me give simple example. You'll speak about cogwheel design. Now, instead of explaining this cogwheel design theoretically, or with the help of simulator or computer, you Now, let s think: let me give a simple example, if you are teaching a screwed design, it would be much more meaningful to teach it in the real environment that it was produced rather than teaching it theoretically, with simulators or in the computer environment. Think of the automotive department, the students graduate without seeing an engine. Instead of learning on paper, it would be more meaningful for them to remove and reinstall the engine parts, test in and make it work. When you give them an actual broken engine they will fix it and learn the job. -20-

10 Mevlana International Journal of Education (MIJE), 4(2); 12-26, 1 August, 2014 When participants' answers to third question are examined, technology advances continuously and its getting very difficult for schools to obtain every developed equipment due to insufficient financing alloted to schools. Therefore, Regulation no have been the turning point for school industry cooperation and this law is very important for school industry cooperation. Considering this importance, activities to strengthen cooperation should be implemented and supported. Training of qualified personnel requires continuation of the cooperation. Question 4: What are the problems encountered by teachers and lecturers working in vocational and technical education institutions? Responses given by participants are presented in Table 4. Table 4. Analytical Results of Participants' Responses to Question 4 Participants K 1 Lecture Payments/Wag es?ders Ücreti Teacher - coordinators who go to business firms have lecture wage problems. K K 3 K 4 K 5 There haven't been any improvement in teachers' financial conditions for years. Lecture wages are low. Lecture wages are low. Improvement should be made in lecture wages. CATEGORIES Keeping Up with Technology Teknolojinin Takibi Materials used in teaching traditional crafts are poor. Using technology in production is unavoidable. Educational institutions are distant to technology. Workshop environments should be relocated into industry. R&D Labs should be founded in technological faculties. Modular Education Modüler Eğitim There is a confusion about modular education. Exam making is unknown In order to reliably perform R&D activities, devices should be bought with support from the state. We should utilize the technology we have K Applied section of modular education is insufficient. When Table 4 is examined, it can be seen that participants' responses to Question 5 are grouped in three main subjects. These are divided into three as Lecture Wages, Keeping Up with Technology and Modular Education. Under the category Lecture Wages, the sentences of participants K1, K3 and K4 are remarkable: Participant K1: There are problems pertaining to education process and there are problems in business firms about coordinators' lecture wages. -21-

11 Vocational And Technical Education M.A. Ozerbas & C. Ucar Participant K3: There haven't been any improvement about teachers' financial conditions for years. Improvements are made to other professional institutions, so it needs to be made to ours, too. There haven't been any improvement for the last 10 years, possibility of travel for research purposes is restricted owing to financial problems. Participant K4: In vocational and technical education, apart from this general education payment policy, salaries are low, teachers feel obliged to give additional course hours in order to be able to live on. They can barely live on by giving 40 hours a week. It would be naivety to expect R&D from a teacher who gives 40 hours a week. There must be a proficiency in order to fall. How can something fall if it is absent? Is there any efficiency? Everyone's just trying to live on. A little beyond of this is selling cucumbers in the market. In the category Keeping Up with Technology participants K2 and K3 emphasized the need for keeping pace with technology. Participant K2: It's inevitable to use technology in production. Distancing of educational institutions from this fact created a gap between industry and educational institutions. Because of this gap, teachers can't keep on with technology creates deficiencies and difficulties. In order to close this gap workshops should be relocated into industry zones. Participant K3: It must have different mission as Faculty of Technology. Establishment of R&D laboratories is needed. There should be R&D laboratories where standart measurements can be performed. And in the category Modular Education participants K1 and K6 emphasized inadequate parts of education. Participant K1: Every section is not complete on its own, it's unknown how to make exams. Implemented modular education is not carried out properly. In fact, what they should complain about is non-actuality of modules. For example, hotel management. As they practice skills training in hotels, they must be following moduler up-to-date. Programme and material in traditional crafts are poor. Participant K6: Due to scantiness of educational equipments and instruments teacher explains theoretical segment of two-part education (other being applied segment); hovewer, since applicational segment is deficient, learning for student and instructing for teacher is incomplete. When answers given by participants to fourth question are examined, one of the problems encountered in vocational and technical education is salary policy. Wages paid to coordinating teachers who assist students during their internship in schools and also payments to instructors are issues of debate. According to research findings none of the instructors are satisfied with payment policy. Therefore, payment policy needs to be revised. Even if following the technology is second ne of the problems, they increase of knowledge day by day and its contributions to technology affects the vocational and technical education ; because it is important for learners to be qualified with the usage of new technological devices. For this reason, R&D studies gain significance. Another common problem found in research is modular education. It can be said from research findings that implementation of modular education is hard and there are difficulties in the evaluation of modular education. -22-

12 Mevlana International Journal of Education (MIJE), 4(2); 12-26, 1 August, 2014 Question 5: What are your thoughts about vocational and technical education in our country and do you have any propositions? Participants' answers to question 5 are given below. İt can be seen that participants' answers to the question are grouped under three main topics. These are divided into Employment of Students and Teacher Candidates, Vocational and Technical Education Projects and Qualities of Lecturers and Teachers. In the category Employment of Students and Teacher Candidates, words of participant K2 and K6 explain employment situation of vocational and technical education students in our country. Participant K2: Real outcome can't be achieved because there aren't industry and production maps and workforce demand analysis of our country. As a result, 92 out of 100 vocational and technical school graduates do not work (even though this is very expensive education), only as few as 8 % continue in profession for which they were trained. This situation must be solved without delay. Participant K6: Agreements should be made beforehand with some establishments for the employment of students after graduation (Doğuş Automotive Class). After, more simpler ways of employing students should be sought. In the category Vocational and Technical Education Projects participants K3 and K6 explained what projects mean for them. Participant K3: System is very centrical. Project are made but they don't have any value. Like EU Project or Seventh Framework Project but they don't have academic value. For example, UMEM Project. In private universities, you are rewarded for what you do; but in state universities it doesn't matter if you contributed to university through academic study or valuation. Moreover, universities should place their academician criteria correctly. Participant K6: Firms among small and medium scale industries which can't employ personnel due to financial deficiencies should be found and students should be supported to excel in their respective fields of occupation by making them to work here in their spare times and in technological aspect they should be encouraged to work synchoronously with vocational and technical education institution. This was experimented with various students and was reported to augment their performance in lessons. Labor force can be increased by writing European Union project on this subject. In the category Qualities of Lecturers and Teachers, two participants argued for must be continued with qualified lecturers. By examining participants' answers to.th question. Especially, teacher candidates who graduated from vocational and technical schools head towards other fields due to inability to perform their own professions; but candidates' inability to practice their profession negatively affects vocational and technical education and vocational and technical education is not valued as it deserves. When the answer to this question is examined it is seen that the employment problem of vocational technical education graduates should be solved. Activities with some institutions regarding employment of graduates in vocational and technical education and projects intended for vocational an technical education are becoming important. EU projects are spearheading in this area. Also, we see from research findings that there is a problem in training qualified teachers and lecturers. In training candidate teachers, there should be teacher training programme within vocational and technical education which will train qualified teachers and in-service training should be given to teachers. University staff must be supported to make project in their -23-

13 Vocational And Technical Education M.A. Ozerbas & C. Ucar respective fields and criteria should be revised. If its desired to continue with qualified lecturers and teachers, the outputs of our country's education system must be constantly evaluated and negative aspects should be improved by open discussions. Discussion In vocational and technical education institutions qualified personnel, who has important role in country's economic future, should be trained. Qualified personnel will form skilled workforce of the country and will be invaluable for efficient economy. Countried which made sound vocational and technical education plans possess qualified work force. Fundamental framework of vocational and technical education plan should be balanced development of individual in intellectual, emotional, social, economic and personal aspects. Individuals trained by vocational andd technical education live on by professing their own jobs while contribute to country's economy, is aware that he has guaranteed job, develop themselves to advance in profession and last of all, individuals who reached professional satisfaction are educated. Nowadays, as knowledge continuosly changes and multiplies, the power of technology has influence upon vocational and technical education as it has for other fields. Consequently, workshops of vocational and technical education institutions' and required equipments are changing and new education programs required for training of qualified individuals suitable for these changes. Therefore, vocational and technical education is given particular attention within developed countries' education systems and teaching programmes are organized with reference to this. Moreover, the importance of vocational and technical education for stronger economy, rapid social development and for improving competitiveness agains other countries is recognized in developing countries as well and activities are carried out to improve vocational and technical education. Conclusion It was seen that all participants find modular education programme actual and support it. It was set forth that especially EU supported projects are very important and should continue increasingly. Participants agree that There isn't suitable environment for applied education in accordance with modular education programme. Consequently, vocational and technical education environments should be revised and environment deficiencies should be solves. Still, participants emphasized that students receive training under the coordinating instructor by doingxxx internship in establishments due to the lack of infrastructure in schools. Participants indicated that improvement should be made to teacher payments and stated that payments have negative effect on teachers' efficiency. Besides, it can be seen that projects prepared by lecturers aren't rewarded and have no academic value in state owned universities. This result can be seen as a factor which reduces work motivation of academicians working in the field. References Aktaşlı, İ., Kafadar, S. ve Tüzün, I.(2012). Vocational Education Partnership for Quality Analysis of Vocational and Technical Education-to-date CCEDD8E0/15849/DurumAnaliziMektup150512_GONDERILENFINALVERSION.pdf [Retrieved: ]. -24-

14 Mevlana International Journal of Education (MIJE), 4(2); 12-26, 1 August, 2014 Altın, R. (2007) New Trends in Vocational Education System and Modular System,(http://www.megep.meb.gov.tr/megep/genel/kitap/meslekiegitimyeni.pdf), [Retrieved: ]. Anapa, S. (2008). Vocational and Technical Education in Turkey, the European Union Harmonization Process. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Marmara University, Institute of Social Sciences, Istanbul, Turkey. Arnold, R. ve Münch, J. (1996). Questions and Answers on the Dual System of Vocational Training in Germany. Federal Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Technology. Bonn. Germany. Aypay, A. (2003). Vocational Schools in Turkey. Unpublished Research Report. Eighteen Canakkale March University Faculty of Education. Çanakkale, Turkey. The Ninth Development Plan (2006). Repeated in the Official Gazette No: page [Retrieved: ]. Fındık, T. ve Şahin, İ. ( 2008). Vocational and Technical Education in Turkey: Current Status, Problems and Solutions. Turkey Journal of Social Work. The skin (12), 78. Foster, H. (2005). Personal Communication on the Effect of Size of the Location of Vocational Schools in Germany. December, 13, Keating, J., Medrich, E., Volkoff, V. & Perry, J. (2002). Comparative Study of VocationalEducation and Training Systems. NCVER. Kensington Park: Australia. Kocatürk, F. (2006). Approaches of Vocational Training Systems in EU Member States and Turkey Correspondence Analysis. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Gazi University, Institute of Educational Sciences, Ankara, Turkey. Kuş, E. (2003). Quantitative-Qualitative Research Methods Quantitative Research Methods in Social Sciences? Qualitative? Ankara: Memoirs Publishing. McQuay, P. (2001). A Discussion Paper onvocational Technical Education in the United States of America. Paper Prepared for the European Union. MEB (2012). National Education Statistics Formal Education [Retrieved: ]. Şahinkesen, A. (1992). Dual System in Education (School-Workplace Collaborative System). Journal of Ankara University Faculty of Educational Sciences. The skin (25), 2 Page (691). Şimşek, A. (1999). Vocational and Technical Education in Turkey Yapılandırılması.Ankara again. TİSK. (1997). Vocational Training in Turkey and in the world. Ankara, Turkey. Ulusoy, A. (2004). Education of qualified manpower Board of Education-Business Cooperation: The Case of Turkey, ( [Retrieved: ]. Yıldırım, A. ve Şimşek, H. (2006). Qualitative Research Methods in Social Sciences. Ankara: Featured Publishing. Yüksel, S. (2011). Members of the Teacher Training System for Faculty of Arts and Sciences -25-

15 Vocational And Technical Education M.A. Ozerbas & C. Ucar Thoughts (Example of Uludag University Faculty of Science) Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice - 11 (1) Winter / Winter Education Consulting and Research Communication Services Trade. Ltd. Sti. -26-

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