1 ORGANIZED TRAFFICKING OF NARCOTIC DRUGS Over the past two decades the drug trade has undergone something of a Darwinian evolution, the survivors of which had developed into sophisticated and highly flexible organizations. Ron Chepesiuk INTRODUCTION In today s world of drug trafficking, drugs are not simply being transported within one country, or even between two; sometimes, they are trafficked through four or more countries, crossing rivers, mountains and even oceans. Today there are two major conventions governing the illicit trafficking of narcotic drugs. The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs was adopted in 1961 and the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances was adopted These conventions are outdated and are in serious need of an update, namely because neither of conventions places rational control on drugs based on their dangers to humans (Bagley 521). HISTORY AND DESCRIPTION OF THE ISSUE Drugs are an important part of rituals and traditions in many parts of the world, with practices dating back hundreds and thousands of years. For example, in some Asian cultures, smoking opium is considered to be a soul cleansing experience; in other societies, the cultivation and production of drugs were, and on some levels still are, an integral part of daily life. Recently, however, the advancement of knowledge and technology has led many nations in the international community to outlaw certain harmful narcotics. Governments have been combating illegal drug usage since the 17th century, but the rise of communication and trade across the world has escalated what used to be a fairly local and minor problem into a global issue. This massive growth in illicit drug usage and trade has created an ever more pressing need for the international community to work together to combat it (Drug Policy Alliance). This need becomes even clearer when you consider the recent shift in narctotics drug societal role. Whereas drugs had a more traditional role prior to the 1900s and were often used in events like religious ceremonies and tribal rights, these same drugs are being used for extraneous purposes today. The changes were particularly striking in the mid- to late 20th century, when the number of recreational drug users and the extent to which they would use the drugs increased dramatically (E/CN.7/2006/3). Types of Narcotic Drugs The term narcotic drugs refers to a group of drugs that can reduce pain, and also alter moods and behaviors. It is inclusive of cocaine, opium, heroin and their derivatives. Cocaine, opium and heroin are all illegal drugs. There are, however, legal narcotics, such
2 as codeine, which are used for medical purposes (Streetdrugs.org). Cocaine Cocaine is made from the leaves of the coca tree, which grows in the Andean region of South America. It is cultivated primarily in Colombia, Bolivia and Peru. The leaves themselves are often smoked to produce the same effects as cocaine, though the effects are somewhat lessened. Cocaine itself is a white crystalline substance manufactured from the coca leaf and is classified as an illegal drug. Its derivatives include coca paste and coca base (www.streetdrugs.org). Opium Opium is a drug derived from the opium poppy. It is obtained by drying the liquid contained in the seedpods of the poppy and is yellowish-brown in color, characterized by a bitter taste. Opium is produced primarily in Afghanistan, Myanmar and Lao People s Democratic Republic. Its derivatives include morphine, codeine, and heroin (E/CN.7/2006/3). Heroin Heroin, a refined form of opium is the most common drug in illicit trafficking along with pure opium itself. It is synthesized from morphine and is manufactured in Afghanistan, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China, India, Malaysia, Mexico and Myanmar (www.streetdrugs.org). Why Narcotic Drugs are a Problem The world first took notice of the problem of extraneous drug usage for the first time in mid-20th century, but by that time, drugs had been being cultivated and produced for some time. The delay between when extraneous drug usage was first considered to be a problem and the international community s decision to take action allowed the drug industry to become a thriving, lucrative multinational business. Long before the issue of drugs even appeared on national leaders radar screens, people involved in the cultivation and production of drugs realized how profitable the business could be. Growers, sellers, and everyone in between began to form competing groups. In fact, the cocaine market alone grossed more profit than the global revenues of coffee and chocolate combined (E/CN.7/2006/3). The South American cartels, the Sicilian and Italian-American Mafias, and the traffickers of the Golden Triangle, the point where Myanmar, Thailand and Laos mets, are some of the leading illegal traffickers that emerged from the prohibition of certain narcotics (Chepesiuk ). The Cali Cartel
3 Prior to the 1980s, Colombia s illicit drug trade was ruled by the Medellín Cartel, directed by Pablo Escobar Gaviria also known as the King of Cocaine (Chepesiuk 11). The Medellín gained and kept control through the use of force: when the government began cracking down, they responded by assassinating government officials like Justice Minister Rodrigo Lara Bonilla in 1984, Attorney General Carlos Hoyos in 1988, and presidential candidate Luis Carlos Galan in 1989 (Chepesiuk 16). Their methods produced a sense of fear, but it did not gain them the respect of the government or the Colombian people. The Cali Cartel, on the other hand, used very different tactics as it rose to power. While Escobar and the Medellin cartel spent their money on firepower for the cartel s war against the government, the Cali Cartel adopted the effective tactic of using its money to cultivate political influence through bribes and diplomacy. (Chepesiuk 16). They took to establishing legitimate business ventures as a means of forging contacts with key people in business, politics, the law, and the press. They invested plenty of narco-dollars, money earned from the sale of narcotics, to establish an intelligence network that rivaled those of many South American governments, which kept them informed of governments every move in the war on drugs (16). The Cali Cartel s approach began to work; they gained influence and even some respect. The cartel owned many legitimate businesses, including the biggest drug store chain in Colombia. When the world finally realized what had happened, the Cali Cartel had developed the most sophisticated drug network ever organized and thus has become a model for other such groups (Chepesiuk 17-24). Going Multinational The next step for drug traffickers was to branch out beyond the borders of their own country, forming alliances with groups in other countries. The result: a number of multinational organizations operating on a transnational scale. This produced two main changes in the drug trade: first, alliances with other drug syndicates opened up new markets for narcotic drugs, allowing these syndicates to gain more power relative to national governments (Chepesiuk 203). Second, it allowed them to stay ahead of market conditions, constantly change operating methods to avoid arrest, and invest their earnings in legitimate business in short, [become] a huge multinational commodity business with a fast-moving top management, and price- sensitive customers (Chepesiuk 202). In other words, the vast connections between cartels allowed the drug syndicates to stay one step ahead of the authorities. Trafficking Not only does forming alliances give drug syndicates an intelligence advantage, it also aids in the transportation of the drugs, which is the key to the global drug business. It is one thing to hide drugs within a country and another to smuggle them across borders.
4 Trafficking methods include wagons, planes, ships and even human mules people that transport drugs on or within their bodies (Bagley ). It is in the trafficking stage that authorities attempt to crack down on drug syndicates. Consequently, it is during the transportation stage that cartels are required to be the most creative and adaptive (Chepesiuk). Prior to the existence of alliances, drugs were trafficked along routes generally unknown to anyone outside a small specific group and sometimes even those doing the transporting. With the advent of alliances, knowledge of the best routes and methods for transportation is passed along from group to group. CURRENT STATUS Today, cocaine from Colombia, Bolivia and Peru can be found all over Eastern Europe. Opium from Afghanistan can be found in Southern Africa, and heroin from Hong Kong can be found in New York City. Drug trafficking has become a worldwide business, despite the fact that nations have tried to curb its spread. Recent Trends in Trafficking If drug trafficking is a covert business, how is it that so much information is available on the process? The data on drug seizures worldwide offers indirect indicators of recent trafficking trends, the effectiveness of law enforcement, and trafficking practices in different regions (E/CN.7/2006/3). But before analyzing overall trafficking patterns, it is important to understand the cultivation and production trends of specific drugs since the specific path of each drug necessitates a different approach to intervention attempts. Cocaine Cultivation and Production Colombia just barely remains the current leader in terms of cocaine cultivation and production. It is responsible for 40 percent of the potential global cocaine production, while Peru constitutes 39.5 percent and Bolivia 20 percent. These statistics have changed rather dramatically since At that time Peru was the main producer of cocaine, followed by Bolivia. Colombia was only producing about 100 tons per year, compared with Peru s 400. Colombia s production slowly increased, bypassing Bolivia in 1996 with approximately 300 tons. By contrast, Bolivia produced approximately 200 tons, while Peru produced a little over 400 tons. Colombia reached its peak in the year 2000, producing about 700 tons of cocaine, or approximately 80 percent of total production and surpassing Peru. Interestingly, despite a seven percent decline in Colombia s cocaine cultivation, the overall cultivation of the coca plant has increased by three percent. This increase is because as drug enforcement efforts, particularly those of the United States, have focused their attention on Colombia, cultivators have simply picked up and moved for example,
5 Bolivia saw an increase of 17 percent and Peru saw an increase of 14 percent. In 2006, Colombia accounted for 56 percent of overall cultivation and production, with Peru a distant second, producing 26 percent and Bolivia bringing up the rear with 16 percent. Today, Colombia s production levels have decreased to 40 percent. But there has been only a slight drop off in overall production levels. This is due to the fact that both Peru and Bolivia have increased their levels to compensate. Currently, Peru trails Colombia by only one half of a percentage point in production levels (World Drug Report 2012, 35). For this reason, some question whether any benefits exist in the current method of combating cocaine cultivation, since preventing it from being cultivated in one location only seems to result in it being cultivated somewhere else (E/CN.7/2006/3). Trafficking and Seizure Trends Drug trafficking stings in Colombia and the United States account for 62 percent of the total, while Western and Central Europe account for 15 percent. Since two-thirds of cocaine users are in the Americas and another quarter live in Europe, it comes with little surprise that most trafficking routes form a triangle between South America, North America, and Europe. These routes can be traced with some degree of accuracy by the number and location of drug seizures. As routes have been monitored and targeted by drug enforcement officials, the number of drugs seizures in areas like North America and Africa has increased; however, this has prompted drug traffickers to seek new routes and tactics to avoid detection. As a result, there has been an increase in seizures on new and different routes in the European region, including Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Turkey, the Russian Federation, Switzerland, and Ukraine. Overall data on cocaine seizures worldwide shows that there has been no decline in cocaine s availability on illicit markets. This implies that, in the foreseeable future, cocaine will remain the second largest illicit drug on the market, with the ever-increasing potential to spread to new areas (E/CN.7/2006/3). Since 2006, trends have changed slightly. The decrease in cocaine production in Colombia has resulted in a slight reduction of cocaine use in North America. This has been compounded by the increasing instability in Mexico. Much of the cocaine available in the United States is trafficked through Mexico. The recent disruption of established trade routes by turf wars between drug trafficking organizations and drug control agencies [is] disrupting the flow of cocaine through Mexico and hampering the illicit supply of cocaine to the United States. This in turn has resulted in a decrease in seizures across the US. (World Drug Report 2012, 37) Europe, however, has not experienced the same decline. The deficit created by the decrease in Colombia s production, is being filed by the increase in production in Peru and Bolivia. Cocaine use across Europe has reached a stable level over the past several years. Yet in this same time, there has been a decrease in seizures across Europe. This decline can be mostly attributed to changing trafficking routes. (World Drug Report 2012, 37)
6 Opium and Heroin Cultivation and Production The vast majority of opium is cultivated in Afghanistan, Myanmar, and Laos. Afghanistan is both the chief cultivator and the chief producer, producing 88 percent of the opium worldwide in 2005, followed by Myanmar and Laos. Historically, though, Afghanistan has not always been the lead producer of heroin. In the 1970s and 80s, the Golden Triangle Myanmar, Laos, and Thailand controlled production, but Thai government crackdowns and an increase in the standard of living in the area forced the opium and heroin trade elsewhere. Afghanistan s production has been steadily rising since the withdrawal of the Soviet Union in the late 1980s. Levels peaked in 2007, when Afghanistan put out over 8000 tons of opium over 80 percent of the world s total production. Since 2007, levels of production dropped off slightly. In 2010, Afghansitan s opium poppy was hit by disease resulting in a significant production decrease. Production has since rebounded, going from under 4000 tons in 2010 to just under 6000 tons in 2011, but have not yet returned to their pre-2010 levels. Interestingly, despite these decreases in production, consumption levels have remained relatively stable. (World Drug Report 2012, 26) What is most interesting about opium cultivation and production is that while the overall cultivation of opium declined by 22 percent, the production of opium declined by only four percent, indicating that a greater percentage of harvested opium poppy is being used towards the production of narcotics. The manufacturing of heroin has also spread to a number of countries throughout Asia and Eastern Europe, as well as Columbia and Mexico (E/CN.7/2006/3). Trafficking and Seizure Trends Opium and heroin constitute the third largest illicit drug market, though this market affects more countries than cocaine. While both markets have taken root in America, Europe, and Africa, opium and heroin, are primarily produced and manufactured in Asia. Asia has typically seen and continues to see the highest number of seizures 22 percent in East and Southeast Asia and 18 percent in the Middle East and West Asia in 2006 (E/CN.7/2006/3). A 60 percent increase in seizures in Africa accounts for one major change in trafficking routes. As Afghanistan gains greater control over the opium and heroin market, and the Americas lose control, Afghani drug producers have begun trafficking to the Americas through West Africa, piggybacking on some of the narcotics routes. While the number of seizures in Africa seems relatively low in comparison to the rest of the world, there are indicators that suggest that the seizures do not reflect the total amount of opium and heroin trafficked through the continent. Drug traffickers have been able to find new
7 routes in Africa that offer fewer complications from local authorities (World Drug 2006 Report, Executive Summary 14). Since 2006, Asia continues to account for the highest percentage of opiate seizures. Although there has been a slight decrease along the traditional trafficking routes coming out of Afghanistan. This decrease has been predominantly attributed to the decrease in production levels there in 2010 and not to increased efforts on the parts of law enforcement. Iran accounts for 33 percent of seizures worldwide, followed by Turkey at 16 percent. (World Drug Report 2012, 29) Combating Drug Trafficking Some of the changes in trafficking patterns do reflect the world s efforts in preventing the occurrence of drug trafficking, particularly the work of the United Nations (UN). In 1961 the UN adopted the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs which, among other things, categorizes drugs into four schedules of control. This convention thus determined which drugs would be considered illicit, a very important step in curbing trafficking ( UN Single Convention ). The Convention also created the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB)., which is extremely active in the fight against illicit drug trafficking. Created in 1968 in accordance with the UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, it consists of 13 members who serve in a professional capacity and are not country representatives, thus remaining relatively free of political influences. The Board s job is to supervise countries in the implementation of treaties or conventions pertaining to narcotic drugs. To this extent, it can make inquiries into any country, including those not party to the conventions. The INCB advises the Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND). as to which countries need funds and technical assistance (Bagley 525). The CND, a 30-member body of political appointees, is the UN s central policy-making body on narcotic drugs (Counter-terrorism Committee). The group has rotating membership, but there are unofficial permanent seats for the world superpowers. The CND functions by creating drafts of treaties and presenting resolutions concerning drug control. The Division of Narcotic Drugs (DND). serves as the secretariat of the CND (Bagley 525). The CND also controls the United Nations International Drug Control Programme, which was created in 1991 (Counter- terrorism Committee). The UN Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances was adopted in This convention delineated specific offenses and strengthened laws concerning financial reporting, extradition and confiscating assets. It also attempted to improve international cooperation ( UN Convention against ). Despite all of the international bodies that are involved in the fight against the illicit trafficking of narcotic drugs, most work is still done at the national level. Relevant conventions and treaties encourage international cooperation but do not require it, leading
8 most countries to choose to fight the battle themselves. By its very nature, however, drug trafficking is international, rendering national efforts insufficient to stop shipments that are routed through a number of countries. Few networks exist to share intelligence on the trafficking of drugs, partially owing to the difficulty in coordinating the efforts of multiple domestic police forces. The drug syndicates themselves, however, have multinational intelligence systems to keep tabs on governments and their actions in the fight against trafficking (Chepesiuk). BLOC POSITIONS As a whole, the world tends to be united under the idea that there is a drug problem today and that something needs to be done to prevent the trafficking of drugs. Countries, however, tend to disagree on how this should actually be done. For example, in the past few years the European Union has advocated the need not only to combat the trafficking of drugs but the need to try and introduce measures like preventative education and treatment for drug abusers and potential addicts. This is often referred to as a policy of harm reduction. The EU has also advocated a more international approach, pushing for a network that could unite those trying to track down drug traffickers in different countries (World 2006 Drug Report). Many African countries have advocated similar ideas, citing the fact that their relatively new law enforcement bodies are ill- equipped to deal with the problem of drug trafficking (Nsereko). In many countries, the drug syndicates have quite a bit of sway over the government. The Cali Cartel in Colombia is one particular example: cartel members were able to buy themselves power in government through bribes and by establishing large, legitimate businesses. While the government might express support for an anti-drug policy, it might not have any real intentions to combat the problem beyond appearances (Chepesiuk 11-21). Furthermore, countries like Afghanistan, where the drug trade is one of the main sources of revenue for its population, feel pressure from within to not take measures to combat the problem. Africa The amount of drugs in the region has been increasing due to its use as a trafficking route, particularly West Africa. This also means that the overall use of drugs in the region has risen. Africa has become attractive to drug traffickers because fractured law enforcement bodies and corrupt local authorities make it easier for traffickers to be ignored by authority figures. Moreover, most African countries do not have a coherent drug policy in place; some countries use physical force against those caught with drugs, while in other countries the use of drug abuse education is the extent of current policy (Drug Policy Alliance, Africa). Asia Drug policies differ all over Asia. In Afghanistan, the Taliban government declared the cultivation of the opium poppy un-islamic but this move caused only a minimal
9 reduction in production. Further, the government has taken few, if any, active steps to seize opium stores, and in fact, the government still collects a ten percent tax each time opium is moved within, out of, or into Afghanistan (Drug Policy Alliance, Afghanistan). As of 2006, overall production had stabilized in Afghanistan, at a level 20 percent lower than that of five years earlier (Monasebian). Afghanistan, however, still retains a majority on the overall opium market. In other parts of Asia, particularly in the Southeast, the government has cracked down on drug production and cultivation. In many cases, however, the methods used may not be worth the results. In countries like Thailand and Myanmar, governments use physical abuse and murder to stem the production of illicit drugs. In East and Central Asia most governments fight drug trafficking through harsh penalties for the possession of and use of drugs. In India the death penalty may even be imposed (Drug Policy Alliance, Asia). Western Europe, Canada and Australia The nations in this bloc share a similar policy in that they advocate a policy of harm reduction. Western European countries like Switzerland, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Spain have passed laws that help people obtain treatment if arrested for possessing drugs for their own personal use. Some of these programs even go as far as to provide small amounts of drugs to help people become less addicted. Australia s drug policy was originally a more punitive approach but today has become a policy similar to Europe s focus on harm reduction (Drug Policy Alliance, Europe). Australia s policies closely follow the current ideal international laws concerning drug trafficking and use. Canada also has adopted a harm reduction policy, in contrast to its neighbor, the United States. The United States and Mexico The United States has been very active in the war on drugs, but rather than adopting a harm reduction policy, it has taken on a prohibitive model, which focuses on placing bans and strict regulations on the trafficking and use of drugs. The United States has been heavily involved in trying to seize shipments coming into the US and other countries, particularly Latin America. Mexico shares a similar policy with the US, as the US provides constant funding for Mexico s anti-drug programs. Eastern Europe Overall, the trend in Europe has been an increase in laws against the usage of drugs in hopes that if demand goes down, production will as well. In Eastern Europe, drug use is a major problem and most governments do not have a full drug policy in place (Drug Policy Alliance, Europe). Latin America There have been two major drug policies in Latin America: eradication and interdiction. Eradication refers to preventing drug use by intervention during the cultivation process.
10 For the most part, this method has failed because as law enforcement focuses on one geographical area, production and cultivation increases in another area. Interdiction is the attempt to seize drugs en route to another location. While this method has been somewhat effective, it is impossible to seize all the drugs passing over many borders (Drug Policy Alliance, Latin America). COMMITTEE MISSION The problems associated with narcotic drug trafficking have no borders, affecting all countries around the world. Drug lords have adapted their trafficking methods to changes in law enforcement, staying one step ahead of those trying to shut them down. It has become very easy for drugs to enter countries illegally, and until this problem is solved, drug abuse will continue to expand. Bearing in mind the international nature of the drug trade, the influence and adaptability of drug traffickers, the variety of philosophies on drug law enforcement, and a range of other concerns, the CCPCJ must decide what steps to take to halt the spread of illicit drug trafficking, with the goal of controlling the international drug trade and reducing its wide-ranging harmful effects. Countries must remain aware of the fact that the entire world is, at the least, inadvertently affected by the war against narcotics. Both the drug trade and the actions taken against it resonate outwards to those nations surrounding their trafficking hubs. The negative effects of the drug trafficking often have a destabilizing affect on its neighbors. As such, it is in the best interest of those nations to be actively involved in combating this illegal industry. Conversely, the strong anti-drug trafficking policies of certain nations often permeate to their neighbors, initiating similar policies to be enacted in those neighboring nations. The committee should also address the contrast in policies that confront the supply side of the drug trade, and those that challenge the demand side of the drug trade, respectively mentioned earlier as a harm reduction policy and a prohibitive policy. Ideally, the committee should work towards achieving a balance between the two policies and equally address the problem from both angles. Doing so will ensure that a comprehensive solution to the drug trafficking problem is achieved. Domestic issues also hinder the progress of anti-trafficking measures, and the international community should consider ways in order to provide assistance to those nations that need guidance in these areas. Many nations face difficulties in coordinating their law enforcement officials in order to effectively combat trafficking within their borders, thus making them an easy target for traffickers to exploit. Furthermore, some nations experience great dependence on the profits gained from the drug industry, in some cases large portions of the population rely on revenue from the drug trade to survive. Governments may also benefit from drug money in that they are able to collect taxes on narcotics that are being traded. Clearly, the trafficking of narcotic drugs is a multifaceted problem that needs to be addressed on many different levels. It is the objective of the CCPCJ to come up with
11 solutions to present to the General Assembly and the Security Council that will help curb the international narcotic drug trafficking problem. RESEARCH AND PREPARATION QUESTIONS 1. What role does your country play in the trafficking of narcotic drugs? Is your country a producer of narcotic drugs? A transit state? What percentage of your state s population use narcotic drugs? 2. How much does this role effect your country? Is the economy or government reliant on narcotic drugs in any way? Does it have a big, small or no effect on your countries actions? 3. Has your country been affected by narcotic drugs? If so, in what ways? 4. Has your country developed any laws or methods for combating the organized trafficking of narcotic drugs nationally? Internationally? 5. Should the organized trafficking of narcotic drugs be combated at the international level? If so, what solutions could be proposed to help combat the organized trafficking of narcotic drugs across the globe? If not, what are some alternatives?
12 UN Sources BIBLIOGRAPHY Report of the Secretariat on the World Situation with Regard to Drug Trafficking. E/CN.7/2006/3. 14 December Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances World 2006 Drug Report: Executive Summary. Office on Drugs and Crime World 2006 Drug Report: Volume 2 Statistics. Office on Drugs and Crime Office on Drugs and Crime World Drug Report United Nations, No. E.12.XI.1. Other Sources Bagley, Bruce M. & William O. Walker III, ed. Drug Trafficking in the Americas. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, This book contains a number of essays that describe drug trafficking and its effects on various regions of the world. It also contains essays on some of the international dimensions of the drug trade. Carpenter, Ted Galen. Bad Neighbor Policy: Washington s Futile War on Drugs in Latin America. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, This book closely examines the United States fight against drug trafficking. It is a good example of ways, effective or not, to combat trafficking. It also pinpoints some areas that need to be fixed in order to better combat drug trafficking. Chepesiuk, Ron. Hard Target: The United States War against International Drug Trafficking, Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc., This is an excellent source. It provides an in-depth look at the structure of drug syndicates that run drug trafficking all over the world. It details how these syndicates have been adapting to enforcement efforts and what these changes mean for the world in its fight to prevent trafficking. Drug Policy Around the World. Drug Policy Alliance August <http://www.drugpolicy.org>. This site contains extremely useful information about narcotic drugs and what nations around the world are doing to combat the trafficking of narcotic drugs. Dupont, Alan. Transnational Crime, Drugs, and Security in East Asia. Asian Survey. 39 : 3, (May- June 1999)., p This article looks at the trafficking of drugs, particularly in east Asia. It details changes that have been occurring and what
13 those changes mean for that region. Frey, Bruno S. Drugs, Economics and Policy. Economic Policy. 12 : 25, (October 1997)., p This article looks at the economics of the drug trade and how they can affect the policies of many countries towards drug syndicates The 2007 National High School Model United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Griffith, Ivelaw L., ed. The Political Economy of Drugs in the Caribbean. New York: St. Martin s Press, Inc., This book examines the effect of the drug trade in the Caribbean, one of the main transit routes from South America to North America. It shows not simply routes through the Caribbean but also the effects it has on the region. Jordan, David C. Drug Politics: Dirty Money and Democracies. Oklahoma City: University of Oklahoma Press, Norman Publishing, This book details how drug trafficking nfluences governments and organizations. Klein, Axel. Trapped in Traffick: Growing Problems of Drug Consumption in Lagos. The Journal of Modern African Studies. 32 : 4, (December 1994)., p This article is very interesting because it examined the effects of drug trafficking in only one location Lagos. It goes into detail on some of the direct effects that drug trafficking can have on communities and a country. McCoy, Alfred W. & Alan A. Block. War on Drugs: Studies in the Failure of U.S. Narcotics Policy. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, This book details the problems with the US s attempt to stop drug trafficking. Monasebian, Simone. Personal Interview. 9 August Simone Monasebian works as chief of the New York Office of the United Nation s Office on Drugs and Crime. She was extremely helpful in discussing what the UN is currently doing to combat the trafficking of narcotic drugs and the developing use of Africa as a transit state. Nsereko, Daniel d. Ntanda. When Crime Crosses Border: A Southern African Perspective. Journal of African Law. 41 : 2, (1997)., p This article articulates some of the issues caused by drug trafficking in Africa, the new frontier of the drug trade. Renborg, Bertil A. Principles of International Control of Narcotic Drugs. The American Journal of International Law. 37 : 3, (July 1943)., p This article, while extremely old, details some general information about drug trafficking and what the international community has been doing. It also provides some good background information. Streetdrugs.org. Publisher s Group, LLC August <www.streetdrugs.org>. This website contains information on different types of narcotic drugs. Walker III, William O. Drug Trafficking in Asia. Special Issue: Drug Trafficking Research Update. Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs. 34 : 3, (Autumn, 1992)., p This article examines the drug trade in Asia. It details some common routes as well as some of the changes occurring in the region.