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1 take care of yourself. we ll take care of the rest.

2 common injuries While injuries to the head do not always result in damage to the brain, it s important to note the most common forms of head trauma that can cause Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) include: Skull Fracture Subdural Hematoma Cracks or breaks in the skull that can result in damage to the area of the brain below the fracture site. When bleeding under the dura occurs, it can cause a blood clot to form, which can put pressure on the brain. Concussion Epidural Hematoma overview of brain injuries Every year, over 16,000 Ontarians sustain a due to accident, illness or environmental circumstance. Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) describes various forms of damage to the brain sustained postnatal (after birth). Typically, ABI is defined as damage to the brain as a result of trauma, stroke, post-surgical complications, or certain illnesses. Impairments due to degenerative and congenital diseases such as Dementia, Multiple Sclerosis, Huntington s, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and prenatal illness do not fall under the ABI umbrella. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Non- Traumatic Brain Injury are subcategories of ABI. TBI occurs when an external force causes damage to the brain. Falls, car accidents or assaults to the head can cause this type of ABI. Non-Traumatic Brain Injuries are a result of damage caused by a metabolic disruption (e.g., hypoglycemia), hypoxia and anoxia (i.e., loss of oxygen to the brain), brain lesions or tumours, toxins, and illness (e.g., meningitis). Since the brain controls emotional, behavioural and cognitive abilities, when damage occurs, it affects the way a person thinks, feels and acts. A not only impacts the individual diagnosed, but their loved ones as well, especially if long term care is required. The cost associated with treating a can be significant. The expense reaches one billion dollars annually in Ontario alone. A mild concussion may involve no loss of consciousness (feeling dazed ) or a very brief loss of consciousness (being knocked out ). A severe concussion may involve prolonged loss of consciousness with a delayed return to normal. Cerebral Contusion Cerebral contusion is a bruising of the brain caused by direct blows to the skull or by acceleration deceleration forces. We start by understanding your exact situation. When bleeding occurs between the dura and the skull, it can cause a blood clot to form, which can put pressure on the brain. Intracerebral Hemorrhage When blood vessels deep within in the brain are injured, they can cause bleeding that occurs inside brain tissue. Swelling of the Brain When a TBI occurs, the brain is compressed within the skull which can cause damage. There is also the potential for decreased blood flow to the brain.

3 causes and symptoms causes The most common causes of Acquired Brain Injury are: Car/vehicular accidents Falls Sporting accidents Physical attacks (e.g., fights or assaults) Gunshot wounds symptoms Brain injuries can result in bruising, open wounds, bleeding and even swelling of the brain. These injuries can be very serious as they can affect the way a person thinks, feels or behaves. Survivors who suffer the effects of a can experience: Confusion and Memory Loss Individuals who have sustained an Acquired Brain Injury may be confused about the events leading up to the injury. This confusion may be temporary or permanent. Serious injury to the brain may result in short or long term memory loss. Individuals may not recall events that just happened (e.g., eating lunch, turning on the stove, etc.) or may not remember anything about their life or their loved ones at all. A Loss of Physical and Cognitive Abilities Brain injuries can also result in paralysis of limbs and loss of speech, sight, smell, taste or hearing. Cognitive skills can also be affected. Individuals may lose the ability to learn new tasks or have impaired reasoning skills. Others may suffer from chronic headaches and even seizures. Changes in Emotions and Behaviour Since the brain controls emotions and behaviours as well as cognition, brain injuries can affect the way a person feels and acts. However, changes in behaviour or emotion can also be due to frustration, depression, or anger about the injury. Social Difficulties We offer a free initial no-obligation consultation to all potential clients Individuals may struggle with initiating and maintaining friendships after sustaining a. These difficulties may be due to communication impairments (e.g., loss of speech, hearing, vision, etc.), changes in cognitive ability (e.g., long and short term memory loss), diminished social skills and self-esteem, or loss of physical abilities (e.g., paralysis, ability to drive, etc.). our care begins the moment we meet you. treatment and prognosis A Computed Tomography (CT) scan and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are the most common ways doctors detect brain injuries. Recovery and the rate of healing depend upon a person s age, their overall health prior to the injury and the extent of the damage. Statistics show that 80% of people who sustain a mild fully recover. However, those who sustained a more severe injury may have permanent physical, cognitive and emotional impairments. The course and type of treatment also depends on the injury. A comprehensive treatment plan includes both physical therapy and cognitive therapy. A complete rehabilitation program should focus on the following areas: Physical Cognitive Behavioural Vocational Educational Community Re-entry Recreational An individual s social network friends and family are also a key component in the healing process. Their support and compassion not only ease a patient s worries and burdens, but can also speed up the recovery process. The rate of recovery from a is as unique as the individuals who sustain them. No two people will recover the same way or in the same amount of time. However, it s important that individuals remain positive, flexible and open to all forms of treatment. Seek support from family, friends, other patients and healthcare professionals. cultural perspective Suffering a catastrophic injury, especially a, is devastating to any person and their family. However, this form of injury can be even more difficult for those whose first language is not English. Not only can the team at Carranza help overcome the language barrier, we can also assist with any cultural issues that may arise, including: Traditional versus modern medicine and conflicts about medications Informing loved ones of medical issues and facilitating discussions between rehab teams and key decision makers in the family Explaining body language and how its interpretation might affect your care The impact of religion on care, treatment and recovery Cultural stigmas surrounding shame, depression and isolation The importance of nutrition, diet and the use of herbal remedies How brain injuries affect the family, their social status and future possibilities Bridging the gap between a family s beliefs and the Canadian healthcare system

4 you know best Survivors of serious brain injuries often require a high level of care for the rest of their lives, income support, significant vocational assistance if you are to be able to return to the workforce at all, and a need to develop new interests and activities. All of these life-changing aspects should be compensated. Getting you that compensation is our job. At Carranza we have years of experience acting for people who have suffered brain injuries. We strive to fully understand you and how your and your family s lifestyle is affected by your injury and your rehabilitation. We start to work immediately to maximize your personal recovery by ensuring you get the treatment and assistance you require to return to as many social, family, and leisure activities as soon as possible. At the same time, we gather the evidence to quantify every aspect of your losses to maximize your financial recovery. how we can help Families are often surprised and overwhelmed by how much an injury can impact their lives and their financial situation. An experienced personal injury lawyer can help you understand your current situation better and explain your legal entitlements. At Carranza, our involvement begins the moment we meet you. Through every interaction, we strive to make you feel comfortable and informed; we see us as members of your team, working toward the best possible personal and financial outcomes from your injury. We are so committed to ensuring we consistently meet you and your family s needs, Carranza has become the only ISO certified personal injury law firm in We will meet with you to discuss your situation and options, at no charge, wherever you are, so you can decide whether we are the best choice of representation for you. Canada. Through constant measurement of ourselves for client satisfaction, continual improvement, and effective training, process controls and internal communications, we ensure our clients are the focus of all we do. At Carranza, our job is more than helping you through litigation, it is also our responsibility to ensure you have the right resources for your rehabilitation. Your medical and rehab teams work hard to help you recover. They will address your physical, emotional, mental and social needs. We will work closely with them, so you and your family don t have to worry about the additional costs of rehab treatments and assistive devices. your options for compensation Once we have a firm grasp of your accident we will provide you with an assessment of your case. We explore and evaluate every potential means of compensation available to you, including: Pain and suffering damages Home and Vehicle modifications to facilitate your mobility and independence Attendant Care Benefits Medical and rehabilitation costs, including case manager services Income replacement benefits, and loss of earning capacity over your lifetime Housekeeping and home maintenance expenses Lost educational expenses Visitor s expenses Damage to clothing Caregiver benefits Other economic losses time limits Insurance companies will generally only pay for any treatment or expense after you apply for the corresponding benefit, so it is important that you apply for all the benefits you will need as soon as possible. Strict time limits apply. We will meet these deadlines for you, so you can focus on your recovery. our main area of focus? you Some of the key limits to keep in mind: 7 days you must inform the Accident Benefits insurance company of the accident and that you were hurt. 30 Days you must complete and send the Accident Benefits application within 30 days of it being provided to you by the insurance company. If you take longer, the insurance company can delay your benefits 45 days and may be able to deny you benefits altogether. 120 Days you need to give written notice of your intention to sue the at-fault parties. 2 years to commence a lawsuit against an at-fault driver or your own insurance company if your benefits are denied. You must provide the insurance company all the information it needs to determine your entitlement. You have 10 business days after it requests such information to provide it, or it can suspend or deny your benefits.

5 resources The following websites are sources of valuable information and support for those suffering from a and their loved ones: The Brain Injury Association of Canada The Ontario Brain Injury Association ABI Possibilities BrainTrust Canada BrainLine FPO 1280 Finch Ave. West, Suite 200 Toronto, Ontario, M3J 3K6 Association for the Rehabilitation of the Brain Injured Canadian Association For Neuroscience Disability Health Promotion Network Long Term Care Global Canada Hours of operation: Monday to Friday 9:00 am to 5:00 pm Telephone: Toll Free Line: Fax: This manual is a general reference guide for injured persons and their families. The medical and legal information contained in this manual is not intended to offer legal or medical advice. The content in this manual is for informational and educational purposes only and is not intended as a substitute for the professional judgment of a legal and/or healthcare professional, and you should not rely upon any material or statements in the manual for legal or medical advice. It is not intended to create a solicitor-client relationship. It is recommended that you review any medical information carefully with your doctor or healthcare professional before making any decisions regarding your health or recommended medical treatment. While reasonable attempts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information in this manual, our firm cannot make express or implied representations or warranties about the accuracy or completeness of the information. Each person s legal needs are unique, and these materials may not be applicable to your legal situation. Please contact an Ontario Personal Injury lawyer for a consultation on your particular personal injury matter.

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