disadvantaged young people GUIDEBOOK Developing social competences with disadvantaged young people

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1 RE-CHANCE: Raising employment chances of social disadvantaged young people Project no AT-1-LEO GUIDEBOOK Developing social competences with disadvantaged young people PROJECT PARTNERS: Berufsförderungsinstitut Oberösterreich - Project Coordinator, AUSTRIA Europäisches Bildungswerk für Beruf und Gesellschaft, GERMANY Universitá del Terzo Sektore, ITALY Academy of Humanities and Economics in Lodz, POLAND Tempo Training & Consulting, CZECH REPUBLIC Türkischer Bund in Berlin-Brandenburg, GERMANY Bulgarian-German Vocational Training Centre Pazardjik, BULGARIA Sonhos Para Sempre, PORTUGAL This project has been funded with support from the European Union. This document and all its content reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.

2 Re-Chance Guidebook for teachers and trainers September 2011 For more information see: Respective course materials published on the CDs are available online Contact Berufsförderungsinsitut OÖ Raimundstr. 3, 4020 Linz, Austria Tel , Editorial: Berufsförderungsinstitut Oberösterreich, AUSTRIA Europäisches Bildungswerk für Beruf und Gesellschaft, GERMANY UniTS - Universitá del Terzo Settore, ITALY Academy of Humanities and Economics in Lodz, POLAND Tempo Training & Consulting, CZECH REPUBLIC BGCPO - Bulgarian-German Vocational Training Centre Pazardjik, BULGARIA Sonhos Para Sempre, PORTUGAL Print: FAB Pro.Work Support, Industriezeile, 4020 Linz licensed under creative commons. Reproduction is authorised except for commercial purposes provided the source is acknowledged Re-Chance is a Leonardo da Vinci Transfer of Innovation project ( AT-1-LEO ). Disclaimer: This publication was compiled and edited by the participating organistions of the Re-Chance project. This project has been funded with support from the European Union. This document and all its content reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein 2

3 INDEX 1) INTRODUCTION ) SOCIAL COMPTENCES... 8 What are social competences?... 9 Development of competences and causes of competence deficits... 9 Strengthening social competences... 9 Social competences and social capital their importance for the labour market ) METHODOLOGY ) OUTDOOR EDUCATION MODULE Outdoor education what is this? When did outdoor education begin? The aims of outdoor education Outdoor exercises Orienteering Sport ) ASSESSMENT Methods of observation and examination of social competences Reflection as a transversal method Methods to measure social competences Individual Assessment Methods in group assessment Portfolio ) OUR EXPERIENCE WE WANT TO SHARE Europäisches Bildungswerk für Beruf und Gesellschaft (EBG) GERMANY BFI Oberösterreich AUSTRIA BGCPO-Bulgarian-German Vocational Training Centre-Pazardjik BULGARIA Universita del Terzo Settore ITALY Tempo Training & Consulting CZECH REPUBLIC Academy of Humanities and Economics in Lodz POLAND Sonhos Para Sempre PORTUGAL ) RESUME ) REFERENCES ) ANNEX ASSESMENT TOOLS

4 Interview Social communicative competences training needs assessment PERSONAL DETAILS Self assessment Self-assessment of motivation Examples for some challenges Observation by trainers Assessment of Social Competences Observation Form Comment your tasks Project Diary Reports on reached progress Assessment of personal development

5 1) INTRODUCTION Young people from disadvantaged families, ethnic minorities or families with a migration background have lower chances of social, cultural and labour market integration. Their chances even lessened in many European countries in the last years. There are large numbers of unemployed young people on the brink of social exclusion and poverty. Many of these young people come from groups, who are already disadvantaged in the labour market, e.g. those with a family history of intergenerational unemployment, lower parental education, welfare dependency or from migrations/minority backgrounds. These factors can significantly impair a young person's ability to engage with the community, learning and work, thus perpetuating social and economic problems. There is a significant amount of evidence supporting the conclusion that the expectancies that parents, teachers and society bring with them regarding students ability and achievement can impact their outcomes. Their confidence in their own ability may be damaged. The project RE-Chance addresses young people from disadvantaged families, young delinquents and young people with migration background in the partner countries Austria, Germany, Poland, Bulgaria, Portugal, Italy and the Czech Republic. The project`s aim is helping these young people to break the vicious circle of demotivation, social exclusion and poverty and to train social, methodical and personal competences of young people in difficult circumstances, and to foster and repair their confidence in their own abilities. Counselling parents, teachers and youth workers in possibilities how to improve social skills is a further important aspect of the project. The project adepted and implemented the training modules which were already developed in the Leonardo da Vinci project SOCO VET: Conflict Management Successful Communication and Interaction Motivation Tolerance Right Decision Making Processes Perception Teamwork and Cooperation Dealing with Stress DISC and how to straighten own abilities The SOCO-VET project was (as Re-Chance is) initiated from the point of view that people acquire social skills in all forms of social interaction, with their parents, at play, together with other people, while learning and working. Studies carried out in the field of theoretical education and practical training show that social skills, as a dimension of vocational knowledge and skills, often have a peripheral position. They are not being promoted in a goal-oriented manner. Teachers in VET still have too little knowledge and command of methods to enhance social skills. By training social skills on the basis of SOCO-VET modules and tools, participants find -in social situations where they themselves do not feel comfortable effective ways to deal with other students, colleagues, supervisors, trainers, customers, parents, friends, monitor their observations and put them into practice. In doing so, they should be aware that not only their own feelings, thoughts and needs are adequately expressed (through 5

6 words, facial expressions and gestures) but also that the feelings, thoughts and needs of their counterparts are adequately addressed. The RE-Chance project adapted and translated the SOCO-VET modules in all partner languages (Bulgarian, Czech, Italian, Polish and Portuguese) and can be downloaded on also in German and English. Target groups in each partner country: BFI, AT BGCPO, BG EBG, DE TEMPO, CZ UniTS, IT AHE, PL SPS, PT Young migrants Socially in disadvantaged search of or young people in vocational with minority education. background. Prisoners. Young socially excluded people. Young people with disabilities. Students with social problems. Girls institutional Shelter protection. from of Youth counsellors, social workers. Trainers, working with unemployed people. Prison guards. Social workers. Social workers. Parents, councellors. Instituion s Godmothers. Members families and parents associations. Teachers and trainers in vocational education. Teachers counselors and Trainers in prisons. Curators, Counselors. Parents, teachers. Trainers, teachers, school advisers, vocational advisers, etc. Counsellors andtrainers from shelter,tutoring and network institutions. social The guidebook of Re-chance addresses teachers, trainers and counceller and helps them to transfer the knowledge that has been gathered and developed within the frame of the project. The guidebook is to be seen as a methodical recommendation; the tutors are advised to read the book before starting the course. Split into chapters the elaboration was done by the representatives of the involved partner institutions. 6

7 PROJECT PARTNERS:: BFI Oberösterreich - Project Coordinator, AUSTRIA Europäisches Bildungswerk für Beruf und Gesellschaft, GERMANY UniTS - Universitá del Terzo Settore, ITALY Academy of Humanities and Economics in Lodz, POLAND Tempo Training & Consulting, CZECH REPUBLIC TBB - Türkischer Bund in Berlin-Brandenburg, GERMANY BGCPO - Bulgarian-German Vocational Training Centre Pazardjik, BULGARIA Sonhos Para Sempre, PORTUGAL RE-CHANCE Raising employment chances of social disadvantaged young people is a Leonardo da Vinci project ( AT-1-LEO ) funded by the European Union with a duration of 24 months (autumn 2009 autumn 2011). 7

8 2) SOCIAL COMPTENCES Today s societies place challenging demands on individuals, who are confronted with complexity in many parts of their lives. A large variety of competences are required in order to meet these demands (OECD 2005). Especially the requirements of the labour market are increasing. In addition to specialist and methodological competences, which are subject to constant change due to the technological development, increasingly social competences (such as capacity for teamwork) are required (Geißler/Orthey 2002, Reißig 2007). A German study has revealed that companies place high demands on the social competences of apprentices. However, the results of this study suggest increasing deficits in the field of social competences (capacity for teamwork, conflict handling skills; DIHK 2005). The demands made by the labour market represent a hurdle which is hard to overcome especially for young people (Franke 2008), a fact also highlighted by youth unemployment rates (under- 25-year-olds) in the European countries 1 (EUROSTAT 2011). When trying to enter working life, those young people are increasingly confronted with difficulties who are subject to disadvantage, which results from the interaction of individual characteristics, structural characteristics and the demands of the labour market. Disadvantage may result from varied characteristics. Social peculiarities, such as externalizing behavioural problems or the above-mentioned deficits in the area of social competences, learning difficulties, poverty or language problems (due to migration) are but some examples (Braun et al 1999). On the European political level, the increasing demands of the labour market placed on young citizens are taken into account. The Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 on key competences for lifelong learning state that it has to be ensured that initial education and training systems offer all young people the means to develop key competences to a level that equips them for adult life, and which forms a basis for further learning and working life (Official Journal of the European Union, 2006). Social competences are explicitly set out as key competences. Furthermore, the situation of disadvantaged individuals is particularly stressed: In particular, building on diverse individual competences, the differing needs of learners should be met by ensuring equality and access for those groups who, due to educational disadvantages caused by personal, social, cultural or economic circumstances, need particular support to fulfil their educational potential. Examples of such groups include people with low basic skills, in particular with low literacy, early school leavers, the long-term unemployed and those returning to work after a period of extended leave, older people, migrants, and people with disabilities (Official Journal of the European Union, 2006). In the light of the importance of social competences as key competences for meeting the demands brought about by today s society, it is imperative, as a consequence, to reach a definition of what social competences are. Furthermore, we shall deal with the factors influencing the development of social competences, the possibilities to strengthen social competences and the importance of social competences for the 1 In 2010, the unemployment rate of under-25-year-olds was 8.8 % in Austria, 9.9 % in Germany, 27.8 % in Italy, 23.7 % in Poland, 27.7 % in Portugal, 23.2 % in Bulgaria and 18.3 % in the Czech Republic. 8

9 individual s opportunities on the labour market. Finally, the question of how to measure social competences shall be examined. What are social competences? Social competence: The entirety of an individual s knowledge, abilities and skills which strengthen the quality of his or her social behaviour in the sense of the definition given of socially competent behaviour (Kanning 2003: 15). The definition of social competence shows that it is an umbrella term for the entirety of a person s knowledge, abilities and skills which enable them to act socially. Consequently, each isolated relevant ability or skill and every isolated relevant knowledge a social competence. Therefore, social competence is a multidimensional construct. From the knowledge point of view, information on basic culturally determined rules of human coexistence are understood. Abilities have to be considered as general competences anchored in an individual s personality (e.g. extraversion). Skills, in contrast, focus on specific acquired competences. When interacting, it is always several competences which are relevant simultaneously (knowledge, abilities, skills). Kanning (2003: 17) illustrates this by giving the example of greeting. An individual needs to know how to greet a person unknown to him or her. Furthermore, the individual must have acquired skills for greeting (shaking hands with the right hand, looking in the other s eyes. Depending on the general abilities (extraversion), the greeting will be rather timid or passive (e.g. weak handshake) or active and friendly (e.g. firm handshake). This example further shows that social competences strongly depend on a given situation. Specific situations require specific social competences. Development of competences and causes of competence deficits In accordance with the aims of the EU, initial education and training systems should offer all young people the means to develop key competences to a level that equips them for meeting the demands of working life (Official Journal of the European Union, 2006). The question which arises is, therefore, which factors favour the development of social competences or hamper the their development. Social competences are the result of the entirety of socialisation experiences of an individual 2. The origins of social competence are to be found in the early years of childhood. In developmental psychology, the development of basic social competences is considered an important developmental task in childhood, whereas in adolescence, these competences should be differentiated (Hurrelmann 2007). If the developmental tasks are not mastered sufficiently, it is highly probable that the differentiation and further development of social competences will fail in adolescence also. Strengthening social competences There is a multitude of approaches aimed at strengthening social competences (for an overview, see Hinsch/Pfingsten 2002 and Jerusalem/Klein-Heßling 2002). Some approaches follow the lines of learning theory (amongst others Bandura 1997), 2 Apart from the conditions of socialisation, biological and genetic factors also have an influence on the development of social competences (Eisenberg et al 2005). As no interventions to strengthen social competences can be derived from influencing biological factors, they shall not be treated here. 9

10 claiming that deficits in the field of social competences can be compensated by practising socially competent behaviour. These theories do not explicitly gear to the causes of the deficits. They rather act on the assumption that social skills can be trained by behavioural practice. Hinsch and Pfingsten (2002) point to a good empirical foundation that seems to prove the efficiency of such approaches. Other approaches, however, focus more strongly on the cognitive basis of the competence deficit (e.g. Jugert et al 2010). It is assumed that deficiencies in the field of socially competent behaviour are caused by deficits on the level of information processing (e.g. problems at taking other perspectives, i.e. the interaction partner s intention is not interpreted correctly). These deficits are to be changed by targeted training programmes. It was also possible to demonstrate the positive effect of such approaches (Hinsch/Pfingsten 2002). Furthermore, the role of social self-efficacy expectations has to be considered. The conviction to be able to master social requirements by displaying one s own behaviour even under difficult conditions is an important condition for socially competent behaviour. When people who doubt their social self-efficacy, they tend to avoid situations requiring socially competent behaviour. Therefore, competence deficits persist. Programmes aimed at strengthening social self-efficacy expectations are particularly successful if individuals are given the opportunity to perceive themselves as socially competent (Jerusalem/Klein-Heßling 2002). Finally, the issue of the motivation of participants in programmes aimed at strengthening social competences has to be addressed. Target groups frequently have extremely negative experiences from school, which has a negative effect on their eagerness to learn. In order to counter the low level of motivation when it comes to actively take part in competence enhancing programmes, it is essential to create an attractive design of competence trainings which also have to be unbiased (Jugert et al 2010). Social competences and social capital their importance for the labour market Deficits in social competences, such as the ability to cooperate with others or the ability to deal with conflicts constitute per se an obstacle for the transition from school to the job market, which can easily be seen by ability to work in a team, a much abused term, being expected as an important competence according to job advertisements in the newspapers (Orthey 2002). A German study emphasises the strong demand for social competences as evidenced by job advertisements (Dietzen 1999, quoted in Orthey 2002). Apart from this direct influence of an individual s social competences on his or her job market perspectives (e.g. the individual s competences do not correspond to required competences), there are multiple indirect influences of deficient social competences on the individual s opportunities on the job market. These result, among other things, from the fact that deficits in the field of social competences are linked to other factors which also affect the individual s employment outlook. 10

11 Social competences and school performance Social competences are not only per se a goal of socialisation worth pursuing, but social competences also serve the acquisition of knowledge and cognitive skills. Studies, for instance, indicate a relationship between school performance and social competences (Wentzel 1991, Jerusalem/Klein-Heßling 2002). Students with low social competences have a poorer school performance, subsequently leading to a lower level of educational attainment, which constitutes another hurdle for the transition to working life (Dornmayr 2006, Steiner 2009). Social competences and social capital Social competences contribute to the formation of social capital and to a higher social cohesion (Rychen 2003). Social capital may be defined as those resources 3 which are rooted in an individual s social network and can be mobilised and used by targeted action (Lin 1999: 35). Here is revealed the connecting factor to the importance of social competences. Social competences are a major requirement for the establishment of social relationships and the formation of social networks, which are at the basis of social capital. Individuals with poor social competences have difficulties establishing and maintaining positive social relationships. Studies indicate the importance of the social network and of social capital for finding ways out of unemployment. On the basis of the German low-income panel ( ), Brandt (2006) comes to the conclusion that about one third of the unemployed find a new employment due to social contacts. Furthermore, the chance of getting out of unemployment rises with the number of close social contacts and their width. Freitag (2000) comes to similar results for Switzerland. The importance of social capital resurfaces in the context of the concept of employability (Fugate et al 2004). Social networks enhance an individual s employability, as they can make use of informal social contacts for finding a job (e.g. a friend has a friend who knows someone who has a vacancy). In summary, individuals featuring deficits in the field of social competences not only have fewer opportunities on the labour market, as they do not meet the necessary requirements in terms of socially competent behaviour, but (1) they also show deficits in methodological, professional and academic competences (poor school performance and a low level of educational attainment or now successfully completed education at all, no vocational education, ), (2) they show characteristics (behavioural problems, consumption of addictive substances, delinquent behaviour) which make them unattractive to potential employers, and (3) finally they have very few social networks they could make use of for the transition from school to working life. 3 It should be noted that just as in the field of social competences, no uniform definition of social capital has ever been generally accepted (for different definitions, see Healy et al (2001)). 11

12 3) METHODOLOGY Implementation of the Training Activities The innovation of the RE-CHANCE lies in a process oriented approach in developing social competences with disadvantaged young people. The needs of the participants are vital for all project activities. The training activities are part of a triangle composed by theoretical training (indoor activities) together with outdoor activities supported by the individual counselling, assessment and monitoring. This triangle comprises complex and mutually contected sets of activities. All these components formed the unique and original approach for teaching and training of the competences and helped effectively and succesfuly reach all project objectives and intentions. Theoretical training (seminar / workshops / indoor activities) Outdoor activities Individual counselling and assessment The project`s method is based on the development of social skills through different training modules and outdoor activities on a holistic approach: overcome personal barriers; identify and build on strengths; develop self esteem; improve social and interpersonal skills; build confidence in learning abilities; make a successful transition to independent living, education and training or work. The competence training itself was then divided in two different, but closely connected, parts: theoretical part and outdoor one supported by individual counselling and assessment. 1) The theoretical part was composed from classroom lessons and workshops aimed to train social, methodical and personal competences in VET. Training material is available on the project website ( in all partner languages. 12

13 2) One of the most important added values of the RE-CHANCE project was the outdoor training. As the learners could implement the skills and knowledge from the theoretical part of the training process directly into the practise and real life situations, the ourdoor activities were considered as very powerful and effective methods for developing the social competences that help learners to integrate into the workplace and support their social integration because they can verify their skills and knowledge in real life situations. As the target groups slightly varied from parter country to partner country the project developed and implemented different outdoor methods and games. In general the outdoor training included teambuilding games, orienteering/running activities but also activities in public and together with institutions / politicians like a city rallye and a city job research challenge, meditation etc. 3) The third integral part of the RE-CHANCE training implementation was also the individual work with the trainees and assessment. The assessment approach is one of the key activities held under the project which enabled to directly communicate with the participants and discover the individual possible causes of the social exclusion of the participant and to document progress. The assessment contained three particular levels: Ex-ante assessment: Personal interviews identification of needs Ongoing assessment: Personal interviews identification of progress Ex-post assessment: Personal interviews identification of impact, further development The personal interviews represented the key stones for communication with the participants. During this process the interests and expectations of particular learners were discussed and discovered. The assessment was implemented by tutors who have extensive experience in working with the target group. Thanks to the individual assessment approach the tutors were able to create a confidential atmosphere that allowed the participanst to openly discuss their feelings and opinions, as well as their improvement in the given fields. In the most of the caseses we have found out that the individual assessment helped to identify the learners difficulties and troubles with the learning process as well as those in in their personal and work lives. The assessment interviews had very positive effects on the improvement of the learners social competences, especially self confidence and motivation for VET, further education and social integration. All interviews were reported by using the Assessment methods developed under the RE-CHANCE project and adapted by partners regarding the particular target groups. Some of the participants of the training also took part in additional activities that were mainly focused on training organised by the local labour offices. The participants had the opportunity to obtain new qualifications, improve their vocational skills and competences, actively communicate with employers and use special counselling regarding orientation on the labour market provided by specialists working at the labour offices or in labour market measures implemented by VET providers. The assessment portfolio, as well as the outdoor activities represent the additional and innovative value of the RE-CHANCE project and are explained and described in the following units. 13

14 4) OUTDOOR EDUCATION MODULE This module is dedicated to teachers and trainers in VET and also to counsellors, parents and others working with young people who would like to include outdoor education in their teaching practice and everyday routine. It has three goals: to give basic information about outdoor education, to present several outdoor excercises ready to use and easy to adapt for teachers in VET to give the inspiration for looking more closely in the area Outdoor education what is this? Outdoor education can be understood as a curriculum content area, as a group of activities and as a method of teaching. Definitions of outdoor education vary according to culture, philosophy, and local conditions. Probably the easiest explanation is to say that outdoor education refers to organised learning that takes place in the outdoors (i.e. Bunting, 2006). Outdoor education programs involve residential or journey-based experiences in which students participate in a variety of adventurous challenges in the form of outdoor activities such as hiking, climbing, orienteering, canoeing, ropes courses, and group games. Outdoor education draws upon the philosophy, theory, and practices of experiential education and environmental education. Outdoor education can also be defined as experiential learning in, for, or about the outdoors. (Bunting, 2006, Wikipedia, Ken Gilbertson, Timothy Bates, Terry McLaughlin, Alan Ewert, 2006). According to Foran (2010) being outdoors is a sensual experience where nature, body, emotions, senses and mind play the sane, very important role since they allow elevating the intensity of the experience and creating an adventure in education. The outdoors is a place where participants have the opportunity to actualize and expand their understanding of content and abstract curriculum. They discover personal growth insights as they form positive community relations. Many skills can be realised in the outdoors beyond the skills of various outdoor pursuits, including communication, cooperation, problem solving, decision making, citizenship, and critical thinking. Outdoor education uses the natural environment to help participants learn experimentally. The outdoor classroom is limitless for different learning purposes and challenging for students and teachers at the same time. When did outdoor education begin? Modern outdoor education does not have one father and owes its beginnings to different initiatives. In the late 19th century and early 20th century in Europe, the UK, the USA, Australia, and New Zealand different organised camping events were evident. In 1907 the Scouting movement was established by Robert Baden-Powell, who employs to it non-formal education with an emphasis on practical outdoor activities. The Forest schools of Denmark are examples of European programs with similar aims and objectives. A key outdoor education pioneer was Kurt Hahn, a German educator who founded schools such as the Schule Schloss Salem in Germany, Gordonstoun School in Scotland, Atlantic College in Wales, the United World Colleges movement, the Duke 14

15 of Edinburgh Award scheme (which emphasizes community service, craftsmanship skills, physical skill, and outdoor expeditions), and the Outward Bound movement ( The second half of the twentieth century saw rapid growth of outdoor education in all sectors (state, voluntary and commercial) with an ever-widening range of client groups and applications. In this period Outward Bound spread to over 40 countries around the world, including the USA in the 1960s. This, in turn, spawned many offshoot programs, including Project Adventure and the National Outdoor Leadership School, and professional associations such as the Wilderness Education Association and Association for Experiential Education ( The aims of outdoor education Different authors (i.e. Adkins, C., Simmons, B., Ford, P.) distinguish different aims of outdoor education, but for the puroposes of this material we can say that some typical aims of outdoor education are to: learn how to overcome adversity enhance personal and social development develop a deeper relationship with nature That is why outdoor education is a very good tool for introducing new, experimental teaching methods in vocational education as well as providing old content in a new manner. Through the outdoor education students engaged physical, mental and emotional selves. A very good example explaining what the outdoor education is, was presented by S.Priest, (1988) and called The ladder of environmental learning. 15

16 Outdoor exercises The project partners decided to adapt, design and present exercises from three techniques: orienteering, sports and games. There are many exercises which can be easily implemented because they don t need a lot of specialist equipment and so can find a place in vocational training easily. In fact everybody using this module is encouraged to try out and modify examples taking into account the needs of their target group and to create others. Each excercise has the same structure where all information needed for performing it are given. The template is shown below: 1. Description of the exercise Title of the exercise Aim will show you what skills and attitudes can be developed by using the exercise For whom will show you a target group of the exercise Techniques will show you on which techniques the exercise is based 16

17 What is needed to perform the exercise what you need to get before performing the excercise Duration of the exercise Size of the group suggested number of participants 2. Processing ideas Instructions given to the participants Realization of the exercise - will show you the description of the expected development, sticky moments, additional instructions for the participants, variation of the exercise 3. Conclusions Suggested questions and comments to help your students to understand the idea of the exercise and to reflect the outcomes The presented outdoor education excercises emphasize at one or more of fhe following aims: enhance teamwork and cooperation improve communicarion skills deal with stress build a team teach outdoor survival skills improve problem solving skills understand natural environments see and expand one s limits deal with conflicts within the group improve stamina and determination deal with new / unfamiliar situations strengthen motivation new perspectives and solutions dealing with failure assertiveness patience give fun Orienteering Adapting orienteering for groups with special needs Basic elements The modern version of orienteering was born in Sweden as a competitive sport. There are many different kinds of orienteering. Foot orienteering in the outdoor (forest, countryside, mountains) is the most common but you can also orienteer on skis, mountain bikes, horses, or by canoe. Official sign for Orienteering 17

18 People with reduced mobility can also participate in versions of orienteering tailored to meet their needs. Each participant is given a topographic map with the various control points circled. Each point has a flag marker and a distinctive punch that is used to mark the scorecard. Competitive orienteering involves running from checkpoint to checkpoint. It is more demanding than road running, not only because of the terrain, but because the orienteer must constantly concentrate, make decisions, and keep track of the distance covered. However, the competitor's ability to think under pressure and make wise decisions is more important than speed or endurance. Equipement needs A map: the ideal map for an orienteering course is a multi-coloured, accurate, largescale topographic map. A topographic map is a graphic representation of selected man-made and natural features of a part of the earth's surface plotted to a definite scale. A compass: it s important for the competitive activity. It s not always needed for non-competitive ones, depending on the difficulty of the terrain or the place where the activity field is prepared. Control flag: is normally three dimensional and made of orange and white nylon. It is usually hung from a stand or tree. Attached to the control is a coded punch. A punch: The punch may either be manual or electronic; it s used to verify that the control location has been found by the participant; other solutions can fit the purpose: collect specific objects close to the control flag; shot pictures of the control flag and many others. For adapted orienteering activities you need to add all the material requested by the single situation; in the following pages you ll find some examples. Prerequisites For participants: map reading, compass use, basics of respect each other and group rules; for adapted orienteering you may just need to explain the details of the exercises, such as the area of the activity, the path to be followed, the objects to be collected, the places to be shot in the pictures and so on. 18

19 For officials or responsible persons: specific training; previous experience in similar activities, good knowledge of the group and group dynamics, good knowledge of the activity field and safety measures. Safety In general, safety measures include: Check of the orienteering field before starting any activity. Information to participants about any particular detail that can be useful to know in order to avoid any safety problem. A first aid kit must be available at the start and finish, with one of the officials or responsible persons trained in first aid; in case of a high number of participants a doctor at the event can fit better. A whistle can be useful to participants in case of emergency. Appropriate full body clothes to wear. Control Points: have to be located where the safety of the participant can be ensured by a proper terrain, without any dangerous circumstance. Safety spot: if needed, prepare a location, along the activity path, where the participant may go if injured, fatigued or lost. Inform participants about it and how to recognize it on the field. Finish Time: it s important to set a final return time. At this time, all participants must report to the finish point, even if they have not completed the course. Search-and-Rescue Procedures: if all participants have not returned by the end of the competition, the officials or responsible persons should drive along the boundaries of the field to locate and help the missing participants. Participants must aid injured participants whom they encounter in the activity field and, crossing roads or railways, must observe traffic rules. For adapted orienteering, you may need to train properly the operators about the specific safety procedures according to the special needs of the group and set the basic safety elements accordingly. Social comptences and skills This technique fits for the following social skills to be developed in the showed adaptation: Conflict Resolution: group orienteering with specific adaptation Confident, calm and serene when handling stress: individual orienteering Successful communication and interaction: group orienteering with specific adaptation Teamwork and co-operation: group orienteering Getting to know others and oneself: individual orienteering with specific adaptation 19

20 Decision Making: individual orienteering with specific adaptation Motivation: individual orienteering Among the possible exercises... There are many possible application of the technique, according to the needs of the special group you re dealing with. You can find some of them below. 20

21 1. Description of the exercise GROUP ORIENTEERING Aims Target group: Technique: Equipment - what is needed to perform the exercise? Duration of the exercise Size of the group To see and expand one s limits To deal with conflicts within the group Stamina and Determination To deal with new / unfamiliar situations Teamwork and cooperation All target groups possible, People with disabilities, among groups with special needs Orienteering, group orienteering What to do: Check if it is possible / allowed to use the selected area What to prepare: Rules for the activity Rules for the creation of the groups (participants can organize the group themselves or trainers-facilitators could need to set the groups in order to have homogeneous ones) Instruction paper for participants Start /Finish area Maybe cameras From 2 hours on Any size. Be sure about the presence of trained operators if you re running the activity with participants with special needs 2. Processing ideas Instruction to the participants Realization of the exercise 1. Give participants an overview of the area and tell them the rules; if needed show rules with panels or drawings. 2. Create the groups 3. Make some group building activities, if needed; explain them the group is the participant and any person of the group is needed! 4. Give participants the map of the area, with the interested spots circled 5. Clarify the timing of the activity. 6. Explain the safety rules. Participants have to punch the game paper at the control flags and/or to collect objects or to recognize sites or to shot pictures. 21

22 Anyway this could be only the official aim of the exercise, as participants could be asked to deal with challenges or to overcome personal barriers while running the activity (cooperation with other people, management of problems, activities within unknows environments, and so on). The group can help a lot in case of people with special needs. Ask participants to shot pictures if they want/can, to be used later in the debriefing phase 3. Conclusions (way of using the results): The group orienteering can be used as a tool for group development. Once all the groups are back, start a debriefing; it s a quite important part of the exercise, as in this moment participants will be asked to reflect about the experience done and to gather important conclusions about the daily life and their relations with the other. If needed, prepare some guide questions to facilitate the debriefing. Furthermore you can get important elements in order to improve future activities. 22

23 1. Description of the exercise NIGHT ORIENTEERING Aims Target group: Technique: Equipment - what is needed to perform the exercise? Duration of the exercise Size of the group To see and expand one s limits To handle stress Stamina and Determination To deal with new / unfamiliar situations To strengthen motivation All target groups possible, People with disabilities, among groups with special needs when running group night orienteering. Orienteering, group orienteering What to do: Check if it is possible / allowed to use the selected area Use the area only if you know it properly! Be sure an experienced rescue team is available during the activity! Check the safety of the area: don t forget in the night things seems different than during the day! What to prepare: Rules for the activity Instruction paper for participants Start /Finish area Maybe cameras A whistle and a flashing light per participant (for rescue facilitating, in case of need) From 2 hours on; please have clear in mind that in the darkness the activities could take more time: give participants enough time, but in the same time give clear indications about ending time, when the trainers/operators will start to look for the missing participants/groups. The individual night orienteering is quite challenging and demanding; the group activity could be better in case of participants not used to this kind of activities. For group activity: any size; be sure to have homogeneous groups; be sure about the presence of trained operators if you re running the activity with participants with special needs. 23

24 2. Processing ideas Instruction to the participants Realization of the exercise Give participants an overview of the area and tell them the rules; if needed show rules with panels or drawings. Create the groups Make some group building activities, if needed; explain them the group is the participant and any person of the group is needed! Give participants the map of the area, with the interested spots circled Clarify the timing of the activity, focusing on ending time. Explain the safety rules, focusing particularly on the rescue procedures: what to do in case you get lost, how to use the whistle and the flashing light to help the rescue team, what to do to help other participants in case of need and so on. Participants are asked to punch the game paper at the control flags; could be quite demanding to ask them to collect objects or to recognize sites or to shot pictures. Anyway this could be only the official aim of the exercise, as participants could be asked to deal with challenges or to overcome personal barriers while running the activity (dealing with the stress caused by the darkness, cooperation with other people, management of problems, activities within unknows environments, and so on). 3. Conclusions (way of using the results): The night orienteering can be used as a tool for personal and group development, for strengthening motivation and self-esteem raising. Once all participants are back, start a debriefing; it s a crucial moment of the exercise: be sure to run it in a comfortable environment (good temperature, some water,some snacks available), as in this moment participants will be asked to reflect about the experience done and to gather important conclusions about the daily life and their relations with themselves and the others. If needed, prepare some guide questions to facilitate the debriefing (what I learned? How can I us it in the daily life?...) Furthermore you can get important elements in order to improve future activities. 24

25 1. Description of the exercise Aims: Target group: Technique: Equipment - what is needed to perform the exercise? Duration of the exercise CITY RALLYE- CITY BOUND (Austrian version) Development / Improvement of: Teamwork organisational skills communication skills developing new perspectives and solutions self-assessment cooperation dealing with stress and competition Young people Orienteering City Bound Size of the group (multiples of 3) Map, possibly bikes, cameras, tickets for public transport About 4 hours for performing the exercise and 3 hours for reflection 2. Processing ideas Instruction to the participants The participants form groups of 3. They have to perform the given tasks. The group who finishes first within the set time limit and has all answers correct wins (competition) The aim is getting to know the place they live. Here is a possible questionnaire and set of tasks: 1. Take a picture on main square or church square. On the picture there must be: at least 25 people, including 1 policeman, 1 dog and 1 child. 2. What is Kupfermuckn? (a newspaper written by homeless people) 3. How many different kinds of birds live at the Johannes Kepler University campus? 4. Go to the most famous sight of Linz and take a picture of 25

26 Realization of the exercise 5. What is Lentos? Where is it? Go there and take a picture of you in front of it.! (museum) 6. Go to Alter Dom and take a picture of a stranger in front of it. (church) 7. Where is ARS Electronica Center in Linz? What can you see and do there? 8. How long does a trip with the tram from Hauptplatz to Pöstlingberg take? 9. On which side of main square is the bell tower situated? 10. How many bridges are there in Linz? 11. Is there a harbour in Linz? The questionnaire must be adapted to local circumstances. It is very advisable to try it out beforehand to get a feeling for timing. 3. Conclusions (way of using the results) Reflection on the exercise is important. We advise to cover the set targets in the reflection process: What went well, what went wrong? What was easy, what was difficult? Why? What did you experience? Did you achieve the set tasks? What challenges did you face? How did you work as a group? Did you feel stressed with the time limit? What did you learn about Linz, about yourself, about the group? What would you do differently next time? 26

27 1. Description of the exercise Title City ralley CITY RALLYE- CITY BOUND (Bulgarian version) Aim: Target group: Development / Improvement of: Teamwork organisational skills communication skills developing new perspectives and solutions self-assessment cooperation dealing with stress and competition Young people Technique: Orienteering City Bound Equipment - what is needed to perform the exercise? Duration of the exercise Clip folders, maps, cameras About 3 hours for performing the exercise and 1 hour for reflection Size of the group (multiples of 3) 2. Processing ideas Instruction to the participants The participants form groups of 3. They have to perform the given tasks. The group who finishes first within the set time limit and has all answers correct wins. The aim is getting to know the place they live, to learn interesting facts about the town they live in. Each team becomes a map showing the places they have to 27

28 visit and the route they have to follow. On the back they will find the tasks they have to perform at the end point of the route. Here is a possible questionnaire and set of tasks: 1. First team Your first stop is Vasil Levski sports hall. - Take a picture of the whole group with the hall as a background. - Check which events are taking place in the hall next month and write them in the table on the back of the map. - Who is the hall named after? What s the name of the square where the hall is situated? - If there are flyers or other advertising materials displayed take some. 2. Second team Your first stop is Konstantin Velichkov drama theatre. - Take a picture of the whole group with the theatre building as a background. - Check which events are taking place in the theatre next month and write them in the table on the back of the map. - Which writer of the Bulgarian national revival is the theatre called after? - If there are flyers or other advertising materials displayed take some. 3. Third group Your first stop is the city hall and Maestro 28

29 Georgi Atanasov concert hall right next to it. - Take a picture of the whole group with the city hall building as a background. - Check which events are taking place in Maestro Georgi Atanasov concert hall next month and write them in the table on the back of the map. - How is the hall called? - If there are flyers or other advertising materials displayed take some. After you fulfil the given tasks follow the map to the next stop - the park island. When you arrive there take a group picture in front of the main entrance. All groups go together to the playground Kolodrum in the park. Each group receives 3 assignments. (Same tasks for all 3 groups, but to be fulfilled in different order). Each group receives a map of the park with the place they have to find and the tasks to be performed there are printed on the back. After the team fulfills the task they go back to the stadium for 29

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