Lesson Plan: Energy Conservation

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1 Lesson Plan: Energy Conservation Concepts 1. Energy conservation can be defined as the protection, preservation, management, or restoration of our energy resources. 2. Conservation is one of the ways we can reduce energy use, thus reducing the amount of pollutants put into our atmosphere from the burning of fossil fuels and reducing the negative effects felt from the burning of these fuels. 3. Conservation methods include modifications to our daily behaviors and choosing energy conscious products. Key Questions 1. What appliances use the most energy in the average home? 2. What are some ways you can conserve energy in your home? 3. What are some examples of energy conscious products? Student Learning Objectives The student will be able to calculate energy use and analyze how changing their behaviors and appliances will affect the energy their use. The student will be able to conduct an eximent and make comparisons based on eximental evidence. Standards National Sci: A1d, A1e, A1h, A2c, F5a; Math: IB2, VB, IXC; Tech: 16 Sci: A1c, A1d, A1e, A1g, A1h, A2c; Math: IVB3, IVC1, VB, IXC NYS 7 7 Anticipatory Set o We use energy in our lives everyday. The energy we use comes primarily from burning fossil fuels. We use some of that energy in the form of heat, for example natural gas and oil to heat our homes, and some of the energy we use is in the form of electricity. In the US, electricity accounts for about 40 cent of our total energy use (www.eia.doe.gov). About half of that electricity is generated by burning coal. o In our homes, electricity accounts for about 15% of the total energy we use (see reference tables and chart at end of lesson plan for more details). Our homes are filled with appliances that use electricity to work for us. Toasters, microwave ovens, televisions, and computers are some examples of the electrical appliances we use everyday.

2 o We compare electrical power use in units called watts. A watt is a measure of the rate of energy use (energy time). The total energy these appliances use over a given iod of time is measured in Watthours, or more commonly, kilowatt-hours (kw-h), equal to the watts x the time the appliance is used. o Looking at the electrical consumption of different appliances helps us determine which ones use large amounts of electricity and which do not. Knowing this information helps us to make better energy-saving choices, either by using appliances less often or by changing out older, higher energy consumers for newer, more energy efficient models. o Some of the largest electricity consumers include central air conditioning, electric water heaters, refrigerators and freezers. Older models use much more electricity than newer, energy-star models the energy savings offset replacement costs when buying new products. o Students can develop better energy saving habits if they are aware of how much energy their bad habits cost. o Many new appliances and equipment leak electricity, even when they are turned off. The average U.S. spends about $40 annually for electricity leaked by appliances in standby mode. o Lighting accounts for 20-25% of all the electricity used in the United States. An average uses 5-10% of its electricity for lighting. A commercial industry on the other hand consumes 20-30% of their electricity in lighting only. Fifty cent or more of the energy used for lighting is wasted by obsolete equipment, inadequate maintenance, or inefficient use. o Energy savings for lighting, as for all appliances, will require either reduction in use or more efficient usage. Key Terms Conservation Energy Audit Compact Fluorescent Lightbulb (CFL) Incandescent bulb Life cycle analysis Watt Leaking Electricity Light emitting diode (LED) Energy Audit Teaching Plan: Day 1: Some background o Most of the energy used in the U.S. comes from burning fossil fuels. About 1/5 (20%) of all the energy used in the U.S. is used in our homes, and of that energy, about 15 cent is in the form of electricity. In the U.S., about half of our electricity is generated by burning coal (in New York State much of our electricity comes from large hydropower plants). o We can reduce our consumption of fossil fuels by making different choices about the appliances and equipment we use in

3 our homes. In order to make effective choices, we need to know how much electricity is used by the different appliances found in our s. o Different appliances in our houses use different amounts of electricity. The biggest electricity consumers are often equipment that oates automatically, like air conditioners, water heaters, refrigerators and freezers. Sometimes buying newer, energy efficient equipment is our only option for saving energy used by these appliances, and often the energy saved offsets the cost of the new appliance. Introduce the Home Energy Audit Activity (note there are 2 approaches to do this activity students can audit their actual or school room, or they can use pictures of a model home to find appliances for the audit. Model home pictures are provided, or students can see for appliances in a model house) o In this activity, we will do an energy audit of a house. An energy audit is, according to the dictionary.com website, an evaluation of energy consumption, as in a home or business, to determine ways in which energy can be conserved. We will look at some electrical appliances and determine the amount of energy they use. This will help us discover which appliances use large amounts of electricity and which ones do not. We will look at appliances that we have control over, like lighting, TV, toaster, washing machine, as opposed to things we don t have control over like refrigerators and water heaters. o You will choose one area of your house to focus your audit for example, the kitchen, the laundry room, the bathroom, your computer, stereo and tv system, your lighting, and so on. o Everyone will bring in the results from their audits, and we will compare the electricity used by different appliances. o This will help you determine what kind of home electric energy savings are possible, and where you can make most effective choices for saving electricity in your homes. Complete Home Energy Audit Activity (begin the activity in class with an example. Students may finish the rest as homework) o Have the students read the activity instructions in (Activity: Home Energy Audit). o If students are using the model home, distribute pictures and have students choose one room to audit. o If computer access is available, students using the model home approach can access a different model home at see launch ), which is an interactive program that also contains options and tips for saving energy within the home. o Discuss the instructions and make sure everyone understands what to do. Have the students break into small groups and do one of the examples provided. Go through each step of the

4 instructions with the students to make sure they understand what to do for each row. o When going over the steps of the example, carefully explain the difference between Watts, which is the power used by the appliance (rate of energy use), recorded in row 2, and Watthours, row 9 (or kilowatt-hours kw-h, row 12), which is the total energy used by the appliance. It is important for students to understand that when we pay our electric bill, we pay for the energy we use, in kw-hrs. Thus, to save on our electric bill, we can use appliances that have lower Watt ratings, or we can use our high-wattage appliances for shorter amounts of time. o Have the students decide which appliances they will focus their audit on, making sure that there is a variety done by the class. Students may finish the activity for homework. (next day, or after students have done the audit) Discuss the Activity o Share the results of the students audits make a chart on the board, for example. o Compare the different electricity/energy uses of the different appliances. o For comparison purposes, add the energy use of large appliances such as refrigerator, water heater, air conditioner, from the resource tables. o What did you learn about energy conservation from this activity? o Are there places in the house where there seems to be more energy lost than effectively used? o If you could make one change to save electricity in your house, what would it be? o Is leaking electricity important in your overall energy consumption? What could be done to reduce the leaky electricity? Days 2-3: Review the concept of conservation and efficiency. Tell the students that today, they will be looking at one specific way to conserve energy by using more efficient types of light bulbs. (2min) Light and Heat Bulb Activity (30-35 min) o Break the students into groups of 3-4 o Hand out the activity sheets and go over the procedure (5 min) o You will provide the lux reading for each bulb o For Part II it is better to work as a class or in very small groups (1-2 students) o At the end of the Activity introduce LED (light emitting diode) bulbs - They emit almost no heat - Use only 1 W for the same brightness as a 40W Incandescent

5 - The bulb we have (40 W equiv) cost between $60 and $70 at the time of this printing, but this price is going steadily down as the technology develops. o Discuss what the students found. Emphasize that an efficient light bulb makes light and an inefficient lightbulb also makes a lot of heat. The heat energy is essentially wasted energy an energy conversion that we generally do not capture for our use. o Go over conservation ideas (haps on the board) and spend a minute or two talking about the final project. Tell the class that they will need to start developing ideas. o Also tell the class that they will be moving into the discussion of alternative energy sources. Have students think about what they know about both conventional and alternative energy sources before the next class. *For the Light and Heat Bulbs you have two options of how to run things.* Option 1: o Part 1 of the activity on Day 2 o Home Light Bulb lifecycle cost analysis as homework o Discuss Part II of the activity on Day 3 Option 2: o Part 1 of the activity on Day 2, and the Incandescent Bulb Calculations of Part II - Students take the starting tematures and turn on the bulbs - While the bulbs are heating up, complete the Incandescent Bulb Calculations on the board as a class - When the bulbs have heated up the students return to their set-ups and finish up Part I. - If there is time, discuss Part I as a class o Assign the CFL calculations of Part II for homework o Go over the homework on the following day. Resources Resource Tables 1 and 2 (attached) For more information on electricity consumption, see Home Energy Audit Activity, with resource tables see launch Light vs. Heat Bulbs Activity Light Bulbs Homework Lesson Assessment Light Bulb Homework or activity sheet completed in class

6 Resource Table 1: Energy Consumption, by Source, in the Average U.S. Household (2001) Energy Consumption in the Average U.S. Household, 2001 Electricity Million kw-hr Natural Gas Fuel Oil LPG Kerosene Total Consumption, all uses , Space Heating 9 2, Air Conditioning 7.7 2, Water Heating 8.5 2, Appliances (including refrigerator and lighting) , Source: Resource Table 2: Average U.S. Household Electric Consumption for Major Electrical Appliances, along with some Energystar Comparisons Appliance Annual kwh Consumption Household Central Air Conditioning 2,667 Room Air Conditioning 738 Water Heater 2,671 Refrigerator (see side bar) Standard 500 (new) 1800 (old) Energystar 400 Freezer 1,204 Range / Oven 458 Dishwasher 299 Water Bed Heater 960 Clothes Washer Standard 99 Energystar 52 Clothes Dryer Standard 500 Energystar 400 The energy efficiency of refrigerators and freezers has improved dramatically over the past three decades. A typical new refrigerator with automatic defrost and a top-mounted freezer uses less than 500 kwh year, whereas a typical model sold in 1973 used over 1,800 kwh year. As of January 1, 2004, full-size refrigerators that exceed the federal standard by 15% or more (and full-size freezers that exceed it by 10%) qualify for the ENERGY STAR label. Compact refrigerators and freezers must exceed the standard by 20% to qualify for ENERGY STAR. Source: ide/food.htm Sources: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. "Standby Consumption Values for Residential Appliances," table. Internet. Leaking Electricity Home Page: eetd.lbl.gov/leaking , and

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