CAPACITY MECHANISMS IN EU POWER MARKETS

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1 CAPACITY MECHANISMS IN EU POWER MARKETS Can we progress to bilateral energy options? Simon Bradbury

2 Ultimately, European renewable targets mean that prices and dispatch patterns will be dictated by wind and solar Generation (GW) Electricity price ( /MWh) Generation (GW) Wholesale prices and generation 2030 (sample wind pattern) Intermittent generation ElectricityPrice Nuclear Biomass CCSCoal Coal CHP CCGT Other renewables Demand Peaking plants Imports 0 01-Jan 04-Jan 07-Jan 10-Jan 13-Jan 16-Jan 19-Jan 22-Jan 25-Jan 28-Jan 31-Jan Greater flexibility will be needed to operate the electricity system Four main options: Flexible generation Increased interconnection Demand Side Response Electricity storage 2

3 How will system operation and market frameworks adapt? Three scenarios can be envisaged Low flexibility utilisation and RES curtailment Flexibility value is hidden from the market Flexibility value is fully revealed Regulators and TSOs are faced with intermittency challenges Requirement is understood, but value is not transparent RAs and TSOs make it a key goal to directly expose flexibility value Greater curtailment of wind and solar generation is a likely option Payments made indirectly through CPM regimes or TSO ad hoc procurement and balancing Creation of flexibility markets. Energy options, intra-day trading, crossborder balancing Curtailment increases the cost associated with renewable energy; support arrangements may change Imbalance prices are not reflective of reserve holding and flexibility costs Intra-day trading across interconnectors is important for selling flexibility across price zones Greater challenge to meet carbon emissions and RES targets Potentially leads to inefficient outcomes Cross border balancing services with common definitions of capability (but not common products) Copyright COPYRIGHT PÖYRY 2013 Pöyry Management Consulting (UK) Ltd 3

4 Overarching issue do we need capacity, or flexible capacity? How flexible? Do we even know this yet? There is a strong risk that buying "capacity" will not deliver what is actually required. How to value the appropriate product? Main challenges of designing capacity payments: How to avoid replacing market risk with regulatory risk? How to ensure that demand faces appropriate prices at the peak (noting that capacity payments tend to damp the peak prices and encourage 'too much' peak demand)? How to avoid cross-border distortions in energy trading and also in investment decisions? However: Political requirement for security of supply is often greater than the economic requirement (national self-determination of SOS and generation mix is enshrined in the Lisbon Treaty) Varies between countries (hence the proliferation of national schemes) Can t be assumed away! 4

5 CAPACITY PAYMENTS may not be the answer for providers of flexible capacity tend to be a market intervention rather than a market-based solution often called for as a thinly-guised support for stranded assets introduce a new set of regulatory risks e.g. regular intervention in SEM to bring down the total payments e.g. will we, won t we capacity payments in GB e.g. separate payment (terms) for new and existing plants tend to bring forward predetermined types of capacity (not need-driven) Do we need MW or flexibility? Over what timescales? How/when will this change? tend to emphasise long-term stability over short term efficiency therefore the pattern of cross border flows can be badly distorted demand-side is usually excluded, or included in a clumsy way tend to be national rather than regional therefore the pattern of cross-border investment can be badly distorted 5

6 Full trading of flexibility may be a more appropriate option? CAPACITY PAYMENTS Unlikely to provide sufficient weight to plants providing system flexibility (e.g. hydro plants) TRADING FLEXIBILITY More appropriate to reward flexibility directly but how can this be achieved? Balancing responsibility and marginal prices Energy options Intraday allocation of capacity (Explicit & Implicit) Cross-border balancing Four steps needed to reveal the full value of flexibility 6

7 1. All parties should have appropriate incentives to balance the system In some markets, RES does not have balancing responsibility, insulating generators from the costs of balancing the system and removing the incentive for them to manage their own impact on balancing Imbalance costs are often dampened by the impact of, for example, reserve contracts, which reduces the financial incentive for parties to balance their own positions Balancing responsibility for all parties Cost-reflective charges All parties should have balancing responsibility for their own generation, including RES to integrate it into the wholesale market Cost-reflective balancing and imbalance charges will provide appropriate financial incentives for parties to efficiently manage their impact upon system balancing 7

8 2. Energy options provide an alternative route Market based approach for delivering generation adequacy while valuing the ability to adjust i.e. flexibility Energy Options At present: Flexible generators may not be able to fully cover their costs through prevailing shortterm marginal cost based pricing This also leads to high peaks in wholesale market price at times of scarcity since flexible generators set their bids to recover their fixed costs over a smaller number of hours Alternative: Market participants would decide whether and how much to insure against market price fluctuations. This could co-exist with the existing energy-only market without polluting the wholesale market price Energy-only market Energy option Contracts Similar to current market arrangements Participants choose to: trade an energy option or face uninsured energy prices / generating outlook Peaking plant or equivalent financed on the basis of option contracts 8

9 TSO still call reserve in operational timescales, but parties have choice to secure own reserve and reduce imbalance exposure TSO assess reserve requirements and secure reserve on behalf of market TSO call on contracted reserve to balance market Parties who are short pay SBP Now Gate Closure Settlement Parties assess own reserve requirements and can choose to enter into own contracts to secure this Parties can call on contracted reserve ahead of Gate Closure TSO call on contracted reserve to balance market Contract holders who are short pay insured SBP for contracted volumes Non-contract holders who are short pay uninsured SBP Future? Gate Closure Settlement 9

10 Steps in the process straw man option In advance TSO coordinates markets for reserve options in various timescales willing buyers and sellers participate in the forward reserve markets buyer and seller agree an option fee contracts require the seller to submit offers to the BM with pre-determined utilisation prices (if not already called by the buyer beforehand) contracted reserve providers must demonstrate to TSO ability for physical delivery [6] months ahead, or pay for replacement reserve TSO buyer of last resort if insufficient capacity has been secured bilaterally [6] months ahead On the day reserve providers may get called by the counterparty before gate closure reserve providers could trade obligations contracted reserve providers bid into the BM at their pre-determined prices TSO balances system using available tools including capacity under option contracts After the day participants who are short and who hold (adequate) reserve options pay the price in their bilateral agreement for the utilisation cost of the reserve option (in lieu of SBP) participants who are short but hold insufficient reserve options pay a full imbalance price (option) reserve owners receive a price 10

11 3. Intraday allocation of capacity (explicit & implicit) Target model makes it difficult to allocate interconnector capacity across different timeframes Possible to hold back capacity but rules still developing Allowing TSOs to hold back capacity has historically worried regulators Current target model focus on day-ahead markets when optimising interconnector flows Prices and flows determined simultaneously in a one-shot auction Electricity should flow from low-price zones to high-price zones Bids & offers Market B Bids & offers - Market A) Bids & offers Market C Price coupling results 50/MWh 50/MWh Market A Market Electricity flows 40/MWh Market B Electricity flows Less focus on facilitating within-day cross-border trading Does this reduce value of flexible generators? Important opportunity for participants to fine-tune positions close to real-time particularly important to accommodate outages and variable generation Regional auctions may complement the implicit continuous allocation mechanism (where there is sufficient liquidity) 45/MWh Market C 11

12 Hypothetical example: Benefits of energy options combined with appropriate allocation of cross-border capacity If in the Day-Ahead Market (DAM), zonal prices for delivery in hour H are 50/MWh in Zone X and 40/MWh in Zone Y in the DAM as currently designed, this would result in full allocation of cross-zonal capacity from Y to X e.g. regular intervention in SEM to bring down the total payments e.g. will we, won t we capacity payments in GB e.g. separate payment (terms) for new and existing plants Consider two possible scenarios for prices by time of H-4 (i.e. 4 hours before delivery) 90% chance that prices remain as in DAM 50/MWh in Zone X and 40/MWh in Zone Y 10% chance of a price-spike in Zone X so that price reaches 500/MWh (e.g. drop in forecast generation in Zone X) however, cheaper generation available in Zone Y (but no cross-zonal capacity available) In this hypothetical example, probability-weighted value is 95/MWh in Zone X and 40/MWh in Zone Y energy option becomes attractive if it could produce lower probability-weighted price in Zone X will depend on option pricing mechanics (option fee and strike price), and shape of supply curves (especially the volumes at each price) in each zone Copyright COPYRIGHT PÖYRY 2013 Pöyry Management Consulting (UK) Ltd 12

13 4. Procuring and activating balancing: ACER favour greater sharing of balancing resources by TSOs Option C favoured in short-medium term, but Option D is long-term aim A Status quo Continuation of current voluntary approach Current Option is to favour harmonised balancing products B C D European exchange with minimum harmonization requirements European balancing services exchange with medium/high level of harmonization Single European balancing mechanism possible supranational TSOs Exchanges of surpluses - both energy and reserve Identification of selected cross border products to be exchanged Every available resource (considering network constraints) is shared in the common merit order Key elements would be harmonized e.g. products, PTU, GCT etc Market design harmonized (BSP, BRP, procurement and settlement) at least at synchronous area level A more appropriate option may be to harmonise bids based on definitions of balancing services (timescales, MW, ramp rates) not arbitrary product descriptions Requires more complex bids but avoids historical legacies of alternative definitions in different countries and arbitrary product descriptions that may not be useful in future electricity systems 13

14 Summary: different policy frameworks affect the value of flexibility for different players Many questions still unanswered drive to develop Single European market but also many national initiatives and requirements Options for trading flexibility between countries How does the Target Model permit reservation of interconnection capacity for flexibility? Currently allows reservation for SO balancing but subject to proven cost-benefit analysis Does not allow reservation for intraday trading Any capacity payment design is crucial Peaky or flat payments? Can generation capacity outside the country in question obtain capacity payments? Are payments focused on particular technologies? What is the role of the TSO Does it have a long or short-term contracting strategy for reserve and system services? How willing is it to rely on markets to provide flexibility? How do its actions influence the wholesale market? Copyright COPYRIGHT PÖYRY 2013 Pöyry Management Consulting (UK) Ltd 14

15 Energy options provide a solution but also raise questions about their implementation Energy options would allow fully implicit trading whilst revealing value of flexibility If energy options would be used in lieu of capacity payments: they would reveal value of flexible generation (rather than just value of generating energy) they could be executed through OTC (with requirement to notify) or through a power exchange they could provide security when making investments decisions However they raise questions about: scope for gaming (and to thrive long-term development over short term profits) impact on small players potential for sufficiently liquid markets reverse of move away from explicit auctions under Target Model political will to move away from capacity payments (national & EU level) practical implementation (length, expiry, etc.) 15

16 Contact: Name: Simon Bradbury Phone: Copyright Pöyry Management Consulting (UK) Ltd 16

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