1 dno IN THE Supreme Court of the United States ABIGAIL NOEL FISHER, v. Petitioner, UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN, ET AL., Respondents. ON WRIT OF CERTIORARI TO THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE FIFTH CIRCUIT BRIEF FOR THE ASSOCIATION OF THE BAR OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK AS AMICUS CURIAE IN SUPPORT OF RESPONDENT JEFFREY P. METZLER CHAIR, EDUCATION AND THE LAW COMMITTEE THE ASSOCIATION OF THE BAR OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK 23 West 12th Street New York, New York CAREY DUNNE Counsel of Record PRESIDENT, THE ASSOCIATION OF THE BAR OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK 42 West 44th Street New York, New York (212) MICHAEL POREDA ALAN ROTHSTEIN On the Brief
2 i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page TABLE OF CONTENTS... i TABLE OF AUTHORITIES... iii CASES... iii OTHER AUTHORITIES... iii STATEMENT OF INTEREST OF THE AMICUS CURIAE... 1 SUMMARY OF ARGUMENT... 2 ARGUMENT... 5 I. THE ADMISSIONS PROCESS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS INCLUDES AN INDIVIDUALIZED ASSESSMENT OF EACH CANDIDATE, IN WHICH RACE IS NOT A PREDOMINANT FACTOR, AND IT THUS COMPORTS WITH CONSTITUTIONAL REQUIREMENTS... 5 II. DIVERSITY IS NECESSARY FOR THE LEGAL PROFESSION AND IS DEPENDENT UPON A RACIALLY- MIXED PIPELINE OF STUDENTS WITH THE QUALITIES TO BE SUCCESSFUL LAWYERS A. Diversity is Essential to an Effective Legal Profession... 10
3 ii B. Law Firms Have Worked to Respond to the Need for Diversity C. Holistic Evaluations of Undergraduate Applicants Credentials Can Best Identify the Skills Needed to be an Effective Lawyer CONCLUSION... 21
4 iii TABLE OF AUTHORITIES CASES Page(s) Fisher v. University of Texas, 631 F.3d 213 (5 th Cir.2011)... 8, 9 Gratz v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 244 (2003)... 5, 6, 7, 8 Grutter v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 306 (2003)... 5, 6, 8 Regents of University of California v. Bakke, 438 U.S. 265 (1978)... 5, 6, 7 OTHER AUTHORITIES American Bar Association, Diversity in the Legal Profession: The Next Steps (April 2010) The Association of the Bar of the City of New York, 2010 Law Firm Diversity Benchmarking Report (2011) The Association of the Bar of the City of New York, Statement of Diversity Principles... 11
5 iv Center for American Progress, Prosperity 2050: Is Equity the Superior Growth Model (2011)... 9 Nalty, Kathleen & Aris Reeves, Center for Legal Inclusiveness, Beyond Diversity: Inclusiveness in the Legal Workplace (Jan. 2012)... 9 New York Times, Pushed by Clients, Law Firms Step Up Diversity Efforts (July 21, 2006) Shields, Allison, Are Today s Law Firms Committed to Diversity?, Law Practice Today (April 2010)... 9 The Stanford Daily, Student group works to educate students about diversity in law firms (2010) U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: Vault.com, And the Best Law Firms for Diversity Are (July 31, 2012) Wall Street Journal Blog, Clients Demand Diversity at Law Firms (December 28, 2006)... 10
6 1 STATEMENT OF INTEREST OF THE AMICUS CURIAE 1 The Association of the Bar of the City of New York (New York City Bar), founded in 1870, is a voluntary association of lawyers and law students. Today the New York City Bar has over 23,000 members. Among its purposes are: cultivating the science of jurisprudence, promoting reforms in the law, facilitating and improving the administration of justice. The New York City Bar has 150 committees that focus on legal practice areas and issues. Through testimony, reports, amicus briefs, statements, and letters drafted by committee members, the New York City Bar comments on legal issues and public policy. This brief was prepared by the Committee on Education and the Law. This Committee addresses issues surrounding education from pre-k through higher education, including education finance, governance, legislative proposals, and special education. The New York City Bar has a longstanding interest in protecting civil rights and has submitted a number of amicus curiae briefs to this Court in cases addressing education and civil rights. 1 No counsel for a party authored this brief in whole or in part, nor did any person or entity, other than amicus or its counsel, make a monetary contribution intended to fund the preparation or submission of this brief. This brief is submitted pursuant to the blanket consent letters from all parties, on file with this Court.
7 2 SUMMARY OF ARGUMENT The University of Texas admissions policy is fully consistent with constitutional requirements, as set forth in Supreme Court jurisprudence, because it gives holistic, individualized attention to each applicant and does not permit race to be a single or predominant factor in determining whether to review. Indeed, the role of race in the University of Texas admissions process is even more modest than it was in the Harvard University or the University of Michigan Law School procedures approved by prior decisions of this Court. The effort of the University of Texas to increase the diversity of its student body is not only commendable but is essential to increase the number of students of color who go on to professional careers and thus take leadership roles in society. We write to stress the importance of an undergraduate institution s promotion of diversity from the perspective of the legal community, specifically the New York City legal community. The legal profession recognizes the importance of diversity and has made major efforts to foster it. Over one-third of the nation s population is comprised of African American, Latino, Asian and other people of color. And as law practice becomes increasingly globalized, the world it is servicing is overwhelmingly comprised of people of color. In order to serve these individuals, and the businesses, institutions and organizations they lead, lawyers must have a range of cultural experiences and insights and a keen understanding of those they represent.
8 3 Despite the diversity efforts that have been undertaken and the progress that has been made to date, lawyers of color are still underrepresented in the legal community. The New York City Bar has helped the lawyers in New York City focus on diversity, has obtained commitments from firms to improve it, and has been tracking the progress of law firms in achieving it. Nevertheless, the latest data still show that only 16.6 percent of lawyers in the law firms that have signed our Statement of Diversity Principles, and only 6.3 percent of law firm partners, are lawyers of color. If these numbers are to improve, there must be a broader pool of students of color at the undergraduate level who are interested in pursuing a legal career: students who have the ability to negotiate and mediate, to exercise leadership, to persevere and to see a matter through to its conclusion; in other words, students who some day would be effective in understanding and serving clients legal needs. In the context of undergraduate admissions, these are the kinds of skills and attributes that may not necessarily be reflected in grades and standardized test scores, but which may instead be identified by examining the totality of an applicant s background and experience. Understanding the context of an applicant s circumstances, including race, can be a valuable indicator for a college as to what the applicant has achieved and whether the applicant can use the college degree and experience to be a productive member of his or her community.
9 4 It is essential that colleges be able to consider these attributes, and to view them in the context of an individual s race and attendant circumstances, in making admissions decisions. From the perspective of the legal profession, this individualized approach can give increased opportunities to students whose skills will be well matched to ultimately serve an increasingly diverse population that has a vast array of legal needs.
10 5 ARGUMENT I. THE ADMISSIONS PROCESS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS INCLUDES AN INDIVIDUALIZED ASSESSMENT OF EACH CANDIDATE, IN WHICH RACE IS NOT A PREDOMINANT FACTOR, AND IT THUS COMPORTS WITH CONSTITUTIONAL REQUIREMENTS In a series of three cases, Regents of University of California v. Bakke 2, Gratz v. Bollinger 3, and Grutter v. Bollinger 4, this Court described the acceptable use of race in the university admissions process. In these cases, the Court barred universities from conferring discrete benefits based solely on race but permitted universities to consider the race of applicants on an individualized, holistic basis, so long as race is not considered in a way which insulates minorities from competition with all other candidates. Bakke, 438 U.S. at 317; Grutter, 539 U.S. at 334. In University of California v. Bakke, the Court held that setting aside a certain number of seats in a class for minority students violated the Equal Protection Clause. In Gratz v. Bollinger, the Court U.S. 265 (1978) U.S. 244 (2003) U.S. 306 (2003).
11 6 barred a university from giving candidates twenty points, one-fifth of the points needed to earn admission, just for being a minority. This automatic award assured admission for virtually every minimally qualified minority applicant. Id. at 266, 272. While the holdings in Bakke and Gratz specified what a university could not do when considering an applicant s race, these decisions also made it clear that universities can constitutionally use race as an aspect of the admissions process. Bakke, 438 U.S. at 317; Gratz, 539 U.S. at 244. Indeed, the Court upheld just such an approach in Grutter v. Bollinger because consideration of race among other factors is critical to a school s right to assemble a heterogeneous student body. The Grutter Court held that universities cannot insulate applicants who belong to certain racial or ethnic groups from the competition for admission. 539 U.S. at 334 (citing Bakke, 438 U.S. at 315); see also Gratz, 539 U.S. at 276 (O Connor, J., concurring, noting that what made the Michigan undergraduate admissions process unconstitutional was its lack of meaningful individualized review ). An admissions program is constitutional where it treats each applicant as an individual in the admissions process. Bakke, 438 U.S. at 318. The importance of this individualized consideration in the context of a race-conscious admissions program is paramount. Grutter, 539 U.S. at 337. Bakke and Grutter map out constitutionally acceptable race-conscious admissions processes which do not isolate minorities from meaningful
12 7 competition and, more fundamentally, do not consider applicants race in a vacuum. Rather, race is used to contextualize the background of a candidate. In Bakke, Justice Powell cited Harvard College as an example of a constitutional raceconscious admissions process. At Harvard, admissions officials were allowed to consider racial and ethnic background among other factors that would help contribute to a diverse student body, the definition of diversity being necessarily fluid. 438 U.S. at 316. Race could tip a decision just as geographic origin or a life spent on a farm. Id. In such an admissions process, being a member of a minority group does not necessarily become decisive to a disposition. 438 U.S. at 317. An Italian-American would still be chosen over an African-American if the Italian-American had overall qualities that would be more likely to promote educational pluralism. Id. No goals or quotas existed for the number of racial minorities to be admitted, but Harvard did keep some track of the numbers of students in various categories that it was admitting. Id. at The Harvard system also was used as a model of acceptable race-conscious admissions in Gratz, as compared with the University of Michigan s undergraduate admissions program. Gratz, 539 U.S. at The unconstitutionality of the undergraduate Michigan program was rooted in its formulaic approach to reaching a pre-determined measure of diversity at the school. See id. at 271 (stating that the Harvard plan did not assume that a person s race automatically ensured a specific and identifiable contribution to a university's diversity. ).
13 8 In her concurring opinion in Gratz, Justice O Connor emphasized that what made the University of Michigan s process unconstitutional was its lack of meaningful individualized review and that the award of twenty points was given to every minority automatically. Id. at 276 (emphasis in original). In contrast, the Michigan Law School admissions program held constitutional in Grutter essentially adopted the Harvard model by engaging in a highly individualized, holistic review of each applicant s file, giving serious consideration to all the ways an applicant might contribute to a diverse educational environment.unlike the program at issue in Gratz v. Bollinger, the Law School awards no mechanical, predetermined diversity bonuses based on race or ethnicity. Grutter, 539 U.S. at 337 (internal citations omitted). The University of Texas affords all of its candidates individualized review similar to that conducted at Harvard College and Michigan Law School. Its admissions process has been fashioned to assure that individual assessment is safeguarded through the entire process. 5 An applicant s race is 5 Grutter, 539 U.S. at 392 (Kennedy, J., dissenting). Justice Kennedy, in his dissent in Grutter expressed concern that race was likely outcome determinative in the decisions about who would fill the seats in the bottom 15% to 20% of the class. 539 U.S. at 389. This concern arose because admissions officials monitored the racial composition of the incoming class on a day-to-day basis and could recalibrate the plus factor given to race depending on how close they were to achieving the Law s School s goal of critical mass. Id. at 392. The monitoring of racial composition and the concurrent failure to limit the size of the plus factor created a likelihood that
14 9 one of many factors considered in a broad assessment called a personal achievement score, which is used to assess candidates whose merit as applicants is not fully reflected by their academic achievement. Fisher v. University of Texas, 631 F.3d 213, 228 (5th Cir. 2011). The personal achievement score includes an applicant's demonstrated leadership qualities, awards and honors, work experience, and involvement in extracurricular activities and community service. Id. at 228. Additionally, the personal achievement score includes a special circumstances element that may reflect the socioeconomic status of the applicant and his or her high school, the applicant's family status and family responsibilities, the applicant's standardized test score compared to the average of her high school, and beginning in 2004 the applicant's race. Id. The use of race at the University therefore fits the basic parameter for a constitutional use of race because it requires individualized review and does not award candidates any discrete benefit based solely on race. Perhaps most importantly, the University does not keep a running tally of the racial composition of its incoming class. 631 F.3d at 236 ( [D]emographics are not consulted as part of any individual admissions decision, and UT s admissions procedures do not treat certain racial groups or minorities differently than others when reviewing individual consideration was not preserved at the end of the admission season. Id. at 390.
15 10 individual applications. ). As the admissions season comes to a close, admissions officials will not alter the admissions in an effort to meet a particular racial goal. The University of Texas procedure thus does not raise the concern that candidates at the bottom of the admitted class were being selected solely, or almost solely, based on their race. By carefully confining the role that race can play in any particular admissions decision, the University of Texas admissions process comports with constitutional requirements. II. DIVERSITY IS NECESSARY FOR THE LEGAL PROFESSION AND IS DEPENDENT UPON A RACIALLY-MIXED PIPELINE OF STUDENTS WITH THE QUALITIES TO BE SUCCESSFUL LAWYERS A. Diversity is Essential to an Effective Legal Profession The legal profession has to adapt to a changing country and a changing world. People of color comprise 36 percent of this nation s population and contributed 92 percent of the nation s population growth over the past decade. 6 Not only more people 6 Center for American Progress, Prosperity 2050: Is Equity the Superior Growth Model (2011), progress.org/issues/2011/04/prosperity_2050.html.
16 11 of color, but more businesses, institutions and governmental bodies with diverse leadership, are seeking legal professionals who have an understanding of their viewpoints and needs. In addition, the profession is more global, with a growing number of U.S. law firms providing services in parts of the world dominated by people of color, such as Asia, Africa and Latin America, whose inhabitants comprise over 80 percent of the world s population. 7 By contrast, lawyers of color comprised only 11 percent of the nation s legal profession as of As a result, there are too many American legal teams that do not have the benefit of diverse perspectives and experiences in serving this changing client base. The need for a diverse pool of lawyers has not been lost on the business community. In 1999, approximately 500 chief legal officers of major companies signed Diversity in the Workplace: A Statement of Principle, reinforced in a 2004 Call to 7 U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: Nalty, Kathleen & Aris Reeves, Center for Legal Inclusiveness, Beyond Diversity: Inclusiveness in the Legal Workplace at 40 (Jan. 2012).
17 12 Action. 9 Many companies have made it their stated policy to have diverse legal teams handle their matters. 10 To this end, there are increasing efforts to evaluate and rank major law firms on the basis of their diversity efforts, 11 and these rankings go beyond the standard measures of the percentage of lawyers of color at various positions in the firm to consider more broadly their diversity and inclusion practices. In addition, law students are increasingly expecting law firms to have strong diversity policies and a diverse workforce. 12 Beyond the business community, there are myriad other areas of the legal profession that are 9 See =security/getfile&pageid= See also Shields, Allison, Are Today s Law Firms Committed to Diversity?, Law Practice Today (April 2010). 10 See, e.g., New York Times, Pushed by Clients, Law Firms Step Up Diversity Efforts (July 21, 2006), d=all); Wall Street Journal Blog, Clients Demand Diversity at Law Firms (December 28, 2006), wsj.com/law/2006/12/28/clients-demand-diversity-at-law-firms/. 11 See, e.g., Vault.com, And the Best Law Firms for Diversity Are (July 31, 2012), blog/workplace-issues/and-the-best-law-firms-for-diversity-are-/. 12 See, e.g., The Stanford Daily, Student group works to educate students about diversity in law firms (2010),
18 13 in need of more lawyers of color to broaden the perspectives that are brought to bear, and to create more racially mixed legal teams. More lawyers of color, for example, are needed in government agencies, including law enforcement, policy making and administration; in community lawyering; in educational settings and as judges. In short, there is a heavy demand in all corners of the profession for more lawyers of color. B. Law Firms Have Worked to Respond to the Need for Diversity Law firms have long recognized the importance of having diverse groups of lawyers working on their clients matters. In 1990, the New York City Bar formed a committee, chaired by former Association President and former Secretary of State Cyrus Vance and comprised of major law firm leaders, to coordinate diversity efforts among the City s major firms. Over the years, the committee has developed various policies and statements, including a Statement of Diversity Principles 13 signed by 108 firms and 18 corporations. The Statement acknowledges the importance of diversity in the legal profession: 13 The Association of the Bar of the City of New York, Statement of Diversity Principles, pdf/diversity_principles2.pdf.
19 14 With greater diversity, we can be more creative, effective and just, bringing more varied perspectives, experiences, backgrounds, talents and interests to the practice of law and the administration of justice. A diverse group of talented legal professionals is critically important to the success of every law firm, corporate or government law department, law school, public service organization and every other organization that includes attorneys. The signatory law firms also participate in an annual Diversity Benchmarking Survey to evaluate various statistical categories of diversity, and the aggregated results are made public. The Statement of Principles recognizes that achieving diversity in the profession is an evolutionary process. As has been well documented, progress has been notable but slow; people of color are underrepresented in the profession, especially in the higher levels of law firms. According to the last published benchmarking survey the Association conducted, covering the year 2010, lawyers of color
20 15 comprised only 16.6% of law firm associates and 6.3% of partners in the surveyed firms. 14 The profession widely acknowledges that its ongoing diversity efforts have not been as successful as desired, and in large part this is due to an insufficient pipeline of students of color in law school. 15 To overcome this challenge, there obviously needs to be a more diverse pipeline of undergraduate students, and for that to happen, undergraduate institutions, in their admissions evaluations, must be allowed to consider race in the overall context of an individual applicant s circumstances and experiences. In other words, a more diverse undergraduate student body is ultimately a prerequisite for a more diverse legal profession, and the key to achieving this lies with the undergraduate admissions process. 14 The Association of the Bar of the City of New York, 2010 Law Firm Diversity Benchmarking Report (2011) at 8, pdf. 15 See generally American Bar Association, Diversity in the Legal Profession: The Next Steps (April 2010), uild/diversity/041511_aba_nextsteps.authcheckdam.pdf.
21 16 C. Holistic Evaluations of Undergraduate Applicants Credentials Can Best Identify the Skills Needed to be an Effective Lawyer When lawyers enter the profession, they must call upon many skills that are not necessarily reflected in their law school grade performance. They must learn how to understand clients, identify what they need and consider how to find solutions, many of which require creative problem-solving and consensus-building. Lawyers seeking to establish a private practice must learn how to attract clients, develop contacts within the profession, manage a law practice and generally make their way in the legal world. Lawyers need leadership ability, strong interpersonal skills, perseverance, resilience and the appropriate temperament for law practice. Few of these attributes are tested in law school courses or on the bar exam. Yet they are necessary both to succeed as a lawyer and to serve clients effectively. These skills are developed over many years, beginning in one s youth, and by high school many are apparent. They can be reflected in a student s participation in or captaining an athletic team, leading a school club or performing community service. They also can be reflected in how a student copes with his or her environment, deals with family stresses or poverty, and handles peer pressure. From the vantage point of the legal profession, a
22 17 college or university must be able to identify and nurture students who have these skills, as they ultimately will be of great importance in addition to academic preparation. Therefore, these institutions must have the necessary flexibility to make individualized, holistic determinations of high school applicants that look beyond pure numerical measures of academic success if they are to identify effectively students of color who will become successful professionals in the future. It is especially important to permit this type of holistic evaluation because many of the students who have the skills to succeed as a professional grow up in circumstances which can put them at a disadvantage in presenting themselves effectively to admissions officers, and because some might be overlooked in a process which considers grades and test scores alone. To address this disadvantage, the New York City Bar, like many other professional organizations, has established a diversity pipeline program to reach back to high school for high school students in the City s inner-city neighborhoods, most of whom are students of color, and who have the interest and potential to become good lawyers. In conducting this program, we learned much about how different their circumstances are in looking ahead to college and a career. The Program is run by a Diversity Pipeline Committee. Reflecting the commitment to this issue
23 18 from major New York City legal employers, the committee consists of representatives of 10 law firms, 4 corporations, 6 law schools and 11 nonprofit and government agencies. The committee operates the Thurgood Marshall Summer Law Internship Program, 16 which places inner-city high school students in summer positions with legal employers. The purpose of the program is to expose these students to the possibility of a legal career. This summer, the program placed over 50 students with employers, about a third of the number that applied. Entrance to the program is based partially on grade point average, but also on teacher recommendations, a resume and an in-person interview where the candidate s qualifications and experiences are explored, in order to provide a more complete picture of whether the student is poised to succeed in the program. To help these students develop their skills, the Pipeline Committee conducts resume and interview training, including one-on-one counseling; provides workshops regarding preparing for the workplace; and presents sessions on college admission and preparation. To provide a connection with older students, the program uses staff and alumni 16 See line-program/programs/185-thurgood-marshall-summer-lawinternship-program.
24 19 volunteers who are in frequent contact with the students throughout the course of the program. Over the years, we have found that our holistic approach to admission into the program, and to the preparation of individual students, has been effective. The performance of the interns in the summer employment settings has been outstanding, and it is not uncommon for an employer to ask the student to continue the employment during the year or return the next summer. Most of the students attend college and many continue their involvement with the program, serving as volunteers and mentors. In order to maintain their focus on a legal career, the Pipeline Committee has established a mentoring program connecting college students with law students. The Diversity Pipeline Program is one of a number of programs that reflect the determination of the legal profession to identify students of color whose potential can be recognized by the totality of their skills and experiences. Legal employers of all kinds have become involved in these programs, recognizing the necessity of finding potential lawyers who reflect the diversity of the population, and nurturing them through the pipeline to what hopefully will be a successful legal career. If programs like this are to succeed, however, undergraduate admissions departments must have the ability to mirror this approach of identifying and
25 20 nurturing a broad and diverse pool of students through a holistic, individualized assessment which takes race into account as one factor in the context of an admissions evaluation. A contrary process which precludes such an assessment of race and other contextual factors will inevitably exclude promising candidates, like many in our Diversity Pipeline Program, to the ultimate disadvantage of the legal profession and our society as a whole.
26 21 CONCLUSION For the foregoing reasons, the Court should rule in the University of Texas s favor and hold its admission process constitutional. Respectfully submitted, CAREY R. DUNNE Counsel of Record President, The Association of the Bar of the City of New York August 2012 JEFFREY P. METZLER Chair, Education and the Law Committee, The Association of the Bar of the City of New York On the Brief: MICHAEL POREDA Member, Education and the Law Committee, The Association of the Bar of the City of New York ALAN ROTHSTEIN General Counsel, The Association of the Bar of the City of New York Attorneys for Amicus Curiae
Impact of Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1 and Meredith v. Jefferson County Board of Education on Affirmative Action in Higher Education 1 The Supreme Court on June
No. 14-981 ================================================================ In The Supreme Court of the United States --------------------------------- --------------------------------- ABIGAIL NOEL FISHER,
DONATED FUNDS AND RACE-CONSCIOUS SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAMS AFTER THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN DECISIONS April 23, 2004 Mary Jo Dively Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania In Grutter v. Bollinger,
DISCUSSION Office of the Superintendent of Schools MONTGOMERY COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS Rockville, Maryland December 9, 2014 MEMORANDUM To: From: Subject: Members of the Board of Education Joshua P. Starr,
ADVOCATE FORM A Fellow of the College of Labor and Employment Lawyers has provided this form to you as part of the process of nominating you for membership in The College of Labor and Employment Lawyers.
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS 400 MARYLAND AVENUE, SW WASHINGTON, DC 20202-1475 REGION XI NORTH CAROLINA SOUTH CAROLINA VIRGINIA WASHINGTON, D.C. March 19, 2013 Dr. Teresa
RACE-CONSCIOUS ADMISSIONS POLICIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION: FISHER V. UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN The Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment guarantees all citizens equal protection of the laws.
Dr. Cheryl Jester-George, Senior Director of Admissions Alfred Ray English, Esq., Associate Director of Career Services Mission Statement: To increase the diversity of the legal profession by developing
Pushing Diversity in the Legal Profession By Rebecca R. Hastings, SPHR February 23, 2010 Diversity professionals know how important a compelling business case is to the success of a diversity and inclusion
UNITED STATES SENATE COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY QUESTIONNAIRE FOR JUDICIAL NOMINEES PUBLIC 1. Name: State full name (include any former names used). 2. Position: State the position for which you have been
rappaport fellows program Rappaport Center for Law and Public Policy become a rappaport fellow The Rappaport Fellows Program in Law and Public Policy provides twelve law students with opportunities and
Legal education, research, advice and advocacy for just and resilient economies 2323 Broadway, #203 Oakland, CA 94612 www.theselc.org Memo to the California State Bar Civil Justice Strategies Task Force
Approved by the Admissions Committee on January 30, 2013 UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH SCHOOL OF MEDICINE Admissions Committee Procedures and Criteria The most important function of the School of Medicine is
Access & Equity in Higher Education: Issues and Complexities Liz Reisberg UNICAMP April 2010 Issues The imperative Defining the problem Dilemmas Strategies Access or Attainment The Imperative: Where is
building diversity inspiring inclusion making it happen Having a model workplace requires a culture of inclusion and a commitment to diversity that is supported by thoughtful planning and measured by real
DELAWARE STATE BAR ASSOCIATION COMMITTEE ON PROFESSIONAL ETHICS Opinion 2008-2 February 29, 2008 This opinion is merely advisory and is not binding on the inquiring attorney or the Court or any other tribunal
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE WESTERN DISTRICT OF TEXAS AUSTIN DIVISION PUBLIC CITIZEN, INC., ) GRAY PANTHERS PROJECT FUND, ) LARRY DAVES, LARRY J. DOHERTY, ) MIKE MARTIN, D.J. POWERS, and ) VIRGINIA
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY S C H O O L O F CO N T I N U I N G AND PROFESSIONAL STUDIES GRADUATE PROGRAM APPLICATION Graduate Program Application NYU-SCPS APPLICATION FOR ADMISSION TO GRADUATE STUDY Please type
No. 11-1197 ================================================================ In The Supreme Court of the United States --------------------------------- --------------------------------- VERNON HADDEN,
1 In Pursuit of Excellence and Equity Gevirtz Graduate School of Education Strategic Plan 2007 2012 The Gevirtz Graduate School of Education is one of five colleges at the University of California, Santa
College Transition Programs: Promoting Success Beyond High School I s s u e P a p e r s T h e H i g h S c h o o l L e a d e r s h i p S u m m i t Parents have higher educational aspirations for their children
No. 14-981 In the Supreme Court of the United States ABIGAIL NOEL FISHER, Petitioner, vs. UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN, et al., Respondents. ON PETITION FOR A WRIT OF CERTIORARI TO THE UNITED STATES COURT
HOWARD HUGHES MEDICAL INSTITUTE GILLIAM FELLOWSHIPS for ADVANCED STUDY 2016 PROGRAM ANNOUNCEMENT Application Deadline: February 4, 2016 Award Notification: June 2016 Fellowship Term Begins: September 1,
ADMISSION SPRING AND FALL 2016 Master of Studies in Law (MSL) in Taxation This document describes the application policies and procedures for the Master of Studies in Law (MSL) in Taxation program. Applying
Our Commitment to Diversity Diversity is how we see. It isn t just how we look. At Robins, Kaplan, Miller & Ciresi L.L.P. diversity is a core value. Our commitment to diversity has been constantly renewed
Higher Education Act of 1965, 1998 Higher Education Act Amendments Subpart 2 Federal Early Outreach and Student Services Programs CHAPTER 1 FEDERAL TRIO PROGRAMS SEC. 402A. 20 U.S.C. 1070a 11 PROGRAM AUTHORITY;
RESOLUTION OF THE SOUTH ORANGE COUNTY COMMUNITY COLLEGE DISTRICT IN SUPPORT OF SADDLEBACK COLLEGE TO SUBMIT LETTER OF INTEREST FOR THE STATE BAR OF CALIFORNIA INITIATIVE PATHWAY TO LAW SCHOOL 2+2+3 Resolution
Race Matters Children of color are more likely to grow up in both income poverty and asset poverty. This double burden creates a difficult barrier for children to overcome. As adults, children of color
THE CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY ENROLLMENT MANAGEMENT POLICY AND PRACTICES What Is Enrollment Management? It is the intent of the Legislature that each California resident with the capacity and motivation
NEW PROGRAM PROPOSAL College: [ Eisner College of Education ] New Program Proposal Page 1/13 Department: [ Educational Leadership and Policy Studies ] 1. Title of Proposed Program: (e.g. B.S. in, Option
Part II Moses Presentation The Promise of Cluster Hires Barriers to Optimal Faculty Diversity Hires Unintentional Bias- the research Bias in Evaluating the Faculty Files-Short cuts Overcoming those Barriers
Honor Code Pledge The Theresa S. Falcon Executive MBA in Leadership provides a unique educational experience which is guided by the Foster College of Business values of integrity, collaboration, and diversity.
Master of Applied Social Science (mass) The following Departments in the College of Arts and Sciences participate in the interdisciplinary degree, Master of Applied Social Science (MASS): History Political
A Sample Schedule for Graduate School Admission You should think about graduate school early on in your college career. The earlier you make up your mind, the better off you will be as you approach the
APPLICATION CHECKLIST A complete application that is ready for review includes the following: Fall 2014 Application $50 Application Fee (if applying on or after January 1) Résumé Personal Statement Explanations
ATTACHMENT 1 Professional Degree Program Compliance With Requirements Related to Fees and Affordability April 15, 2009 Context The University of California Policy on Fees for Selected Professional School
OCS APPLYING TO BUSINESS SCHOOL Undergraduate Resource Series Office of Career Services 54 Dunster Street Harvard University Faculty of Arts and Sciences 617.495.2595 www.ocs.fas.harvard.edu Photo: Harvard
TIPS FOR HANDLING FEDERAL CRIMINAL APPEALS By Henry J. Bemporad Deputy Federal Public Defender Western District of Texas Like any field of law, criminal appellate practice is an inexact science. No one
2013 DIVERSITY SCHOLARSHIP The California Bar Foundation is committed to building a California legal profession representing the communities it serves and serving the communities it represents. The Foundation
Investment Banking as a Career Option I often times speak with alumni who are interested in pursuing careers outside of traditional law firm practice. One area that has been of interest to alumni has been
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 241 [Release No. 34-75592] INTERPRETATION OF THE SEC S WHISTLEBLOWER RULES UNDER SECTION 21F OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 AGENCY: Securities and
JASON D. HAWKINS Federal Public Defender Federal Public Defender Northern District of Texas 525 GRIFFIN STREET SUITE 629 DALLAS, TX 75202 PHONE (214)767-2746 FAX (214)767-2886 http://txn.fd.org November
Attorney Mentoring Programs: Selected Profiles An increasing number of jurisdictions have developed mentoring programs for new attorneys. These programs range from formal to informal, required to voluntary,
No. 09-50822 In The United States Court of Appeals For the Fifth Circuit ABIGAIL NOEL FISHER and RACHEL MULTER MICHALEWICZ Plaintiffs and Appellants, vs. UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN, et al. Defendants
SCHOOL OF LAW JOINT DEGREES www.usd.edu/law email@example.com 605-677-5443 BEACOM SCHOOL OF BUSINESS J.D./M.B.A. Law/Business Administration J.D./M.P.A. Law/Professional Accountancy SCHOOL OF EDUCATION Law/Educational
1 IN THE SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES 1 2 x 3 ABIGAIL NOEL FISHER, : 4 Petitioner : No. 14 981 5 v. : 6 UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT : 7 AUSTIN, ET AL. : 8 x 9 Washington, D.C. 10 Wednesday, December 9,
For more information, contact Tami Russell at firstname.lastname@example.org or 866.374.0876 Commonly Asked Questions About the Paralegal Certificate Program What does a paralegal do? A paralegal, also called a legal
UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND FRANCIS KING CAREY SCHOOL OF LAW 2016-2017 CLINIC & LEGAL THEORY & PRACTICE COURSES CARDIN REQUIREMENT The University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law operates one of
San Jose City College Pre-Law Program Application Information San Jose City College has been selected by the State Bar of California to participate in the Community Colleges Pathway to Law School Initiative
Oregon State Bar Judicial Voters Guide 2014 1) Full name: Michael A Greenlick 2) Office Address and Phone Number: Multnomah County Courthouse 1021 SW 4 th Ave, Portland, OR 97204 503-988-3214 3) Web site
P o l I C y B R I E F # 5 J A N U A R y 2 0 0 9 HHRP ISSUES A SERIES OF POLICY OPTIONS SUSTAINING THE WORKFORCE BY EMBRACING DIVERSITY According to a 2002 study by the Canadian Nurses Association, Canada
The Historic Opportunity to Get College Readiness Right: The Race to the Top Fund and Postsecondary Education Passage of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) and the creation of the Race to
Southern University at New Orleans School of Social Work Master of Social Work Degree Program 6400 Press Drive, Room 211 New Science Building New Orleans, Louisiana 70126 (504) 286-5376 FAX (504) 286-5387
THE ACCOUNTING INTERNSHIP: REASONS AND ADVICE by Robert D. Fesler and Charles W. Caldwell Employers now begin recruiting efforts well in advance of graduation. They use Internships to establish early contact
Page 34 Chapter 7 Affirmative Action and the Case of Allan Bakke I f you were an African-American in the 1960's/ you would be three times as likely to live n poverty than if you were white; you would be
St. Mary s University School of Law Application for Admission San Antonio, Texas This application is for Fall 2015 in the (Check one): Full Time Day Program or Part Time Evening Program This application
Registration Manual Clinical Education http://www.stetson.edu/law/academics/advocacy/clinics/ Professor Cynthia Batt Director of Clinical Education Trista Mustaine Associate Director of Clinical Education
Case 1:98-cv-01232-CKK Document 854 Filed 06/25/2007 Page 1 of 7 IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, v. Plaintiff, MICROSOFT CORPORATION, Civil Action
Workers Compensation: A Response To the Recent Attacks on the Commission s Authority to Suspend A Claimant s Benefits by Charles F. Midkiff Midkiff, Muncie & Ross, P.C. 300 Arboretum Place, Suite 420 Richmond,
Fisher v. University of Texas The U.S. Supreme Court Again Takes on Higher Education Admissions College Board Forum Miami, Florida October 24, 2012 Arthur L. Coleman (EducationCounsel, LLC) Kedra Ishop
TITLE IV STUDENT ASSISTANCE PART A GRANTS TO STUDENTS IN ATTENDANCE AT INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION SEC. 400. ø20 U.S.C. 1070 STATEMENT OF PURPOSE; PROGRAM AUTHORIZATION. (a) PURPOSE. It is the purpose
Dean s Charge to the Admissions Committee of The Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth General Purpose of the Admissions Committee: The Admissions Committee is one of several permanent standing committees
MBA Prospects Survey 2013 Findings June 10, 2013 Table of Contents Background 2 Prospect profile in brief 4 Information sources in the business school search 8 The application process 12 MBA-program decision
CITY OF EDMONDS REQUEST FOR QUALIFICATIONS FOR PUBLIC DEFENSE ATTORNEYS The City of Edmonds ( City ), Washington, is requesting proposals from well qualified attorneys interested in providing legal representation
Pro Bono Scholars Program A Legal Education Initiative Program Guide Hon. Jonathan Lippman Chief Judge of the State of New York PRO BONO SCHOLARS PROGRAM INFORMATIONAL GUIDE Are you interested in gaining
(Slip Opinion) OCTOBER TERM, 2015 1 Syllabus NOTE: Where it is feasible, a syllabus (headnote) will be released, as is being done in connection with this case, at the time the opinion is issued. The syllabus
THE ASSESSMENT OF GRADUATE PROGRAMS IN ART AND DESIGN National Association of Schools of Art and Design Copyright 2009, 1992, 1990 by the National Association of Schools of Art and Design Reston, Virginia
Established in 1948, the Gate City Bar Association is the oldest African American Bar Association in the State of Georgia. The Gate City Bar Association was organized by ten African American lawyers to
The prepares future leaders for success in an opportunity-rich environment, ideally located in the Oklahoma City metropolitan area. The offers an innovative learning community where teaching comes first
ATTORNEY APPLICATION FOR EMPLOYMENT DIVISION OF LAW DEPARTMENT OF LAW AND PUBLIC SAFETY STATE OF NEW JERSEY The Division of Law provides legal counsel and representation to agencies of State government
Recruiting for Diversity Recruiting for Diversity Why is diversity recruitment important? Not only is diversity recruitment the right thing to do, it is the smart thing to do. Where there is a University
Bridging the Special Education Career and Technical Education Divide: Planning for Success of Special Education Students Office of Career and Technical Education May 2009 Bridging the Special Education
Parts in blue print are instructions to user, not to be included in filed document unless so noted. [Parts and references in green font, if any, refer to juvenile proceedings. See Practice Note, this web
APPENDIX: OVERVIEW OF PUBLIC INTEREST WORK Public interest work is done in a wide variety of practice settings. Lawyers also use different advocacy approaches. Finally, different organizations focus on
Practice Test Civic Responsibilities in American Democracy -1- 1. Voting in American Democracy is legally a: A. Right B. Privilege C. Obligation D. Burden 2. What type of responsibility is voting? A. Civic
STUDENT OPPORTUNITIES SUMMER 2014 LEGAL INTERNSHIP OPPORTUNITY NOTICE TO LAW STUDENTS American Civil Liberties Union Foundation Reproductive Freedom Project, NY the country s largest team of public interest
Approved: 2/23/099 Department of History Policy 1.1 Faculty Evaluation Evaluation Procedures 1. The Department of History will evaluate all tenured and non-tenure faculty by March 1 of each academic year