1 METHODS 25, (2001) doi: /meth , available online at on Analysis of Relative Gene Expression Data Using Real- Time Quantitative PCR and the 2 C T Method Kenneth J. Livak* and Thomas D. Schmittgen,1 *Applied Biosystems, Foster City, California 94404; and Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington of the target gene relative to some reference group The two most commonly used methods to analyze data from real-time, quantitative PCR experiments are absolute quantificain a time-course study. such as an untreated control or a sample at time zero tion and relative quantification. Absolute quantification determines the input copy number, usually by relating the PCR signal Absolute quantification should be performed in situ- to a standard curve. Relative quantification relates the PCR signal ations where it is necessary to determine the absolute of the target transcript in a treatment group to that of another transcript copy number. Absolute quantification has sample such as an untreated control. The 2 CT method is a been combined with real-time PCR and numerous reconvenient way to analyze the relative changes in gene expression ports have appeared in the literature (6 9) including from real-time quantitative PCR experiments. The purpose of this report is to present the derivation, assumptions, and applications two articles in this issue (10, 11). In some situations, of the 2 CT method. In addition, we present the derivation and it may be unnecessary to determine the absolute tran- applications of two variations of the 2 CT method that may be script copy number and reporting the relative change useful in the analysis of real-time, quantitative PCR data in gene expression will suffice. For example, stating Elsevier Science (USA) that a given treatment increased the expression of Key Words: reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; gene x by 2.5-fold may be more relevant than stating quantitative polymerase chain reaction; relative quantification; that the treatment increased the expression of gene x real-time polymerase chain reaction; Taq Man. from 1000 copies to 2500 copies per cell. Quantifying the relative changes in gene expression using real-time PCR requires certain equations, assumptions, and the testing of these assumptions to Reserve transcription combined with the polymer- properly analyze the data. The 2 C T method may be ase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has proven to be a power- used to calculate relative changes in gene expression ful method to quantify gene expression (1 3). Real- determined from real-time quantitative PCR experitime PCR technology has been adapted to perform ments. Derivation of the 2 C T equation, including quantitative RT-PCR (4, 5). Two different methods of assumptions, experimental design, and validation analyzing data from real-time, quantitative PCR extests, have been described in Applied Biosystems User periments exist: absolute quantification and relative Bulletin No. 2 (P/N ). Analyses of gene expresquantification. Absolute quantification determines the sion data using the 2 C T method have appeared in input copy number of the transcript of interest, usually the literature (5, 6). The purpose of this report is to by relating the PCR signal to a standard curve. Relapresent the derivation of the 2 C T tive quantification describes the change in expression method, assump- tions involved in using the method, and applications of this method for the general literature. In addition, we present the derivation and application of two variations of the 2 C T To whom requests for reprints should be addressed. Fax: (509) method that may be useful in the analysis of real-time quantitative PCR data /01 $ Elsevier Science (USA) All rights reserved.
2 ANALYSIS OF REAL-TIME PCR DATA THE 2 C T METHOD 1.1. Derivation of the 2 C T Method The equation that describes the exponential amplification of PCR is X n X 0 (1 E X ) n,  where X n is the number of target molecules at cycle n of the reaction, X 0 is the initial number of target molecules. E X is the efficiency of target amplification, and n is the number of cycles. The threshold cycle (C T ) indicates the fractional cycle number at which the amount of amplified target reaches a fixed threshold. Thus, or X N (1 E ) C T K,  where X N is equal to the normalized amount of target (X 0 /R 0 ) and C T is equal to the difference in threshold cycles for target and reference (C T,X C T,R ). Rearranging gives the expression X N K (1 E ) C T.  The final step is to divide the X N for any sample q by the X N for the calibrator (cb): X N,q K (1 E ) CT,q X N,cb K (1 E ) (1 E C T,cb ) C T.  X T X 0 (1 E X ) C T,X K X  Here C T ( C T,q C T,cb ). For amplicons designed to be less than 150 bp and for which the primer and Mg 2+ concentrations have been properly optimized, the efficiency is close to one. Therewhere X T is the threshold number of target molecules, fore, the amount of target, normalized to an endogenous C T,X is the threshold cycle for target amplification, and reference and relative to a calibrator, is given by K X is a constant. A similar equation for the endogenous reference (internal control gene) reaction is amount of target 2 C T.  R T R 0 (1 E R ) C T,R K R,  where R T is the threshold number of reference molecules, R 0 is the initial number of reference molecules, E R is the efficiency of reference amplification, C T,R is the threshold cycle for reference amplification, and K R is a constant. Dividing X T by R T gives the expression 1.2. Assumptions and Applications of the 2 C T Method For the C T calculation to be valid, the amplification efficiencies of the target and reference must be approxi- mately equal. A sensitive method for assessing if two amplicons have the same efficiency is to look at how C T varies with template dilution. Figure 1 shows the X T R T X 0 (1 E X ) CT,X R 0 (1 E R ) C T,R K X K R K.  E X E R E, X 0 R 0 (1 E ) C T,X C T,R K,  For real-time amplification using TaqMan probes, the exact values of X T and R T depend on a number of factors including the reporter dye used in the probe, the sequence context effects on the fluorescence properties of the probe, the efficiency of probe cleavage, purity of the probe, and setting of the fluorescence threshold. Therefore, the constant K does not have to be equal to one. Assuming efficiencies of the target and the reference are the same, FIG. 1. Validation of the 2 C T method: Amplification of cdna synthesized from different amounts of RNA. The efficiency of amplifi- cation of the target gene (c-myc) and internal control (GAPDH) was examined using real-time PCR and TaqMan detection. Using reverse transcriptase, cdna was synthesized from 1 g total RNA isolated from human Raji cells. Serial dilutions of cdna were amplified by real-time PCR using gene-specific primers. The most concentrated sample contained cdna derived from 1 ng of total RNA. The C T (C T,c myc C T,GAPDH ) was calculated for each cdna dilution. The data were fit using least-squares linear regression analysis (N 3).
3 404 LIVAK AND SCHMITTGEN results of an experiment where a cdna preparation change in gene expression relative to an untreated control, was diluted over a 100-fold range. For each dilution for example, if one wanted to determine the expreswas sample, amplifications were performed using primers sion of a particular mrna in an organ. In these cases, and fluorogenic probes for c-myc and GAPDH. The average the calibrator may be the expression of the same mrna C T was calculated for both c-myc and GAPDH and in another organ. Table 1 presents mean C T values the C T (C T,myc C T,GAPDH ) was determined. A plot of determined for c-myc and GAPDH transcripts in total the log cdna dilution versus C T was made (Fig. 1). RNA samples from brain and kidney. The brain was If the absolute value of the slope is close to zero, the arbitrarily chosen as the calibrator in this example. The efficiencies of the target and reference genes are simi- amount of c-myc, normalized to GAPDH and relative to lar, and the C T calculation for the relative quantification brain, is reported. Although the relative quantitative of target may be used. As shown in Fig. 1, the slope method can be used to make this type of tissue compari- of the line is ; therefore, the assumption holds son, biological interpretation of the results is complex. and the C T method may be used to analyze the data. The single relative quantity reported actually reflects If the efficiencies of the two amplicons are not equal, variation in both target and reference transcripts across then the analysis may need to be performed via the a variety of cell types that might be present in any absolute quantification method using standard curves. particular tissue. Alternatively, new primers can be designed and/or optimized to achieve a similar efficiency for the target and reference amplicons Data Analysis Using the 2 C T Method The C T values provided from real-time PCR instrumentation are easily imported into a spreadsheet pro Selection of Internal Control and Calibrator for the gram such as Microsoft Excel. To demonstrate the anal- 2 C T Method ysis, data are reported from a quantitative gene The purpose of the internal control gene is to normalize expression experiment and a sample spreadsheet is deverse the PCRs for the amount of RNA added to the re- scribed (Fig. 2). The change in expression of the fos glo transcription reactions. We have found that myc target gene normalized to -actin was monitored standard housekeeping genes usually suffice as inter- over 8 h. Triplicate samples of cells were collected at nal control genes. Suitable internal controls for realtime each time point. Real-time PCR was performed on the quantitative PCR include GAPDH, -actin, 2 - corresponding cdna synthesized from each sample. microglobulin, and rrna. Other housekeeping genes The data were analyzed using Eq. , where C T will undoubtedly work as well. It is highly recom- (C T,Target C T,Actin ) Time x (C T,Target C T,Actin ) Time 0. Time mended that the internal control gene be properly validated x is any time point and Time 0 represents the 1 expres- for each experiment to determine that gene ex- sion of the target gene normalized to -actin. The mean pression is unaffected by the experimental treatment. C T values for both the target and internal control genes A method to validate the effect of experimental treat- were determined at time zero (Fig. 2, column 8) and ment on the expression of the internal control gene is were used in Eq. . The fold change in the target gene, described in Section 2.2. normalized to -actin and relative to the expression at The choice of calibrator for the 2 C T method depends time zero, was calculated for each sample using Eq.  on the type of gene expression experiment that (Fig. 2, column 9). The mean, SD, and CV are then one has planned. The simplest design is to use the untreated determined from the triplicate samples at each time control as the calibrator. Using the 2 C T point. Using this analysis, the value of the mean fold method, the data are presented as the fold change in change at time zero should be very close to one (i.e., gene expression normalized to an endogenous reference since 2 0 1). We have found the verification of the gene and relative to the untreated control. For the untreated mean fold change at time zero to be a convenient method control sample, C T equals zero and 2 0 equals to check for errors and variation among the triplicate one, so that the fold change in gene expression relative samples. A value that is very different from one sug- to the untreated control equals one, by definition. For gests a calculation error in the spreadsheet or a very the treated samples, evaluation of 2 C T indicates the high degree of experimental variation. fold change in gene expression relative to the untreated In the preceding example, three separate RNA preparations control. Similar analysis could be applied to study the were made for each time point and carried time course of gene expression where the calibrator through the analysis. Therefore, it made sense to treat sample represents the amount of transcript that is expressed at time zero. Situations exist where one may not compare the each sample separately and average the results after the 2 C T calculation. When replicate PCRs are run on the same sample, it is more appropriate to average
4 ANALYSIS OF REAL-TIME PCR DATA 405 C T data before performing the 2 C T calculation. Exactly how the averaging is performed depends on if the target and reference are amplified in separate wells or in the same well. Table 1 presents data from an experiment where the target (c-myc) and reference (GAPDH) were amplified in separate wells. There is no reason to pair any particular c-myc well with any particular GAPDH well. Therefore, it makes sense to average the c-myc and GAPDH C T values separately before performing the C T calculation. The variance TABLE 1 Treatment of Replicate Data Where Target and Reference Are Amplified in Separate Wells a C T (Avg. c-myc C T C T (Avg. C T Normalized c-myc amount Tissue c-myc C T GAPDH C T Avg. GAPDH C T Avg. C T,Brain ) relative to brain 2 C T Brain Average ( ) Kidney Average ( ) a Total RNA from human brain and kidney were purchased from Clontech. Using reverse transcriptase, cdna was synthesized from 1 g total RNA. Aliquots of cdna were used as template for real-time PCR reactions containing either primers and probe for c-myc or primers and probe for GAPDH. Each reaction contained cdna derived from 10 ng total RNA. Six replicates of each reaction were performed. FIG. 2. Sample spreadsheet of data analysis using the 2 C T method. The fold change in expression of the target gene ( fos glo myc) relative to the internal control gene ( -actin) at various time points was studied. The samples were analyzed using real-time quantitative PCR and the C t data were imported into Microsoft Excel. The mean fold change in expression of the target gene at each time point was calculated using Eq. , where C T (C T,Target C,Actin ) Time x (C T,Target C,Actin ) Time 0. The mean C T at time zero are shown (colored boxes) as is a sample calculation for the fold change using 2 C T (black box).
5 406 LIVAK AND SCHMITTGEN estimated from the replicate C T values is carried of an arbitrary constant. This gives results equivalent through to the final calculation of relative quantities to those reported in Fig. 2 where C T values for nonrepli- using standard propagation of error methods. One diffi- cated samples were carried through the entire 2 C T culty is that C T is exponentially related to copy number calculation before averaging. Alternatively, it is possi- (see Section 4 below). Thus, in the final calculation, the ble to report results with the calibrator quantity defined error is estimated by evaluating the 2 C T term using as 1 without any error. In this case, the error esti- C T plus the standard deviation and C T minus the mated for the average C T,cb value must be propagated standard deviation. This leads to a range of values that into each of the C T values for the test samples. In is asymmetrically distributed relative to the average Table 1, the C T value for the kidney sample would value. The asymmetric distribution is a consequence of become and the normalized c-myc amount converting the results of an exponential process into a would be 5.6 with a range of 4.9 to 6.5. Results for linear comparison of amounts. brain would be reported as 1 without any error. By using probes labeled with distinguishable reporter dyes, it is possible to run the target and reference amplifications in the same well. Table 2 presents data from 2. THE 2 C T METHOD an experiment where the target (c-myc) and reference (GAPDH) were amplified in the same well. In any particular well, we know that the c-myc reaction and the 2.1. Derivation of the 2 C T Method GAPDH reaction had exactly the same cdna input. Normalizing to an endogenous reference provides a Therefore, it makes sense to calculate C T separately method for correcting results for differing amounts of for each well. These C T values can then be averaged input RNA. One hallmark of the 2 C T method is that before proceeding with the 2 C T calculation. Again, it uses data generated as part of the real-time PCR the estimated error is given as an asymmetric range of experiment to perform this normalization function. values, reflecting conversion of an exponential variable This is particularly attractive when it is not practical to a linear comparison. to measure the amount of input RNA by other methods. In Tables 1 and 2, the estimated error has not been Such situations include when only limited amounts of increased in proceeding from the C T column to the RNA are available or when high-throughput processing C T column. This is because we have decided to dis- of many samples is desired. It is possible, though, to normalize to some measurement external to the PCR experiment. The most common method for normaliza- tion is to use UV absorbance to determine the amount play the data with error shown both in the calibrator and in the test sample. Subtraction of the average C T,cb to determine the C T value is treated as subtraction TABLE 2 Treatment of Replicate Data Where Target and Reference are Amplified in the Same Well a c-myc C T (Avg. c-myc C T C T (Avg. C T Normalized c-myc amount Tissue C T GAPDH C T Avg. GAPDH C T ) Avg. C T,Brain ) relative to brain 2 C T Brain Average ( ) Kidney Average ( ) a An experiment like that described in Table 1 was performed except the reactions contained primers and probes for both c-myc and GAPDH. The probe for c-myc was labeled with the reporter dye FAM and the probe for GAPDH was labeled with the reporter dye JOE. Because of the different reporter dyes, the real-time PCR signals for c-myc and GAPDH can be distinguished even though both amplifications are occurring in the same well.
6 ANALYSIS OF REAL-TIME PCR DATA 407 of RNA added to a cdna reaction. PCRs are then set equation where C T C T,Time x C T,Time 0 (Fig. 3). A statistically up using cdna derived from the same amount of input significant relationship exists between the RNA. One example of using this external normalization treatment and expression of GAPDH but not for 2 - is to study the effect of experimental treatment on the microglobulin (Fig. 3). Therefore, 2 -microglobulin expression of an endogenous reference to determine if makes a suitable internal control in quantitative serum the internal control is affected by treatment. Thus, the stimulation studies while GAPDH does not. This exam- target gene and the endogenous reference are one in ple demonstrates how the 2 C T method may be used the same. In this case, Eq.  is not divided by Eq.  to analyze relative gene expression data when only one and Eq.  becomes gene is being studied. X 0 (1 E X ) C T,X K X.  Rearranging gives the expression X 0 K X (1 E X ) C T,X.  Now, dividing X 0 for any sample q by the X 0 for the calibrator (cb) gives 3. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF REAL-TIME PCR DATA The endpoint of real-time PCR analysis is the threshold cycle or C T. The C T is determined from a log linear plot of the PCR signal versus the cycle number. Thus, C T is an exponential and not a linear term. For this reason, any statistical presentation using the raw C T X 0,q X 0,cb K X (1 E X ) CT,q K X (1 E X ) C T,cb (1 E X) C T,  where C T is equal to C T,q C T,cb. The prime is used to distinguish this expression from the previous C T calculation (see Eq. ) that involved subtraction of C T values for target and reference. As stated in Section 1.1, if properly optimized, the efficiency is close to one. The amount of endogenous reference relative to a calibrator then becomes 2 C T.  2.2. Application of the 2 C T Method An appropriate application of the 2 C T method is to determine the effect of the experimental treatment on the expression of a candidate internal control gene. To demonstrate this analysis, serum starvation and induction experiments were performed (7). Serum starvation/ induction is a commonly used model to study the decay FIG. 3. Application of the 2 C T of certain mrnas (8). However, serum may alter the method. The following experiment was conducted to validate the effect of treatment on the expression expression of numerous genes including standard of candidate internal control genes. NIH 3T3 fibroblasts were serum housekeeping genes (9). starved for 24 h and then induced with 15% serum over an 8-h period. Gene expression was induced in NIH 3T3 cells by Samples were collected at various times following serum stimulation; mrna was extracted and converted to cdna. The cdna was subadding 15% serum following a 24-h period of serum jected to real-time quantitative PCR using gene-specific primers for starvation. Poly(A) + RNA was extracted from the cells 2 -microglobulin and GAPDH. The fold change in gene expression and equivalent amounts were converted to cdna. The was calculated using Eq. , where C T (C T,Time x C T,Time 0 ) and amounts of 2 -microglobulin and GAPDH cdna were is presented for both 2 -microglobulin (A) and GAPDH (B). Reprinted from T. D. Schmittgen and B. A. Zakrajsek (2000) Effect of experimendetermined by real-time quantitative PCR with SYBR tal treatment on housekeeping gene expression: Validation by real- Green detection (7). The relative amounts of 2 -micro- time quantitative RT-PCR, J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 46, 69 81, globulin and GAPDH are presented using the 2 C T with permission of Elsevier Science.
7 408 LIVAK AND SCHMITTGEN values should be avoided. As described within the previ- should be used. Otherwise, presentation of the relative ous sections of this article, presentation of relative PCR gene expression should suffice. Relative quantification data is most often calculated along with an internal may be easier to perform than the absolute method control and/or calibrator sample and is rarely presented because the use of standard curves is not required. as the C T. An exception is when one is interested in The equations provided herein should be sufficient for examining the sample-to-sample variation among replidata an investigator to analyze quantitative gene expression cate reactions. using relative quantification. To summarize the To demonstrate this, 96 replicate reactions of the important steps in the design and evaluation of the identical cdna were performed using real-time PCR experiment: (i) select an internal control gene, (ii) vali- and SYBR Green detection. A master mixture conaffected date the internal control to determine that it is not taining all of the ingredients was pipetted into individperform by experimental treatment, and (iii) PCR on ual tubes of a 96-well reaction plate. The samples were dilutions of RNA or cdna for both the target subjected to real-time PCR and the individual C T values and internal control genes to ensure that the efficiencies were determined. To examine the intrasample variato are similar. Finally, statistical data should be converted the linear form by the 2 C T tion, the mean SD was determined from the 96 samnot be presented by the raw C T values. calculation and should ples. If calculated from the raw C T the mean SD was with a CV of 0.971%. However, when the individual C T values were converted to the linear form using the term 2 C T, the mean SD was REFERENCES with a CV of 13.5%. As demonstrated 1. Murphy, L. D., Herzog, C. E., Rudick, J. B., Fojo, A. T., and Bates, by this simple example, reporting the data obtained S. E. (1990) Biochemistry 29, from the raw C T values falsely represents the variation 2. Noonan, K. E., Beck, C., Holzmayer, T. A., Chin, J. E., Wunder, and should be avoided. Converting the individual data J. S., Andrulis, I. L., Gazdar, A. F., Willman, C. L., Griffith, B., to a linear form using 2 C T more accurately depicts the Von-Hoff, D. D., and Robinson, I. B. (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87, individual variation among replicate reactions. 3. Horikoshi, T., et al. (1992) Cancer Res. 52, Heid, C. A., Stevens, J., Livak, K. J., and Williams, P. M. (1996) Genome Res. 6, CONCLUDING REMARKS 5. Winer, J., Jung, C. K., Shackel, I., and Williams, P. M. (1999) Anal. Biochem. 270, Experimental design and data analysis from real- 6. Schmittgen, T. D., Zakrajsek, B. A., Mills, A. G., Gorn, V., Singer, M. J., and Reed, M. W. (2000) Anal. Biochem. 285, time, quantitative PCR experiments may be achieved 7. Schmittgen, T. D., and Zakrajsek, B. A. (2000) J. Biochem. Biophys. using either relative or absolute quantification. When Methods 46, Chen, C. Y., and Shyu, A. B. (1994) Mol. Cell. Biol. 14, designing quantitative gene expression studies using 9. Iyer, V. R., et al. (1999) Science 283, real-time PCR, the first question that an investigator 10. Giulietti, A., Overbergh, L., Valckx, D., Decallone, B., Bouillon, should ask is how should the data be presented. If abso- R., and Mathieu, C. (2001) Methods 25, lute copy number is required, then the absolute method 11. Niesters, H. G. M. (2001) Methods 25,
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