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1 Plenary Session 1 Good Practice in Reducing Drinking and Driving Lessons for Developing Countries Kathleen Elsig, Global Road Safety Partnership, Geneva, Switzerland 2 Developing International Guidelines for Epidemiological, Toxicological and Behavioral Research on Drugs and Driving J Michael Walsh, The Walsh Group, MD, USA Session1 : 8th Ignition Interlock Symposium Keynote Presentation IIS1 Growth of Interlocks in US DOT Safety Recommendations and Issues on the Horizon Jeff Michael, US DOT, Director Impaired Driving and Occupant Protection, NHTSA Basic Knowledge and Problems IIS2 History of Alcohol Vehicle Interlock Program: Lost Opportunities and New Possibilities Bob Voas* and Paul Marques IIS3 IIS4 IIS5 IIS6 How We Got Here and What We Know: Industry Perspectives Ian Marples* 20 Years of Ignition Interlock in Washington State: Time for a Change Judy Groezinger* New Mexico Ignition Interlock: Laws Regulations, Utilization, Effectiveness, Cost-Effectiveness and Fairness Richard Roth*, Paul Marques, and Robert Voas Ignition Interlock: Silver Bullet for Drunk Driving? Barriers and Problems David DeYoung* Enrollment in Interlock Panels IIS7 Can Interlock Programs That Are Tied to License Reinstatement Programs Work? Bob Voas*, A. Scott Tippetts, and Milton Grosz IIS8 IIS9 IIS10 IIS11 IIS12 IIS13 IIS14 IIS15 IIS16 MADD's Effort to Encourage Effective Interlock Legislation in the United States Kathryn Heineman* Pilot Program of Ignition Interlock Devices in First Offenders in France Charles Mercier-Guyon* The Impact of Alcohol Ignition Interlocks on a Group of Recidivist Offenders: A Case Study Approach James Freeman*, Mary Sheehan, and Cynthia Schonfeld Primary Prevention of Drink Driving by the Large-Scale Use of Alcolock Devices in Commercial Vehicles Bo Bjerre* and Johan Kostela Experience of alcolocks (alcohol interlocks) in Volvo Trucks Lennart Pilskog* A Comparison of Alcolock Applications for Professional and Non-Professional Drivers in a European Field Trial Peter Silverans*, Javier Alvarez, Terje Assum, Claudia Evers, and Rene Mathijssen Incapacitating the DUI Offender: Dealing with the No-Car Barrier to Interlocks Bob Voas*, Paul Marques, and Richard Roth Legislative Strategies to Increase Ignition Interlock Usage: "Where There's a Will There's a Way" Tim Halford* Use of Driver Record and DataLogger Data to Predict Recidivism Bill Rauch*, Paul L. Zador, Eileen M. Ahlin, and G. Douglas Duncan

2 IIS17 DUI Risk Prediction with Alcohol Biomarkers, Interlock Records, and Self Report Paul Marques*, Martin Javors, Fritz Pragst, Volker Auwaerter, Steina Aradottir, Christer Alling, Michel Yegles, and Friedrich Wurst Programs, Treatment, Monitoring I IIS18 Varieties of Interlock Program Features: Some Core Similarities and Some Very Different Policy Models Paul Marques*, Bob Voas, and Scott McKnight IIS19 IIS20 What Will Make Alcohol Interlock Programs Work in Australia? Chris Coxon* and Les Libbesson How Will Sweden Proceed After Ten Years of Alcolock Trial? Sven Hultman* Programs, Treatment, Monitoring II IIS21 Some Medical and Biological Aspects in the Interlock Program for the Non-Offender Charles Mercier-Guyon* IIS22 IIS23 IIS24 Is an Alcohol Ignition Interlock Programme a Useful Tool for Changing the Alcohol and Driving Habits of Drunk Drivers? Bo Bjerre* and Ulf Thorsson Motivational Intervention Keyed to Interlock Use Reduces the Rate of Positive BAC Tests Paul Marques*, Bob Voas, Scott Tippetts, Ken Blackman, Dave Timken, and Craig Field Introduction of an Alcohol Ignition Interlock Program in the Netherlands: The Alcohol Ignition Technique Combined with Psychological Treatment Jan Vissers* and R. J. van Beekum Programs, Treatment, Monitoring III IIS25 Interlock Program Standards for Canada Doug Beirness* IIS26 IIS27 IIS28 IIS29 Developing a National Curriculum on Ignition Interlocks Robyn Robertson*, Ward Vanlaar, Herb Simpson, and Peter Parsons European Standards for Alcohol Interlocks: Report on Status and Content Johannes Lagois* Development of an Ignition Interlock Standard in Canada Jeff Patten*, Yves Noel, Rick Zaporzan, and Paul Boase How do DWI Offenders Circumvent Interlocks? Richard Roth*, Paul Marques, and Bob Voas IIS Wrap-up and 9th IIS preview Paul Marques* and Hans Laurell* Session 2: Impaired Driver Attitudes and Behaviors 3 From Research to Reform: MADD Canada s Rating the Provinces and Territories Project Robert Solomon* and Andrew Murie* 4 Perceptions, Attitudes and Behaviours Regarding Impaired Driving in Canada Paul Boase, Brian Jonah*, and Andrew Murie 5 Public Perceptions of the July 2003 through September 2005 National Alcohol You Drink and Drive. You Lose. Crackdowns Marvin Levy, Maria Vegega*, and Stephen Dienstfrey

3 6 The Relationship Between Traffic Offending and Other General Criminal Activity: The Role of Alcohol, Time and Place Gavan Palk*, Jeremy Davey, and James Freeman 7 Future Impaired Driving Activities of Injured Motor Vehicle Drivers Requiring a Hospital Visit D. Brown*, R. A. Purssell, J. R. Brubacher, R. B. Abu-Laban, R. J. Wilson, M. Fang, E. Mac, and M. Schulzer 8 Future Impaired Driving Activities of Injured Motor Vehicle Passengers Requiring a Hospital Visit J. R. Brubacher*, R. A. Purssell, D. Brown, R. B. Abu-Laban, R. J. Wilson, M. Fang, E. Mac, and M. Schulzer Session 3: Postmortem Toxicology 9 Understanding Forensic Toxicology in Relation to External-Cause Deaths J. Killian*, O. Drummer, and J. Ozanne-Smith 10 Buprenorphine-Related Deaths: Low Levels may be Significant H. Druid*, M. Roman, and R. Kronstrand 11 A Fatality Occurring During Tumescent Liposuction María A. Martínez*, Salomé Ballesteros, Luis J. Segura, and Manuel García 12 Dyadic Death An Unusual Family Tragedy Dimitri Gerostamoulos*, Olaf H. Drummer, Michael Burke, Matthew J. Lynch, and Phil Byrne 13 The Role of Methamphetamine in Cause and Manner of Death An Update Barry K. Logan*, Caleb Banta-Green, Sara Miller, and Ann Marie Gordon 14 Death and Brain Injury From an Apparent Intentional Methomyl Poisoning Asa Louis*, Aldo Fusaro, Ann Marie Gordon, and Barry K. Logan Session 4: DRE and Field Impairment Testing and Assessments 15 Drug Recognition Expert (DRE) Evaluations and Prevalence of Drug Impaired Drivers in Alaska Betty J. Buchan* and Steve Dunn 16 Evaluation of the Standardised Field Sobriety Tests to Test for the Presence of Cannabis, Cannabis Combined with Alcohol, Dexamphetamine, Methamphetamine and Fatigue Katherine Papafotiou, Con Stough, Melinda Jackson, Beata Silber, Edward Ogden*, Martin Boorman, and Phillip Swann 17 An Evaluation of the Standardised Field Sobriety Tests for the Detection of Impairment Associated with Cannabis with and without Alcohol Katherine Papafotiou, Con Stough, Edward Ogden*, and Martin Boorman 18 The Accuracy of Evaluations by Drug Recognition Experts in Canada Douglas J. Beirness*, Erin Beasley, Jacques LeCavalier, and Evan Graham 19 Learning From Our Mistakes: Improving the Administration of Standardized Field Sobriety Testing in the Field Troy D. Walden* 20 Bridging the Gap: The Advanced Roadside Impaired Driving Enforcement (ARIDE) Program Pilot Study Melissa N. Walden* Session 5: Worldwide Trends in Impaired Driving 21 Alcohol and Drug Impaired Driving in the UK: Recent Trends and Future Prospects Rob Tunbridge * 22 Alcohol, Drugs, and Traffic Safety in Australia: Initiatives and Indicators Ian J. Faulks* and Julia D. Irwin 23 Drink-Driving Trend in the Netherlands; Need for a New Government Policy Sjoerd Houwing* and René Mathijssen

4 24 Trends in the Alcohol-Fatal Crash Problem in Canada Daniel R. Mayhew* 25 Alcohol Related Road Accidents in Germany Status Till 2005 Horst Schulze* and Susanne Schoenebeck 26 Trends in Impaired Driving in the United States: Time for a New Paradigm? Kathryn Stewart* and James Fell 27 Worldwide Trends in Alcohol and Drug Impaired Driving Barry M. Sweedler* 28 Drugs in Driving The South Australian Experience Peter Felgate* and Peter Harpas Session 6: Intoxication: Case Reports 29 Postmortem Cesium Concentrations in a Cancer Patient: A Case Report Naziha Nuwayhid*, Dennis Wickham, Ann Marie Gordon, and Barry K. Logan 30 Toxicological Analysis of Atracurium Besylate in Biological Materials by Using HPLC S. Tennakoon*, K. A. P. B. Perera, L. S. Haturusinghe, and U. S. S. Udugampal 31 Aniline Lethality in Humans: Metabolic Fate and Pharmacokinetics in an Animal Model Bertrand Brunet*, Gilbert Pepin, Sandrine Marchand, Michel Pinsard, and Patrick Mura 32 Getting High by Smoking Hyoscine Butylbromide?! Martine Frascht, Serge Schneider, Patrick Lemmer, Marc Schuman, and Robert Wennig* 33 An Accidental Intoxication with Veratrum Album Thomas Grobosch*, Torsten Binscheck, Dagmar Lampe, and Frank Martens 34 Lysergic Acid Monoamide Through the Internet: The Case of Ipomea Violacea Stefania Pagani*, Roberto Mencarelli, Raffaele Giorgetti, and Adriano Tagliabracci 35 Biological Monitoring of Phenoxyethanol in Occupational Exposure by Analysing Urinary Phenoxyacetic Acid Laurence Labat, Catherine Nisse, Hugues Ferlin, Jérémy Thomas, Florian Klinzig, Betty Dehon, Antoine Marmignon, and Michel Lhermitte* 36 Development and Application of an HPLC-FL Method for the Determination of N-Substituted Piperazines Mitsuhiro Wada*, Yuki Matsumura, Shinichi Nakamura, Naotaka Kuroda, and Kenichiro Nakashima Session 7: Marijuana and Driver Impairment 37 Cognition and Motor Control as a Function of 9 -THC Concentration in Serum J. G. Ramaekers*, M. R. Moeller, E. L. Theunissen, and G. Kauert 38 Cannabis Intoxication and Fatal Road Crashes in France: Population Based Case-Control Study - Results and Comparison With the Alcohol Jean-Michel Costes*, Blandine Gadegbeku, Jean-Louis Martin, Marie-Berthe Biecheler, Bernard Laumon, and the SAM Group 39 Relationship Between THC-concentration in Blood and Impairment in Apprehended Drivers Hassan Zaré Khiabani*, Jørgen G. Bramness, Anders Bjørneboe, and Jørg Mørland 40 Cannabis Effects on Cognition and Psychomotor Function in Daily Cannabis Users Eef L.Theunissen*, Gerold F. Kauert, Stefan W. Toennes, Manfred R. Moeller, and Johannes G. Ramaekers 41 Simulated Driving Performance of Inexperienced and Experienced Drivers After Single Doses of Cannabis, Alcohol and Their Combination Michael G. Lenné*, Tom Triggs, Michael Regan, Paul Dietze, Greg Rumbold, Susan Walmsley, and Jenny Redman

5 42 Assessment of Driving Capability Through the Use of Clinical and Psychomotor Tests in Relation to Blood Cannabinoids Levels Following Oral Administration of 20 mg Dronabinol or of a Cannabis Decoction Made With 20 or 60 mg D 9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol Marc Augsburger*, Annick Ménétrey, Christian Giroud, Marie A. Pin, Bernard Favrat, Laura E. Rothuizen, Monique Appenzeller, Thierry Buclin, and Patrice Mangin 43 If Moderate and Heavy Cannabis Users Smoke a Joint Comparative Pharmacokinetics and Graphing Performance Data after Smoking 500 mcg THC/kg b.w. vs. Placebo Gerold F. Kauert*, Dirk Ihrig, Jan G. Ramaekers, Eef L. Theunissen, Manfred R. Moeller, and Stefan W. Toennes 44 Validation of a Model for Estimating Time of Last Cannabis Use From Known Concentrations of Tetrahydrocannabinol and the Major Metabolite Edward Ogden*, Katherine Papafotiou, and Con Stough Session 8: Unlicensed Drivers - Issues and Solutions 45 Unlicensed Driving Worldwide The Scope of the Problem and Countermeasures Barry M. Sweedler* and Kathryn Stewart 46 Fatal and Injury Crashes Among Unlicensed Drivers in Ontario, Canada Jeff Suggett* 47 Indigenous Drink Driving and Licensing: Understanding the Big Picture and Strategies for Change in Western Australia Kylie Olney* 48 The General and Specific Deterrent Effects of Short-term License Suspension Deanna Singhal and Doug Beirness* 49 Evidence of Driving Among Disqualified First-Time Criminal Code Offenders in Saskatchewan, Canada Jeff Suggett* 50 DWI Offenders Failure to Reinstate Driver s Licenses Robert Voas*, Scott McKnight, and Scott Tippetts 51 Clinical and Laboratory Criteria for Diagnosing Alcohol Abuse in Driving License Regranting Procedures Massimo Montisci*, Rossella Snenghi, Giampietro Frison, Claudio Terranova, Silvano Zancaner, and Santo Davide Ferrara 52 The Long-term Crash Involvement of Unlicensed Drivers and Riders in Queensland, Australia Barry Watson* and Dale Steinhardt Session 9: MADD's Campaign to Eliminate Drunk Driving Keynote Presentation 53 MADD's Campaign to Eliminate Drunk Driving: A Nation Without Drunk Driving Chuck Hurley*, CEO, MADD USA, Irving TX, USA Session 10: LC-MS Applications in Forensic Toxicology Keynote Presentation 54 Analytical Approaches in Impaired Driving Toxicology Hans H. Maurer*, Professor of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Saarland University, Homburg, Germany 55 Calibration Options For Triple Quadrupole LC-MS Data Patrick N. Friel*, Ann Marie Gordon, and Rod Gullberg 56 Detection and Quantitation of Anabolic Steroids by LC-MS/MS Subbarao V. Kala*, Steve E. Harris, Tom D. Freijo, and Stan Gerlich

6 57 Using LC/Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry for Rapid Quantitation of Immunosuppressants in Blood Michael Zumwalt*, Linda Côté, Jeffrey Keever, Uwe Christians, and Jamie Bendrick-Peart 58 Direct Screening of Diuretics in Human Urine by LC-ESI-MS/MS With Information Dependent Acquisition Lucia Politi*, Luca Morini, and Aldo Polettini 59 Simultaneous Detection, Confirmation, and (Semi-)Quantification of Common Drugs of Abuse Tania A. Sasaki* and Richard H. Lauman 60 New ESI-TOF Technology Enabling Screening of an Unlimited Number of Known and Unknown Compounds in Different Matrices Dirk Wunderlich*, Ian Sanders, Matthias Pelzing, Anna Pelander, Martin Worm-Leonhard, and Fiona Wylie Session 11: Drug Effects on Drivers 61 Driving Under the Influence of Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) Alan Wayne Jones*, Anita Holmgren, and Fredrik C. Kugelberg 62 Methadone and Impairment in Apprehended Drivers Jean Paul Bernard*, Jørg Mørland, and Hassan Zare Khiabani 63 The Distribution of Oxazepam and Oxazepam Glucuronide in Body Fluids After a Single Dose of Oxazepam and the Influence on Four Standardized Field Sobriety Tests B. E. Smink*, B. J. A. Hofman, A. Dijkhuizen, K. J. Lusthof, J. J. de Gier, A. C. G. Egberts, and D. R. A. Uges 64 Residual Effects of Hypnotics on Actual Driving of Healthy Young Volunteers Annemiek Vermeeren* and Tim Leufkens 65 Effects of Alprazolam 1 mg on Cognition and Driving Performance: A Comparison Between Immediate and Extended Release Formulations Tim Leufkens*, Annemiek Vermeeren, Beitske Smink, Peter van Ruitenbeek, and Johannes Ramaekers 66 An Examination of 1, 1-Difluoroethane in Traffic Cases Jayne E. Thatcher*, Ann Marie Gordon, and Barry K. Logan Session 12: Advances in Vehicle Alcohol Detection Keynote Presentation 67 Advances in Vehicle Alcohol Detection The Way Forward Susan Ferguson Ferguson International LLC, VA, UA Session 13: Legal Perspective on DUI 68 Vehicle Sanction Laws in the United States Robert B. Voas, A. Scott McKnight, James C. Fell*, and Marvin Levy 69 A Comparison of Drugged-Driving Laws and Their Roadside Enforcement Procedures Across the European Union Brendan Hughes* 70 Judicial Policy in Drink Driving Cases R. T. Kennedy* and A. R. W. Forrest 71 Survey of Lawyers Attitudes and Perceptions Regarding Impaired Driving in Canada Robyn Robertson*, Ward Vanlaar, Herb Simpson, Kwei Quaye, and Paul Boase 72 One for the Roads and Two for the Courts Shelley L. Timms* 73 Latest Developments in Dutch Legislation on Drunken Driving Jaap van der Hulst*

7 Session 14: Advances in Analytical Toxicology Methods 74 Development of an Isotope-Dilution LC-MS/MS Method for Quantitative Detection of THC-glucuronide in Urine of Cannabis Consumers Susanne Lott*, Andre Henrion, Bernd Güttler, and Rolf Aderjan 75 An Automated Solid-Phase Extraction LC-MS/MS System for the Analysis of Cocaine and Metabolites in Blood and Urine Marc A. LeBeau*, Eshwar Jagerdeo, Madeline Montgomery, Martin Sibum, and John Crutchfield 76 A Validated LC-ESI-MS Assay for the Determination of MDMA and its Metabolites MDA, HHMA, and HMMA in Squirrel Monkey Plasma Melanie Mueller*, Frank T. Peters, George A. Ricaurte, and Hans H. Maurer 77 High Throughput Analysis of Amphetamines in Urine with On-line-Solid Phase Extraction-Liquid- Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Maria del Mar Ramírez Fernandez*, Marleen Laloup, Ana de Castro, Michelle Wood, Gert De Boeck, Manuel López-Rivadulla, and Nele Samyn 78 A Method for the Quantification of Heroin and its Metabolites in Plasma by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Ahmed I. Al-Asmari* and Robert A. Anderson 79 The Comparison of a New Chemiluminescence Immunoassay Screen with a Single-Step Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Peter Felgate*, Amanda Thompson, and Michaela Kenneally Session 15: ROSITA II: Review of Oral Fluid Testing Field Trials 80 ROSITA II Project: Project Overview, and an evaluation of the Drugwipe-5 device in Salt Lake City, Utah J. Michael Walsh*, Jayne Thatcher*, Laura Liddicoat*, Leo Cangianelli*, Alaine Verstraete* 80 ROSITA II Project: Evaluation of Saliva Screen 5, Drug Wipe 5, and Intercept Devices by Washington State Law Enforcement Officers Jayne Thatcher* 80 ROSITA II Project: Evaluation of OralLab, RapiScan and Drug-Wipe 5 Field Performance by Wisconsin Law Enforcement Officers Laura Liddicoat* 80 ROSITA II Project: "An Evaluation of the Draeger 'Uplink' and Securetec 'DrugWipe 5' Oral Fluid Drug Testing Devices in Hillsborough County, Florida in " Leo Cangianelli* 80 ROSITA II Project: An Overview of the Evaluation of Roadside Oral Fluid Drug Testing Devices in Six European Countries Alaine Verstraete* Keynote Presentation 81 Erik MP Widmark Bridged the Gap Between Forensic Toxicology and Alcohol and Traffic Safety Research A.W. Jones*, National Board of Forensic Medicine, Linköping, Sweden Session 16: Prevalence of Drugs in Driving Populations 82 Frequency of Illegal Drugs and Medicines in a Norwegian Road-Side Survey Per T. Normann*, Bjørg S. Pettersen, Terje Assum, Unni Johansen, Lena Krisoffersen, Asbjørg S. Christophersen, and Jørg Mørland

8 83 Searching the Scholarly Literature for Articles Concerning Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety David Lawrence* 84 Driving Under the Influence of Psychoactive Substances Miran Scheers, Alain Verstraete*, Myriam Adriaensen, Elke Raes, and Mark Tant 85 Studies on Drugs and Driving Realised in European Countries: Focus on Cannabis and Benzodiazepines Dominique Lopez* and Brendan Hughes 86 Investigations on Driving Under the Influence of Drugs in Vienna: Experiences from 1996 to 2006 R. Fous, G. Gmeiner*, and W. Vycudilik 87 Prevalence of Drug Impaired Driving In Canada Sherilyn Palmer* and Paul Boase 88 Blood Drug Concentrations of Frequently Encountered Drugs in Impaired and Fatally Injured Drivers Barry K. Logan*, Ann Marie Gordon, and Simone Loew 89 Recommendations for Toxicological Investigation of Drug Impaired Driving Laurel J. Farrell*, Sarah Kerrigan, and Barry K. Logan 90 An Overview of the Existing Drugs and Driving Categorisations Thomas Van den Neste* and Alain Verstraete 91 Fatal Motor Vehicle Collisions While Gamma Hydroxybutyrate (GHB)-Intoxicated D. L. Zvosec*, S. W. Smith, T. Porrata, A. Q. Strobl, and J. E. Dyer Session 17: DUI Enforcement and Prevention 92 A Data Driven Approach to Addressing Impaired Driving Enforcement Brian Ursino* 93 Search Warrants for BAC Test Refusals James Hedlund*, Douglas Beirness, and Amy Berning 94 Factors Influencing Night-time Drivers Perceived Likelihood of Getting Caught for Drink Driving Jean Wilson*, Ming Fang, and Gabi Hoffmann 95 A Survey of Operational Police Involved in the Delivery of Random Breath Testing (RBT) in Queensland, Australia Barry Watson*, James Freeman, and Susan Hart 96 Breath Test Refusal Rates in the United States Richard P. Compton*, Ralph Jones, and Amy Berning 97 Impact of Primary Safety Belt Laws on Alcohol-Related Front-Seat Occupant Fatalities: Five Case Studies Robert B. Voas, James C. Fell*, A. Scott Tippetts, Kenneth Blackman, and James L. Nichols 98 Changing Attitudes and Behaviour on Driving While Intoxicated K. A. Brookhuis*, D. de Waard, F. J. J. M. Steyvers, and H. Bijsterveld 99 From Precontemplation to Action An Outcome Evaluation of Early Interventions for DUI Offenders Simone Klipp*, Edzard Glitsch, Manfred Bornewasser, and Frieder Dünkel Session 18: Driver Behavior and Relative Risk of Accident Involvement 100 The Long Beach/Florida Relative Risk Study R. D. Blomberg*, R. C. Peck, H. Moskowitz, M. Burns, and D. Florentino 101 Improved Methods for Estimating Relative Crash Risk in a Case-Control Study of Blood Alcohol Levels R. C. Peck*, M. A. Gebers, R. B. Voas, and E. Romano 102 A Comparison Study of Factors Affecting Driving and Crashes (Alcohol-Related or Not) E. Romano*, R. C. Peck, and R. B. Voas

9 103 Alcohol-Related Crashes: Relative Risk by Demographic Groups R. B. Voas*, R. C. Peck, E. Romano, and M. A. Gebers 104 What Factors Predict Subsequent Motor Vehicle Injuries: Analysis of the Longitudinal Canadian National Population Health Survey Evelyn Vingilis* 105 Automobile Fatalities in Chicago From 1910 to 1930: Understanding the Emerging Role of Alcohol in Traffic Safety Mark Asbridge* 106 Automatic Eye Tracker for Study of Visual Function and Attention Capacity Raffaele Giorgetti*, Fabiano Cavarzeran, Monica D'Amato, Stefania Pagani, and Adriano Tagliabracci 107 The Effect of 27-Hours Sleep Deprivation on Simulated Driving Performance and Vigilance In Professional Drivers Melinda L. Jackson*, Katherine Papafotiou, Mark E. Howard, Gerard A. Kennedy, Rob J. Pierce, and Rodney Croft Session 19: Forensic Alcohol Toxicology 108 The Uncertainty Associated With Widmark s Equation in Forensic Toxicology Rod G. Gullberg* 109 Rapid Variation of the Ethanol Distribution Volume - An Unexpected Phenomenon Holger Wittig*, Wolfgang Römhild, Heidemarie Bartels, Dieter Krause, and Katja Jachau 110 Comparison of the Urinary Alcohol Markers EtG, EtS and GTOL/5-HIAA in a Controlled Drinking Experiment G. Høiseth, J. P. Bernard, N. Stephanson, P. T. Normann*, A. S. Christophersen, J. Mørland, and A. Helander 111 Ethyl Glucuronide in Vitreous Humor: a Useful Marker of Antemortem Ethanol Ingestion? Giampietro Frison*, Alessandro Nalesso, Massimo Montisci, Flavio Zancanaro, Donata Favretto, and Santo Davide Ferrara 112 Even Small Amounts of Ethanol Cause Positive Ethyl Glucuronide Results in Urine Claudia C. Halter*, Svenja-Catharina Bunz, Lucia Politi, Aldo Polettini, and Wolfgang Weinmann 113 Simultaneous Ethyl Glucuronide and Ethyl Sulfate Determination In Biological Fluids Using an APCI Source Operating Without Corona Discharge Alessandro Nalesso*, Donata Favretto, Giampietro Frison, Susanna Vogliardi, Flavio Zancanaro, Pietro Traldi, and Santo Davide Ferrara 114 Biological Markers of Long-Term Alcohol Consumption in Alcoholised Drivers: Gender Differences in the Determination of Carbohydrate-Deficient Transferrin (CDT) measured by Capillary Electrophoresis (CDT CE ) or Direct Immunoassay (N Latex CDT) and Gamma-Glutamyltransferase (GGT) B. Favrat*, G. Mantzouranis, M. Dovat, P. Mangin, and M. Augsburger 115 The Determination of Carbohydrate Deficient Transferrin (CDT) with N Latex CDT: Comparison with a Validated HPLC Method Federica Bortolotti*, Jennifer Paola Pascali, Maria Teresa Trevisan, and Franco Tagliaro Session 20: Drugs in Motor Vehicle Accidents 116 Characteristics of Fatal Crashes Involving Drugs in Victoria and Associated Contributory Factors Michael Fitzharris, Michael G. Lenné*, and Nicola Fotheringham 117 Driving Under the Influence of Cannabis. Incidence in Fatal Road Traffic Accidents Carmen Jurado*, Mª Paz Gimenez, Rosario Garcia-Repetto, and Mª Luisa Soria

10 118 Traffic Accident Risk Associated with the Prescription of Hypnotic Drugs: A Registry-based Cohort Study Ingebjorg Gustavsen, Jorgen Bramness, Svetlana Skurtveit, Anders Engeland, Ineke Neutel, and Jorg Morland* 119 Cannabis Among Fatally Injured Drivers: Circumstances Surrounding the Accident Maxime Brault* 120 Fatal Accident Drivers with Earlier Arrests Due to Drugged Driving Asbjørg S. Christophersen*, Terje Hammer, and Jørg Mørland 121 Driving Behaviour Under the Influence of Cannabis and Cocaine S. Macdonald*, R. Mann, M. Chipman, B. Pakula, P. Erickson, A. Hathaway, and P. MacIntyre Session 21: DRUID: Driving Under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines - an Integrated Research Project in Europe 122 Driving Under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines Horst Schulze* 123 A Meta-Analysis of Alcohol Studies: An Attempt to Multi-Dimensional Risk Functions Eva Schnabel*, Volker Hargutt, and Hans-Peter Krüger 124 Experimental Drug-driving Studies in DRUID Jan G. Ramaekers* 125 Protocols for Road-side Surveys and Hospital Studies Inger Marie Bernhoft*, Tove Hels, Terje Assum, René Mathijssen, and Alain Verstraete 126 Selection of an Oral Fluid Collection Device for EU-project DRUID Anna Pehrsson*, Charlotta Engblom, Kaarina Langel, Teemu Gunnar, Kari Ariniemi, and Pirjo Lillsunde 127 Toxicological Analyses in the DRUID Epidemiological Studies: Analytical Methods, Target Analytes and Analytical Cut-offs Kristof Pil* and Alain Verstraete 128 Blood Spot Analysis Gisela Skopp* 129 Drug-Related Crash Risk Calculation in the DRUID Project Sjoerd Houwing and René Mathijssen* 130 An Attempt to Integrate Data From Different Methodological Approaches to Estimate Traffic Risk for Substances Some Theoretical Considerations Volker Hargutt* and Hans-Peter Krueger 131 Analytical versus risk thresholds for psychoactive substances Synopsis of the DRUID results Anja Knoche* and Kerstin Auerbach 132 The DRUID Project and the Categorization of Medicinal Drugs and Driving F. Javier Alvarez* 133 Development of an Inventory of Rehabilitation Approaches in the EU Identifying the Main Issues of Interest Simone Klipp* 134 Legal Strategies for Secondary Prevention of DUI and DUID: The Role of License Withdrawal and Conditions for Reinstatement Simone Klipp* 135 Dissemination, Guidelines and Professional Standards Han de Gier* 136 The European Project DRUID - Scientific Support for Combating Impaired Driving (Poster) Sjoerd Houwing*, Raschid Urmeew, Michael Heißing, Anja Knoche, and Horst Schulze

11 Session 22: Negative Affect: Drinking and Driving 137 Session on Negative Affect, Drinking Drivers and Remedial Programs. A Negative Affect Factor in the RIASI Screening Instrument for Drinking Drivers: Validity and Significance Robert E. Mann*, Rosely Flam Zalcman, Thomas H. Nochajski, Gina Stoduto, Patricia Dill, Elisabeth Wells- Parker, and Martin Zack 138 Session on Negative Affect, Drinking Drivers and Remedial Programs. A Population Survey of the Link Between Depressed Mood and Drinking Driving Gina Stoduto, Patricia Dill*, Robert E. Mann, Elisabeth Wells-Parker, Tony Toneatto, and Rania Shuggi 139 Session on Negative Affect, Drinking Drivers and Remedial Programs. An Integrated Theoretical Model for Matching DUI Offenders to Intervention Options: Negative Cognitive/Affective Patterns, Dissonance, and Motivation Elisabeth Wells-Parker* and Patricia Dill 140 Session on Negative Affect, Drinking Drivers, and Remedial Programs. Negative Affect, Self-Appraisal, and Temptation to Drink of Court Mandated DUI Offenders Patricia L. Dill*, Elisabeth Wells-Parker, Ginger W. Cross, Robert E. Mann, and Gina Stoduto 141 Session on Negative Affect, Drinking Drivers, and Remedial Programs. Relationship of Initial Depression with 18-month Follow-up Substance Related Outcomes for Court-Mandated DUI Offenders Thomas H. Nochajski* and Paul R. Stasiewicz Session 23: Workplace Drug Testing and Alternative Matrices I 142 The Effects of Storage Conditions on the Clinical Parameters of Specimen Validity Testing in Urine Collected for Workplace Testing Janine Denis Cook, Kathy A. Strauss, Yale H. Caplan*, Charles P. LoDico, and Donna M. Bush 143 Stability of Analyte s Precursor(s) and of Internal Standard Must Be Considered in Method Validation Experiments Aldo Polettini*, Rossella Gottardo, Luca Morini, and Lucia Politi 144 Development and Production of Hair Reference Materials for Use as Control and Calibration for Hair Drug Testing Jeri D. Ropero-Miller*, Peter R. Stout, Michael R. Baylor, and John M. Mitchell 145 Abuse of Zolpidem in Racing Cyclists: A New Type of Addiction Demonstrated by Hair Analysis Pascal Kintz*, Marion Villain, Guillaume Salquebre, and Vincent Cirimele 146 Hair Analysis Using LC-TOF MS A Simple and Sensitive Method for the Detection of Medical Drugs and Drugs of Abuse Stefanie Iwersen-Bergmann, Christiane Schröter, Steffen Konz, Moritz G. Wagner, Gerold F. Kauert, and Stefan W. Toennes* 147 Hair The Novel Specimen for Routine Coroner s Toxicology Sue Paterson* and Rosa Cordero Session 24: Alcohol Impaired Drivers: Patterns of Use 148 Drinking and Driving in Canada - Results of the Road Safety Monitor 2006 Ward Vanlaar*, Herb Simpson, Dan Mayhew, and Robyn Robertson 149 Mobile Random Breath Testing in South Australia Matthew Baldock*, Lisa Wunderstiz, and Jack McLean 150 Characteristics of the Danish Drink Driver Inger Marie Bernhoft*, Tove Hels, and Tanja Legind Rendsvig

12 151 A Ten Year Profile of Drinking Drivers in Ontario S. Stewart*, A. Reid, and P. Boase 152 Trends in Drinking and Driving in British Columbia: A Decade of Roadside Surveys Douglas J. Beirness*, Robert D. Foss, and R. Jean Wilson 153 Evaluation of the Use and Benefit of Passive Alcohol Sensors During Routine Traffic Stops James C. Fell* and Christine Compton 154 Drinking Characteristics of Drivers Arrested for Driving While Intoxicated James C. Fell*, Scott Tippetts, and Robert Voas Session 25: DUI Prevention and Intervention 155 Ultra Brief Motivational Interviewing for DUI Offenders Not Engaged in Remedial Measures Thomas G. Brown*, Maurice Dongier, Florence Chanut, Jacques Tremblay, Marie Claude Ouimet, Louise Nadeau, and Francois Ng 156 The RADD California Coalition: The Figure It Out! Campaign James E. Lange* and Erin Meluso 157 Reducing Recidivism after DWI: Three-Year Outcomes of a Randomized Controlled Trial (EVACAPA Project) Pascal Gache* 158 Comparing Models of Health Action Process of Drunk Drivers Edzard Glitsch*, Simone Klipp, Manfred Bornewasser, and Frieder Dünkel 159 Strategy to Reduce Impaired Driving in Canada by 2010 Kwei Quaye* and Paul Boase 160 Concurrent and Predictive Validity of the RIA Self Inventory and the AUDIT Thomas H. Nochajski*, Paul R. Stasiewicz, William F. Wieczorek, and Wooksoo Kim 161 Criminal History and Recidivism of Impaired Drivers in Canada - A National Study Sherilyn A. Palmer* 162 Effectiveness of Multifaceted Interventions with Community Mobilization for Reducing Alcohol-Impaired Driving Ruth A. Shults*, Randy W. Elder, and David A. Sleet Session 26: Workplace Drug Testing and Alternative Matrices II 163 Results of a Pilot Oral Fluids Performance Testing Program in the United States Peter R. Stout*, Jeri D. Ropero-Miller, Celia R. Eicheldinger, E. Dale Hart, Michael R. Baylor, and John M. Mitchell 164 Analytical Evaluation of a New Oral Fluid Sample Drugs of Abuse Diagnostic System Andreas Manns*, Björn Lange, Ingo Kaneblei, Alexander Slomian, Stefan Steinmeyer, Rainer Polzius, Jessika Mahn, and Arthur Reiter 165 Comparison of an ELISA Microplate Assay with LC-MS/MS for the Detection of Benzoylecgonine in Oral Fluid Peter Akrill*, Lisa Wilson, Claire Reid, Anne-Marie Beneat, and Amy Reed 166 A Superparamagnetic Particles-Based Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Benzodiazepines in Oral Fluid Sandra Marlin*, Dene Baldwin, and Ahmed Jehanli 167 An LC-MS/MS Method for the Determination of 13 Antidepressants and Metabolites with Preliminary Data Comparing Plasma and Oral Fluid Concentrations A. de Castro*, M. Concheiro, O. Quintela, A. Cruz, and M. López-Rivadulla 168 Drug and Metabolite Concentrations in a Large Oral Fluid Database in the UK Joe Clarke*, Lolita Tsanaclis, and Edward J. Cone

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