1 DUI in Southern Ohio MATT 2006 Laureen J. Marinetti, M.S., Ph.D. Chief Toxicologist Montgomery County Coroner s s Office & Miami Valley Regional Crime Lab (MVRCL) Dayton, Ohio
2 Region The MVRCL is a regional facility that provides toxicology services to over 100 police agencies throughout the southern portion of the state of Ohio. Agencies become members and as such can use any of the crime labs services latent prints, firearms, tool marks, DNA, trace evidence, computers, crime scence, photography, chemistry, documents and tox.
3 Toxicology Cases for Alcohol requests (all cases) 650 Drug screen requests (80%) 37 DFSA requests Processing of the cases tends to skew the results somewhat role of drugs in DUI
4 Process of a Case History Requested Service Results of ethanol screen Results of ELISA drug screen Confirmation of ELISA drug screen May move on to more testing depending upon the results of above analysis
5 DUI Per Se Ethanol Levels Ohio Blood 0.08 gm% Serum gm% Urine 0.11 gm % If result is 0.02 over any of these limits then analysis may be complete depending upon case history and request made be submitting agency
6 Toxicology Screening If analysis continues ELISA immunoassay is next. Cut-offs in ng/ml ( ) Kits used routinely are: amphetamine (50), methamphetamine (50), THC metab. (20) barbiturates (1000), cocaine metab (50)., carisoprodol (1000), opiates (25), benzodiazepines (10), methadone (50). Other options are; PCP (10), oxycodone (25) and fentanyl (1)
7 Toxicology Screening Con t (GC/MS) screen for basic, acidic and neutral drugs in either blood, urine or serum. Targeted Assays; HPLC for gabapentin and baclofen, GC/MS for GHB and 4-methyl GHB, GC/MS for methylphenidate, GC/EC clonazepam, triazolam, flunitrazepam and lorazepam (do not cross react in ELISA)
8 Toxicology Confirmation Either by GC/MS, GC/FID, GC/EC, GC/NPD, HPLC, And very soon LC/MS Drug concentrations are reported in blood and serum. Urine is either positive or not detected except for 11- carboxy-thc <15 ng/ml, cocaine <150ng/mL, BE <150 ng/ml. Due to an Ohio law stating the value must be at least this amount.
9 What did MVRCL see in 2005 #1 was ethanol with 446 Occurrences #2 was THC and 11-carboxy carboxy-thc with 230 Occurrences Urine was reported as positive for 11- carboxy-thc or < 15 ng/ml and not analyzed for THC. Blood values for THC ranged from 1-71 ng/ml with an average of 3.5 ng/ml,, n= carboxy-thc not analyzed in blood.
10 What did MVRCL see in 2005 #3 was cocaine and metabs.. with 111 occurrences. Urine was reported as positive for or < 150ng/mL for cocaine and Be. Positive for cocaethylene and EME. Blood values for cocaine ranged from ng/ml with an average of 41 ng/ml, n=81.
11 Cocaine and Metabs. Con t #3 was cocaine and metabs.. with 111 occurrences. Blood values for benzoylecgonine ranged from ng/ml with an average of 2400 ng/ml,, n=111. Only one blood value for cocaethylene 80ng/mL and 16 positive urines Ecgonine methyl ester 110 positives
12 DUI Case 1 - History Vehicle pulled over for ficticious plates Strong smell of marijuana coming from vehicle Driver admitted to smoking marijuana approx. ½ hour prior to stop. Blood collected at 2256 hours
20 What did MVRCL see in 2005 #6 was oxycodone with 59 occurrences. Only 3 blood values for oxycodone 70, 80 and 450 ng/ml.
21 What did MVRCL see in 2005 #7 was pseudoephedrine and ephedrine with 53 and 32 occurrences respectively. Blood values for pseudoephedrine ranged from ng/ml with an average of 460 ng/ml,, n=4.
22 What did MVRCL see in 2005 #8 was morphine with 49 occurrences. Blood values for free morphine ranged from ng/ml with an average of 45 ng/ml, n=13. 6-monoacetylmorphine 19 occurrences with 2 blood values, < 20 and < 30 ng/ml.
23 DUI Case 4 - History Driver involved in a traffic accident A lump of suspected heroin is recovered from Driver s s rectum by hospital staff Blood collected at 1805 hours
27 What did MVRCL see in 2005 #9 was clonazepam and 7-amino 7 clonazepam with 27 and 33 occurrences respectively. One case with a blood value for clonazepam and 7-AMC 7-30 and 80ng/mL respectively. (Case 2)
28 What did MVRCL see in 2005 #10 was carisoprodol and meprobamate with 27 and 29 occurrences respectively. Blood values for carisoprodol ranged from mcg/ml ml with an average of 11 mcg/ml ml, n=5. Blood values for meprobamate ranged from 3-50 mcg/ml ml with an average of 19 mcg/ml ml, n=6.
29 What did MVRCL see in 2005 Also #10 was diazepam and nordiazepam with 21 and 29 occurrences respectively. Blood values for diazepam ranged from ng/ml with an average of 220 ng/ml, n=6. Blood values for nordiazepam ranged from ng/ml with an average of 150 ng/ml, n=7.
30 What did MVRCL see in 2005 #11 was codeine with 28 occurrences. Blood values for codeine ranged from ng/ml with an average of 20 ng/ml,, n=6.
31 DUI Case 6 - History Reckless operation of motor vehicle Blood collected at 2030 hours
33 What did MVRCL see in 2005 #12 was methadone with 24 occurrences. Blood values for methadone ranged from ng/ml with an average of 180 ng/ml,, n=4.
34 What did MVRCL see in 2005 #13 was methamphetamine and amphetamine with 19 and 21 occurrences respectively. Blood values for one case with both methamphetamine and amphetamine was 280 and 90 ng/ml respectively. Two other blood values for methamphetamine and amphetamine were 360 and 120 ng/ml respectively but these were not from the same case.
35 What did MVRCL see in 2005 #14 was butalbital with 11 occurrences. Two blood values for butalbital were 4.7 and 12 mcg/ml ml.
36 DUI Case 7 - History Driver struck a parked vehicle Small bag of suspected marijuana was found outside his vehicle underneath where he was sitting Blood collected at 0850 hours
37 Toxicology Results Case 7 Blood - ng/ml Amphetamine 120 ELISA THC metab.. Not detected
38 DUI Case 8 - History Driver involved in a traffic accident Arrested for operating a vehicle while intoxicated (OVI) Blood collected at 1525 hours
40 DUI Case 9 - History Driver involved in a traffic accident Arrested for operating a vehicle while intoxicated (OVI) Odor of marijuana, behavior was irratic and eyes were both constricted Blood collected at 1555 hours
42 Other drugs with 10 occurrences or less (Blood values) Temazepam 9 Zolpidem 8 (120 and 250 ng/ml) Promethazine 7 (80 ng/ml) Dextromethorphan 7 (70 ng/ml) Norpropoxyphene 7 Gabapentin - 6 Oxazepam 5 Chlorpheniramine 4 Citalopram - 4 Propoxyphene 4 Amitriptyline/Nortriptyline 4
43 DUI Case 10 - History Driver was found passed out behind the wheel of a running motor vehicle Arrested for operating a vehicle while intoxicated (OVI) Blood collected at 0926 hours
44 Toxicology Results Case 10 Blood - ng/ml Zolpidem 120
45 Other drugs with 10 occurrences or less Fentanyl 4 Diphenhydramine 4 Fluoxetine 4 Lorazepam 4 Tramadol 4 Hydromorphone - 4 Doxylamine 3 Cyclobenzaprine - 3 Sertraline 3 Orphenadrine - 3 Bupropion 3 Venlafaxine - 3
46 DUI Case 11 - History Vehicle stopped for marked lanes Detected odor of marijuana Arrested for operating a vehicle while intoxicated (OVI) Vehicle search located 2 white oblong pills and green leafy vegetable substance chemistry identified these as ibuprofen and marihuana Urine collected at 2100 hours
48 Other drugs with 10 occurrences or less (Blood Values) MDMA/MDA 2 (>1 / 0.11 mcg/ml one case) Midazolam 2 Phenytoin 2 Trazodone - 2 Phentermine - 1 Metaxalone 1 Meperidine 1 Methocarbamol 1 Mirtazepine 1 Triazolam 1 Topiramate 1
49 DUI Case 12 - History Driver caused traffic accident Failed sobriety tests Admitted to taking 4 prescription meds before accident Arrested for operating a vehicle while intoxicated (OVI) Blood collected at 2254 hours
51 Discussion The majority of Ohio DUI cases are multi drug. Trying to encourage submittal of more blood specimens and more information. Wide variety of drugs - Rx, illicit and OTC. Methadone and amphetamine class is on the rise for 2006
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