Slide 2. What is Investing?

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1 Slide 1 Investments Investment choices can be overwhelming if you don t do your homework. There s the potential for significant gain, but also the potential for significant loss. In this module, you ll learn about the different types of investments so you can understand your choices. You ll learn what asset allocation means and why diversification is so important. Finally, we ll look closely at the benefit of managing your investments through the use of funds. This module will give you the tools to understand how to make your money work for you. Let s get started.

2 Slide 2 What is Investing? First, you need to know what investing is. Investing is putting money to work for you to make more money. There is risk involved, as investments may not grow or even lose value for a variety of reasons; but over a long-term period of time, investments tend to grow.

3 Slide 3 Investment Goals Before you begin investing, there are probably a few things you need to think about. Why are you investing? What s your long-term goal? Maybe you want to put away money for retirement or a child s college education. Whatever your goal may be, identifying the purpose will help drive your investment choices.

4 Slide 4 PROPERTIES Allow user to leave interaction: Show Next Slide Button: Completion Button Label: Anytime Show always Next Slide If you know why you re investing, you ll be in a better position to determine when you ll need this money. Click on each of the tabs to learn more about considerations you should take into account before investing. Time Horizon - Consider your time horizon before you begin investing. For instance, if you re 25 years old and investing for your retirement, you know that you probably won t need to touch your investments for forty years. Your time horizon can help you to determine the best investments to meet your goals. Risk Tolerance - Knowing your risk tolerance will help you to determine appropriate investments for your goals. Your risk tolerance is essentially your comfort zone with investing. If you re unable to sleep at night because of your investment choices, you may have exceeded your tolerance for risk. Financial Resources Your financial resources may affect how you invest your money. You might be more willing to invest $10,000 if you re a millionaire, but it probably wouldn t make sense if you earn $25,000 a year. A $10,000 loss probably wouldn t hurt a millionaire s overall financial picture, but it would be a significant loss of annual income for someone who earns $25,000 a year. The millionaire would likely be willing to risk or assume greater risk in his investments, knowing that his finances could absorb a potential loss.

5 Personality - Your personality plays a role in guiding your investing. Some people are willing to assume more risk than others, with the goal of a higher payoff. Others aren t as willing to risk money they ve worked hard to accumulate.

6 Slide 5 Types of Asset Classes Stocks Bonds Cash equivalents Real estate You know what your goals are, now let s determine how to reach them using various asset classes. An asset class is a group of securities that typically behave similarly in the market place when compared to other groups of securities. Some asset classes are stocks, bonds, cash equivalents, and real estate. Each of these asset classes can provide you with some level of reward, but all have some risk associated with them. Let s look at each of the asset classes in detail.

7 Slide 6 Stocks Risk Stock shares represent ownership, or equity, in a specific company. Stockholders gain the right to participate in the financial success of a company, either through the increase in the stock s value, receiving a share of the company s earnings in the form of dividends, or both. But companies can go through financially difficult times or even go bankrupt. This means that stockholders can lose some or all of their investments. While stocks have the greatest potential for financial gain, they can also have the greatest amount of risk.

8 Slide 7 Stock Classification Large Medium Small Stocks can be classified in several ways. One way is based on their market capitalization, or the size of their market values. Market capitalization is simply the price of the stock multiplied by the number of shares that are owned by the investors. Commonly listed as large cap, midcap or small cap stocks, the size of a company may allow it to perform well under different market conditions. Sometimes small-cap stocks may out-perform large-cap stocks, and vice versa. Click on each square to reveal the market capitalization characteristics.

9 Slide 8 Stock Classification Large Medium Small These are the stocks of well-established companies that generally pay dividends. The vast size and maturity of these companies can make them well positioned to weather inevitable economic downturns.

10 Slide 9 Stock Classification Large Medium Small Small-cap stocks have the potential for rapid acceleration in earnings and growth but can be highly volatile. Their companies are often viewed as being on the cutting edge of their industries.

11 Slide 10 Stock Classification Large Medium Small Mid-cap stocks are of companies that generally are established, yet innovative and responsive, and have the potential for continued earnings growth.

12 Slide 11 PROPERTIES Allow user to leave interaction: Show Next Slide Button: Completion Button Label: Anytime Show always Next Slide Stocks can also by classified by their characteristics. Click on each characteristic to learn more. Blue Chip Blue chip stocks are large, well-known companies. These companies are typically strong financially, with a history of consistent earnings. People invest in these companies for their growth potential, as well as dividends. Income Income stocks are those that pay higher than average dividends. People invest in them for the additional income that dividends provide. Banks, insurance companies, and utility companies are typical income stocks. Growth Growth stocks are those that have the potential for higher than average growth than others in the market with similar risk characteristics. Growth stocks typically make little or no dividend payments, People invest in growth stocks primarily for their potential to appreciate in price. Value Value stocks are typically considered to be undervalued relative to the rest of the market. Investors believe that they re buying the stock while it s on sale. Speculative Speculative stocks possess a high probability of low or negative rates of return and a low probability of normal or high rates of return.

13 Cyclical Cyclical stocks are those companies that follow the same pattern of business activity. They tend to perform well in the first phase of an economic recovery, but don t do as well as the economy begins to slow down. Defensive Defensive stocks are companies that produce goods and services that are in demand, regardless of the status of the economy. Examples of defensive stocks include food, tobacco, and utilities. International International stocks are companies that aren t based in the United States. These stocks can be in developed countries such Japan, Australia, and those in Europe, or in emerging markets such as Brazil, China, Russia, and India.

14 Slide 12 PROPERTIES Allow user to leave interaction: Show Next Slide Button: Completion Button Label: Anytime Show always Next Slide As we have said previously, stocks have the greatest potential for return but also carry various forms of risk. Let s talk about some of the different types of risk you may encounter when investing in stocks. Click on each button to learn more. Market risk Market risk is the potential loss due to factors such as real or perceived adverse economic conditions, political developments, and investor sentiment. Business risk Business risk is the risk that an investment will lose value because of a decline in a specific company or industry. Financial risk Companies run the risk that they will not have enough money to meet their debt obligations, thereby putting the company in jeopardy. Liquidity risk This risk lies with the uncertainty of being able to sell a stock quickly and at its market value. This can occur with stocks with very little demand. Tax risk Tax risk is the potential that changes in the law will affect the taxation of stock gains and/or dividend payments. Country risk Country risk typically applies to international stocks. It s the risk that events or laws in a country will negatively affect the stocks in that country.

15 Currency risk Currency risk applies to the investment in foreign stocks. It s the risk that the value of a foreign stock, measured in U.S. dollars, will be negatively impacted due to unfavorable changes in currency exchange rates.

16 Slide 13 Bonds The next asset class is bonds, also called fixed income instruments. Bonds are loans to corporations or to governments, typically in $1000 denominations. The bond issuer, or borrower, agrees to make promised payments at specific dates typically in the form of interest and principal to the bondholder, or lender. Technically, bonds mature or the principal comes due 10 or more years after they are issued. But many people use the term loosely by including debt obligations with shorter maturity periods. Bonds are rated by firms such as Standard & Poor s and Moody s to indicate their credit quality. The bonds are graded based on their issuers overall financial strength and their ability to pay the interest and principal when they re due.

17 Slide 14 PROPERTIES Allow user to leave interaction: Show Next Slide Button: Completion Button Label: Anytime Show always Next Slide There are a number of different types of fixed income instruments. Click on the terms on the left to learn about each type. Corporate bonds - Corporate bonds are issued by corporations and are backed by the issuer s ability to make its payments. High-yield High-yield bonds are typically corporate bonds with lower credit ratings than investment grade bonds and pay a higher interest rate in order to attract investors. International bonds International bonds are those issued by foreign companies or governments. Municipal bonds Municipal bonds are those issued by states or local governments. They are exempt from federal taxes and come in two types. General obligation bonds are backed on the taxing authority of the government. Revenue bonds are backed by the revenue created by a specific project. Treasury inflation protected securities (TIPS) TIPS are Treasury securities that are intended to provide protection against inflation. Principal is adjusted based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI). The principal increases with inflation and decreases with deflation. Because interest payments are based on the adjusted principal, TIPS will rise with inflation and fall with deflation.

18 U.S Treasuries These instruments are issued by the United States government and include bills, notes and bonds. Bills are sold with one month, three month, or six month maturities. Notes mature in 2 to 10 years and bonds mature in 10 to 30 years.

19 Slide 15 Bond Risk Interest Rate Default Prepayment Reinvestment Although they are considered to be less risky than stocks, bonds still carry various types of risk. Click on each of the buttons to learn about some of these risks.

20 Slide 16 Interest Rate Exit Interest Rate Default Prepayment Reinvestment Interest rate risk is the risk that when interest rates rise, bonds will decline in value. To learn more, select one of the other buttons or click Exit when you're done.

21 Slide 17 Default Exit Interest Rate Default Prepayment Reinvestment Default risk, also known as credit risk, is the risk that a bond issuer is unable to pay the interest or principal when it s due. To learn more, select one of the other buttons or click Exit when you're done.

22 Slide 18 Prepayment Exit Interest Rate Default Prepayment Reinvestment Prepayment risk is the risk that the issuer will return the principal before the scheduled maturity date, resulting in the bondholder s unanticipated loss of income. To learn more, select one of the other buttons or click Exit when you're done.

23 Slide 19 Reinvestment Exit Interest Rate Default Prepayment Reinvestment Reinvestment risk is the risk that the bondholder will reinvest the cash flow from bond payments at lower interest rates. To learn more, select one of the other buttons or click Exit when you're done.

24 Slide 20 PROPERTIES Allow user to leave interaction: Show Next Slide Button: Completion Button Label: Anytime Show always Next Slide The third type of asset class is cash equivalents. Cash equivalents are investment securities that are short-term, have high credit quality and are often highly liquid. While these securities typically don t lose their value, they may lose their purchasing power during periods of high inflation. Click on each of the tabs to learn about the different types of cash equivalents. Certificates of Deposit (CDs) CDs are savings accounts sold by a bank in any denomination. They pay a specific interest rate and mature within in a specific period. CDs are not as liquid as other cash equivalents, as you may pay a penalty if you need to access the money prior to the CD s maturity. Money Market Account Money market accounts are savings accounts at banks that require larger than normal deposits. Restrictions may be placed on the number of transactions that can be made in a month. These are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). Money Market Fund A money market fund's purpose is to provide investors with a safe place to invest easily accessible cash-equivalent assets and is characterized as a low-risk, low-return investment. Unlike money market accounts, these funds are not insured by the FDIC.

25 Slide 21 Real Estate Another type of asset class is real estate. People typically think of their homes as their investment in real estate. But real estate investment trusts, or REITs, are securities that allow people to invest in real estate holdings that would otherwise be unavailable. REITs are divided into three types: equity, mortgage, and hybrids. Equity REITs invest directly in real estate and own and manage properties. Revenues primarily come from rental income. Mortgage REITs originate, buy and/or sell mortgages for real estate property owners. Revenues primarily come from interest earned off the mortgages. Hybrid REITs invest in both equity REIT and mortgage REIT investment principles.

26 Slide 22 Asset Allocation and Diversification We ve talked about stocks, bonds, cash equivalents and real estate investments, but how do you know the best way to handle your portfolio? What is a portfolio anyway? A portfolio is just another term for all of your investments. And asset allocation and diversification are the keys to creating a balanced and well managed portfolio. Let s look at why asset allocation is so important.

27 Slide 23 Asset Allocation Each of the asset classes we ve discussed has their pros and cons. Stocks offer the greatest potential for long-term gain, but carry greater risk than bonds. Cash equivalents tend to be the least volatile, but risk not keeping up with inflation. So does that mean one is better than the other? No, it simply means that you should have a balance of different types of assets. Asset allocation is the process of dividing your portfolio among the different asset classes, and balancing risk and reward by apportioning a portfolio's assets according to your goals, risk tolerance and investment horizon. No single asset allocation model is right for everyone. For instance, a 25 year old who is investing for retirement may have an asset allocation of 100% in stocks because her time horizon is some 40 years away and she s willing to take a lot of risk. A 60 year old who s nearing retirement may have an asset allocation that s 40% stocks, 50% bonds, and 10% cash equivalents because he wants to reduce some of his risk. People tend to change their asset allocations as they near their financial objectives.

28 Slide 24 Rebalancing Assets A key to successful asset allocation is its maintenance. Rebalancing requires the periodic purchase and sale of investments to maintain the original asset weightings. For example, remember our 60 year old who had determined his portfolio should be 40% stocks, 50% bonds, and 10% cash equivalents? If his stock holdings were to outperform his other assets, his allocation might be 49% stocks, 46% bonds, and 5% cash. To rebalance his portfolio, he would sell 9% of his stocks and distribute the proceeds into bonds and cash, realigning his portfolio with his original strategy. Rebalancing helps you stick with your plan, regardless of what the markets do.

29 Slide 25 Diversification Do you remember when your mother said, don t put all your eggs in one basket? Mom may not have known it, but she was giving you a valuable lesson about investing. You could buy the stock of one company, but if it suffers a financial setback, you could lose money. Diversification is a risk management technique that mixes a wide variety of investments within a portfolio. It involves distributing your money among different securities, sectors, industries, and strategies within a number of asset classes. It should be noted that diversification of an investment portfolio does not assure a profit and doesn t protect against loss in a declining market.

30 Slide 26 Rates of Return - 500/1000 $500 = 50% Return $1500 $1000 As you invest, you not only want to think about asset allocation and diversification, you also want to consider your potential return. Return is what you get back on an investment, expressed as a percentage of that investment amount. Let s look at an example. If you invested $1000 in a stock and later sold it for $1500, you would ve made $500. Your gain of $500 divided by the original investment amount of $1000 is a 50% return. But investments don t always make money. The difference between a purchase price and sales price can be either a capital gain (if you make money) or a capital loss (if you lose money). But any interest or dividends you ve received can also be included. Total return provides a good measure of performance and consists of all price changes and income received over a specific period of time.

31 Slide 27 Actual Rate of Return An investment s actual return is what the investment earned for a given time period. But your personal rate of return may be different, depending on timing. For instance, let s say a stock increases 25% in value in one year. But you bought the stock on December 1 st, so your return would only be the stock s performance during the month of December. This means that your personal return is the same as the investment s actual return only if you buy and hold the investment for the same time period.

32 Slide 28 Funds You now know what your investment goals are and what comprises a balanced and well managed portfolio. But there s still a lot of information out there and a lot of choices. Do you have to do it all by yourself? Of course not. That s where funds come in. Mutual funds serve individual shareholders. Another type of fund, collective trusts, are formed by institutional investors, such as employers who sponsor retirement plans. Let s look at their common characteristics.

33 Slide 29 Fund Management It would be very difficult for the average person to compile a diversified portfolio and to manage it. You'd need to research thousands of possible investments and buy and sell them. It would be a full time job and require a lot of money! Funds allow thousands of investors to pool their money under professional management. Fund managers use the money to invest in securities, which they think are appropriate to achieve the goals of their funds. Each investor shares in the gains or losses of the fund.

34 Slide 30 PROPERTIES Allow user to leave interaction: Show Next Slide Button: Completion Button Label: Anytime Show always Next Slide There are all types of funds, many of which are invested in the types of stocks, bonds, and cash instruments that we learned about earlier in this module. There are some funds that combine securities from all three asset classes. Click on each button to learn about the types of funds. Asset Allocation Funds - An asset allocation fund is a single fund that invests in a variety of securities in different asset classes. Balanced Funds - Balanced funds invest in both stocks and bonds, usually in specific weightings, such as 50% stocks and 50% bonds. Index Funds - Index funds attempt to track the performance of various market indices such as the Standard & Poor s 500 or the Russell Index fund investors are typically seeking to track the market s performance, not beat it. The fees are lower for index funds than they are for funds that are actively managed, where the manager is trying to outperform the market. Actively Managed Funds Actively managed funds seek to outperform the total return performance of various market indices. The fund s management teams engage in regular indepth research on individual securities within a particular area of focus. They tend to have higher fees than index funds.

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36 Slide 31 Fund Fees Transaction Fees On-going Fees When you re trying to determine where to invest your money, it s important to pay attention to the fees charged by funds. You don t want to spend money unnecessarily and have costs eat into your returns. Fees can be broken into two general categories: transaction fees and on-going fees. While on-going fees are charged for all funds, transaction fees can occur when you re either buying or selling shares in a fund. To learn more about these types of fees, click on either of the pictures to get started.

37 Slide 32 Transaction Fees Return Transaction fees, often referred to as loads, are used to compensate brokers and other salespeople for selling the fund. Loads typically come in either front-end or back-end. A front-end load occurs when you purchase shares in a mutual fund. The commission is deducted from your purchase money. For instance, if you give a salesperson $1000 to purchase shares in a fund and there is a 5% front-end load, you will actually invest $950 and the salesperson will be paid $50. A back-end load is typically assessed if you sell your shares within a specific timeframe. It might begin at 5% and then decrease over time, so that at the end of the specified period, you wouldn t pay anything if you sell your shares. Not every fund has these types of fees and there s no evidence that funds that have these costs perform any better than those that don t. To compare transaction fees to on-going fees, click Return. If you ve finished, click the next button at the bottom of the screen to advance.

38 Slide 33 Fund Fees Transaction Fees On-going Fees Now click on the picture of the on-going fees.

39 Slide 34 On-going Fees Return On-going fees are expressed as an expense ratio. Ongoing expenses include but are not limited to investment management, custody, audit, and other types of fund administrative costs. Finally, a 12b-1 fee may be assessed for advertisement and marketing costs. To compare on-going fees to transaction fees, click Return. If you ve finished, click the next button at the bottom of the screen to advance.

40 Slide 35 Fund Fees Transaction Fees On-going Fees Now click on the picture of the transaction fees.

41 Slide 36 Prospectus Before you invest, you ll want to do your research. If you invest in a mutual fund you can learn about a fund s fee structure, as well as other information in a fund s prospectus. The prospectus is a detailed document that funds are required to provide to their customers. The document states the fund s objectives and risks, as well as information about its management. It outlines how the fund operates, discussing its fees, distribution policy, and its investment strategy. The prospectus will also provide annualized performance returns for the past 1-, 5-, and 10-year periods.

42 Slide 37 Investments On the Web Financial Literacy You ve done it! You re ready for the world of investing and you know how to make your money work for you. You have the tools to make choices about the right types of investments for you. You understand why asset allocation and diversification are so important to a well managed portfolio. And you learned about managing your investments with funds. Understanding your investment options is just one more step in financial literacy. For more information about Investing, click the On the Web link to go to MoneyWatch.com. To view our other Financial Literacy presentations, select the Financial Literacy link.

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