1 ABILITY TO TRANSFER "S" CORPORATION STOCK TO INTER VIVOS TRUSTS (Business Advisory No. 10) Over the years, we have found that many of our clients elect to transfer their shares of "S" corporation stock to trusts as part of their estate planning. In doing so, it is important to ensure that the transfer does not terminate the "S" tax election of the corporation to the detriment of all of its shareholders and that upon death, the trust continues to qualify as a shareholder or the stock within the trust is distributed to individual beneficiaries. Normally, Transfers of "S" corporation stock through grantor inter vivos, revocable trusts do not undermine the corporation's "S" tax election with state and federal taxing authorities. (I.R.C. 1361(c)(2)(A)(i); Regs (h)(1)(i).) A previously qualified grantor trust remains an eligible shareholder within an "S" corporation for a two (2) year period from the date of the grantor's death, whereupon the trust must qualify as a QSST trust or the stock must be distributed to individual beneficiaries. There are specific requirements for qualifying the inter vivos trust as a shareholder in a corporation with "S" tax status. Otherwise, the "S" tax election is terminated for all of the corporation's shareholders. "S" Tax Elections by Corporations The "S" tax election for a California corporation must be made with the state and federal taxing authorities. Basically, it allows the corporation (and its 100 or fewer shareholders) to be taxed as a partnership. Gains and losses "flow through" to the shareholders. In California, however, there is an additional franchise tax of the greater of $800 or 1.5% of taxable income. California Rev. & Tax Code 23802(b). For closely held corporations, the "S" election, in spite of California's franchise tax, may still be the best tax alternative, although limited liability company status has became available (limited liability companies are fully treated as partnerships for federal and California taxes but have California franchise taxes based on gross revenues which are normally higher than the franchise taxes for a similar "S" corporation).
2 Page 2 of 11 "S" Corporation Shareholders An "S" election cannot be made by a corporation that has more than 100 shareholders, has as a shareholder a "person" who is not an individual (other than an estate during administration and certain trusts), has a nonresident alien as a shareholder, or has more than one class of stock. I.R.C. 1361(b)(1). Further, the S corporation cannot own more than 80% of the stock of another corporation. I.R.C. 1504(a)(1) and (2). If the shareholders (all of them) do not fall within this category at any time, then the "S" election is lost and the corporation, sometimes retroactively, is determined by the taxing authorities to be a "C" corporation. If "S" tax planning is employed, a change to a "C" corporation tax status can be problematic as there is double taxation (at the corporate and shareholder levels) which is especially difficult upon termination of the corporation or sale of its assets if there is an appreciated asset (the General Utilities doctrine was replaced by provisions in the Tax Reform Act of 1986). "S" Election Agreement Because of these tax ramifications, we normally suggest that the "S" corporation and its shareholders execute an "S" Election Agreement. This agreement guarantees the "S" tax status to each shareholder by the other shareholders and corporation unless all affected shareholders agree to a tax status change. The agreement also penalizes any shareholder causing the loss of the "S" tax status by making that person responsible for all taxes, penalties, etc., of the other shareholders and corporation for termination of the "S" tax status, levied by the IRS and Franchise Tax Board. Inter Vivos Trust as a Qualified "S" Corporation Shareholder When assets such as stock in an "S" corporation are transferred into an inter vivos trust, it is important to insure that each of the following requirements are met: (1) Any shareholders' agreement (including an "S" election agreement) should be revised prior to the transfer to specify the permissible transfers of stock to include transfers to the type of trust desired (I.R.C , 1361);
3 Page 3 of 11 (2) The trust instrument should provide that the trust can be a holder of stock in an "S" corporation, or the trust instrument should be revised prior to the transfer; (3) The trust receiving the transfer should be revocable; (4) The trust can be an "S" corporation shareholder if it is owned by one individual (whether the grantor or another); (5) The trust should be a grantor trust. The income should be taxed to a grantor under I.R.C The trust should be a grantor trust rather than a GRUT or GRAT which does not automatically qualify as an "S" corporation shareholder unless the trust instrument provides that grantor is taxed on all of the income earned by the trust (i.e., by making the trust a wholly grantor trust for income tax purposes). If the trust is a GRUT, GRAT, Section 678 or QSST (Qualified Subchapter "S" Trust), the trust can be revised to allow the trust to qualify to be an "S" corporation shareholder. If we are not accomplishing your estate planning (as we do for most of our clients), we look forward to reviewing your trust before it is finalized to ensure the transfers of your "S" corporation stock will not terminate the corporation's "S" tax status. No changes should be made in your corporation's stock arrangements. Disqualification Upon Death Upon your death, your grantor inter vivos, revocable trust normally becomes irrevocable. Within two (2) years of your death, your trust will disqualify the "S" tax status of your corporation unless one of the following occurs: Your trust qualifies as a QSST trust (Qualified Subchapter "S" Trust); or The stock within the trust is transferred to individual beneficiaries.
4 Page 4 of 11 While two (2) years is a long time, the beneficiaries of your trust and the shareholders of your corporation should be notified of the foregoing concerns upon death so appropriate actions are undertaken to qualify the trust or trust activities are undertaken to distribute the stock within two years. This is a short summary of the interplay of corporation, estate and tax law as it applies to the holding of "S" corporation stock by inter vivos, revocable grantor trusts. In contemplating such a trust, transfer or other corporate or estate planning, it is important to seek the assistance of an attorney. We look forward to being of service to you. Enc: Sample Provisions S. Timothy Buynak Business and Tax Attorney This Advisory is one of a series of business and tax advisories prepared by the attorneys at. Should you have further questions regarding the information provided in this Advisory, please contact the author listed above. provides business legal services to individuals, business entities and nonprofit organizations from entity formation and start up, through day-to-day operations and exit strategies.
5 Page 5 of 11 Attachment: Sample Provisions ARTICLE SEVEN TRUSTEE 7.1. Remaining Settlor to Act as Sole Trustee on Death or Incapacity of Other Settlor. If, while both settlors are acting as cotrustees, either settlor dies, becomes incapacitated, or is otherwise unable or unwilling to continue to act as a cotrustee, the other settlor thereafter shall be sole trustee, with full power to continue the trust administration Successor Trustees. If the office of trustee becomes vacant, by reason of death, incapacity, or any other reason, then the following individuals in the following order of priority, shall be successor trustee: First,, and, jointly, or the survivor(s) of them; and Second,. If all of the above individuals are unwilling or unable to serve as successor trustee, a new trustee or cotrustees shall be appointed by the court Power to Nominate Co or Successor Trustee. Any individual trustee shall have the power to appoint a cotrustee or successor trustee Definition of Trustee. Reference in this instrument to "the trustee" shall be deemed a reference to whoever is serving as trustee or cotrustees, and shall include alternate or successor trustees or cotrustees, unless the context requires otherwise Waiver of Bond. No bond or undertaking shall be required of any individual who serves as a trustee under this instrument Compensation of Individual Trustees. Each individual who is a trustee under this instrument shall be entitled to reasonable compensation for services rendered, payable without court order. Each corporate trustee under this instrument shall be entitled to compensation in accordance with its established compensation schedule for services rendered, payable without court order.
6 Page 6 of Procedure for Resignation. Any trustee may resign at any time, without giving a reason for the resignation, by giving written notice, at least thirty (30) days before the time the resignation is to take effect, to the settlors, if living, to any other trustee then acting, to any persons authorized to designate a successor trustee, to all trust beneficiaries known to the trustee (or, in the case of a minor beneficiary, to the parent or guardian of that beneficiary) and to the successor trustee. A resignation shall be effective on written acceptance of the trust by the successor trustee General Powers of Trustee. To carry out the purposes of the trusts created under this instrument, the trustee shall have all of the powers enumerated in this trust instrument and all powers now or hereafter conferred on trustees under California law Power to Retain Trust Property. The trustee shall have the power to retain property received into the trust at its inception or later added to the trust, as long as the trustee considers that retention in the best interests of the trust or in furtherance of the goals of the settlors in creating the trust, as determined from this trust instrument, but subject to the standards of the prudent investor rule as set forth in the California Uniform Prudent Investor Act, as amended from time to time Trustee's Power to Invest Property. Subject to the standards of the prudent investor rule as stated in the California Uniform Prudent Investor Act, as an-tended from time to time, the trustee shall have the power to invest and manage the trust assets as a prudent investor would, by considering the purposes, terms, distribution requirements, and other circumstances of the trust Powers Regarding Subchapter S Stock. If at any time the trust estate includes shares of stock in any corporations that have elected to be governed by the provisions of Subchapter S of Chapter 1 of Subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code (IRC Section 1361 et seq., or any successor sections), then notwithstanding any other provision of this instrument, the trustee shall at all times manage those shares, and administer the trust estate, in a manner that will maintain the S corporation status. To satisfy this obligation, but without limiting the discretion of the trustee to take any action to protect the S corporation status, the trustee shall act as follows: (a) Allocation or Distribution to Permitted Shareholders. The trustee shall allocate or distribute shares of S corporation stock only to those trusts or those beneficiaries that are permitted to be shareholders of an S corporation. (b) Qualified Subchapter S Trust Provisions. If shares of S corporation stock are allocated to any trust created under this instrument and that trust does not
7 Page 7 of 11 otherwise qualify as a permitted shareholder under Internal Revenue Code Section 1361, or any successor section, then notwithstanding any other provision of this instrument, that trust (or any portion of that trust containing S corporation stock) shall be administered so as to ensure that it is a Qualified Subchapter S Trust (QSST), an Electing Small Business Trust (ESBT), or some other form of trust that qualifies as a permitted shareholder under Internal Revenue Code Section 1361, or any successor section. The S corporation stock in each such trust shall be held in separate share trusts (within the meaning of Internal Revenue Code Section 663(c), or any successor section) for each beneficiary; and all other property in each trust shall be held in a separate trust, which shall continue to be administered in accordance with the terms of this instrument. With respect to the separate share trusts holding S corporation stock, the trustee shall make distributions of income and principal, and otherwise administer the trusts, to ensure that those trusts do not become ineligible shareholders of an S corporation. To the extent that the terms of this instrument are inconsistent with those separate share trusts qualifying as permitted shareholders of an S corporation, those terms shall be disregarded. (c) Other Trustee Administrative Powers. The trustee shall have the power (1) to enter into agreements with other shareholders or with the corporation relating to transfers of S corporation stock or the management of the corporation; and (2) to allocate amounts received, and the tax on undistributed income, between income and principal. During the administration of a trust holding S corporation stock, the trustee may allocate tax deductions and credits arising from ownership of S corporation stock between income and principal. In making those allocations, the trustee shall consider that the beneficiary consider that the beneficiary is to have the enjoyment of the property at least equal to that ordinarily associated with an income interest. (d) Beneficiary Agreement. The trustee shall not distribute any S corporation stock to any beneficiary unless, prior to that distribution, the beneficiary enters into a written agreement with the S corporation stating the following: (1) that the beneficiary will consent to any election to qualify the corporation as an S corporation; (2) that the beneficiary will not interfere with the S corporation maintaining its S corporation status; (3) that the beneficiary will not transfer the S corporation stock to any transferee who does not agree to execute a similar consent; (4) that the beneficiary will not transfer the stock in a manner that will cause a termination of S corporation status under the then applicable federal and
8 Page 8 of 11 state tax law and regulations; and (5) that the beneficiary will join in any attempt to obtain a waiver from the Internal Revenue Service of a terminating event on the grounds of inadvertence if S corporation status is inadvertently terminated and the S corporation or any shareholder desires that S corporation status should continue. (e) Certificate to Bear Legend. If the trustee receives any shares of S corporation stock whose stock certificates bear a legend stating that the transfer, pledge, assignment, hypothecation, or other disposition of the stock is subject to the terms set forth in the preceding subsection, then the stock certificates shall also bear that legend when the trustee distributes those shares of S corporation stock to a beneficiary. (f) No Disqualification of Marital Deduction. Any grant of power or discretion to the trustee under this section shall be void to the extent that grant would cause the estate of the deceased settlor to lose all or part of the federal estate tax marital deduction, and in the event of an irreconcilable conflict between qualification of a trust as a permitted shareholder of an S corporation and qualification of that trust for the federal estate tax marital deduction, all of the S corporation's stock otherwise passing to that trust shall be distributed outright to the surviving settlor Retention of Family Residence. The trustee shall retain, in any trust or trusts created by this trust instrument, any interest in real property used by the settlors as their principal residence at the time of the deceased settlor's death ("the family residence"), and shall deal with the family residence in accordance with the following terms and conditions: (a) During his or her lifetime, the surviving settlor shall have the right to occupy the family residence (or any substitute residence or residential property purchased as provided in this section of the trust instrument) free of any rent. (b) The trustee shall pay as much of the mortgage or trust deed payments, property taxes, assessments, insurance, maintenance, and ordinary repairs on the family residence (or any substitute residence or residential property purchased as provided in this section of the trust instrument) as corresponds to the trust's proportionate interest in the same. The trustee shall make those payments out of income or principal of the trust or trusts in accordance with the principles applicable to the charging of payments under California law, but in no event shall
9 Page 9 of 11 payment be made in a manner that disqualifies any part of the trust, that would otherwise so qualify, for the federal estate tax marital deduction. (c) The surviving settlor, at his or her option, shall have the right to advise the trustee in writing that he or she no longer wishes to occupy the family residence and to direct the trustee to sell it, or any interest therein. In deciding on the terms and conditions relating to any sale, the trustee shall take into account all relevant factors, including, but not limited to, the intent of the settlors that no sale be made in a "forced sale" situation (other than at the direction of the surviving settlor) or at a time when, because of high mortgage rates or otherwise, the residential real estate market is depressed. In selling the family residence, the trustee may dispose of it on such terms as the trustee deems desirable, including an installment sale or any other desirable method of disposing of the family residence, provided that if the sale is for consideration other than cash, the purchaser's obligation shall be secured by a first deed of trust. In the event of a sale, the surviving settlor may direct the trustee in writing to apply the proceeds of the sale to the purchase of a substitute residence or residential property, of comparable or lesser value, to be selected by the surviving settlor, or to reinvest the proceeds in any manner that he or she may direct, provided that any such investments satisfy normal fiduciary standards of prudence and safety, and to use the income from reinvestment to pay the rental or lease payments on another residence or residential property, to be selected by the surviving settlor. Any net trust accounting income from any such investments, in excess of the trust share of the rental costs and any other expenses of trust administration, shall be added to the other trust income and distributed in accordance with the relevant provisions of the trust or trusts as set forth in Article Six of this trust instrument. (d) On the death of the surviving settlor, the trust interest in either the family residence, any proceeds remaining from the sale of the family residence, or any substitute residence or residential property purchased by the trustee with any proceeds of sale of the family residence, shall be distributed in accordance with the applicable provisions of the trust or trusts in which the interest or interests are held, as set forth in Article Six of this trust instrument Power to Combine Trust Assets. Each trust created under this instrument shall constitute a separate trust and be administered accordingly; however, the assets of all of the trusts may be combined for bookkeeping purposes and held for the trust beneficiaries without physical division into separate trusts until time of distribution.
10 Page 10 of 11 7:14. Division or Distribution in Cash or Kind. In order to satisfy a pecuniary gift or to distribute or divide trust assets into shares or partial shares, the trustee may distribute or divide those assets in kind, or divide undivided interests in those assets, or sell all or any part of those assets and distribute or divide the property in cash, in kind, or partly in cash and partly in kind. Property distributed to satisfy a pecuniary gift under this instrument shall be valued at its fair market value at the time of distribution. This section shall apply only to the extent that it does not conflict with the provisions in this instrument specifying allocation of assets involving the marital deduction share or with the provisions in this instrument specifying allocation of assets involving generation-skipping trusts Payments to Legally Incapacitated Persons. If at any time any trust beneficiary is a minor, or it appears to the trustee that any trust beneficiary is incapacitated, incompetent, or for any other reason not able to receive payments or make intelligent or responsible use of the payments, then the trustee, in lieu of making direct payments to the trust beneficiary, may make payments to the beneficiary's conservator or guardian; to the beneficiary's custodian under the Uniform Gifts to Minors Act or Uniform Transfers to Minors Act of any state; to one or more suitable persons as the trustee deems proper, such as a relative of or a person residing with the beneficiary, to be used for the beneficiary's benefit; to any other person, firm, or agency for services rendered or to be rendered for the beneficiary's assistance or benefit; or to accounts in the beneficiary's name with financial institutions. The receipt of payments by any of the foregoing shall constitute a sufficient acquittance of the trustee for all purposes Written Notice to Trustee. Until the trustee receives written notice of any death or other event on which the right to payments from any trust may depend, the trustee shall incur no liability for disbursements made in good faith to persons whose interests may have been affected by that event Duty to Account. The trustee shall render accounts at least annually, at the termination of a trust, and on a change of trustees, to the persons and in the manner required by law Cotrustee May Delegate Acts to Other Cotrustee. Any cotrustee may, from time to time, delegate to the other cotrustee routine acts of trust administration and may establish bank or other accounts for the trust that will honor the signature of one or of either cotrustee. ARTICLE EIGHT CONCLUDING PROVISIONS
11 Page 11 of Perpetuities Savings Clause. Notwithstanding any other provision of this instrument, every trust created by this instrument or by the exercise of any power of appointment created by this instrument shall terminate no later than twenty-one (21) years after the death of the last survivor of the settlors and their issue who are alive at the creation of the trust. For purposes of this perpetuities savings clause, a trust shall be deemed to have been created on the date the trust becomes irrevocable or the date of the death of the surviving settlor, whichever occurs first. If a trust is terminated under this section, the trustee shall distribute all of the principal and undistributed income of the trust to the income beneficiaries of the trust in the proportion in which they are entitled (or eligible, in the case of discretionary payments) to receive income immediately before the termination. If that proportion is not fixed by the terms of the trust, the trustee shall distribute all of the trust property to the persons then entitled or eligible to receive income from the trust outright in a manner that, in the trustee's opinion, will give effect to the intent of the settlors in creating the trust. The trustee's decision is to be final and incontestable by anyone Simultaneous Death. If the settlors die under circumstances in which the order of their deaths cannot be established by clear and convincing evidence, each settlor shall be deemed to have survived the other, and this instrument shall be construed accordingly. If any beneficiary and either or both settlors die under circumstances in which the order of their deaths cannot be established by clear and convincing evidence, the settlor or settlors shall be deemed to have survived the beneficiary, and this instrument shall be construed accordingly No-Contest Clause. If any beneficiary under this instrument, singularly or in combination with any other person or persons, directly or indirectly contests this instrument, any amendment to this instrument, or the wills of the settlors in whole or in part, or opposes, objects to, or seeks to invalidate any of the provisions of this instrument or the wills of the settlors, or seeks to succeed to any part of the estate of the settlors other than in the manner specified in this instrument or in the wills of the settlors, then the right of that person to take any interest given to him or her by this instrument or any amendment to this instrument shall be void, and any gift or other interest in the trust property to which the beneficiary would otherwise have been entitled shall pass as if he or she had predeceased the settlors without issue.
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PEPCO HOLDINGS, INC. EXECUTIVE PERFORMANCE SUPPLEMENTAL RETIREMENT PLAN The Potomac Electric Power Company Executive Performance Supplemental Retirement Plan (the "Pepco plan") was established, effective
BY-LAWS OF VISUAL RESOURCES ASSOCATION FOUNDATION A Delaware Nonstock, Nonprofit Corporation ARTICLE 1. OFFICES SECTION 1. PRINCIPAL OFFICE The principal office of the Corporation for the transaction of
ABA WEALTH MANAGEMENT AND TRUST A $10.00 shipping, recordkeeping and administrative fee will be added to all self-paced enrollments. Course Name Tuition Trust Fundamentals Introduction to Estate Planning
LAND TRUST AGREEMENT THIS LAND TRUST AGREEMENT is made this day of 20, by and between, Grantor and Beneficiary, (hereinafter referred to as the "Beneficiaries", whether one or more), and, TRUSTEE of the
It is always best to consult an attorney when preparing a document such as this. GENERAL POWER OF ATTORNEY I, of of Ohio, appoint of Ohio as my Attorney-in-Fact or if he cannot serve or continue to serve
Charitable Remainder Trust Agreements Approved by the IRS TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction to Charitable Trusts Forms......................3 Charitable Remainder Unitrust..............................4 General
THE FIDELITY SIMPLE-IRA PLAN SIMPLE-IRA Custodial Agreement The participant whose name appears on the accompanying Application is establishing a savings incentive match plan for employees of small employers
OPERATING AGREEMENT MEMBER MANAGED DATE: PARTIES: RECITAL: The parties to this agreement (the "Members") are entering into this agreement for the purpose of forming a limited liability company under the
BYLAWS OF CHAMPIONS MADE FROM ADVERSITY A GEORGIA NONPROFIT CORPORATION TABLE OF CONTENTS ARTICLE I INTRODUCTORY... 1 Section 1.1 Name... 1 Section 1.2 Purpose... 1 Section 1.3 Offices... 1 Section 1.4
Schwab Designated Beneficiary Plan Application Important Notes About This Form www.schwab.com 1-800-435-4000 Page 1 of 5 Use this form to establish a Designated Beneficiary Plan ( Plan ) for your Schwab
GEORGIA S STATUTORY FINANCIAL POWER OF ATTORNEY During the 1995 Georgia General Assembly, the Legislature voted to establish within the Official Code of Georgia Annotated, at 10-6-140, a statutory form
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DESCRIPTION OF THE PLAN PURPOSE 1. What is the purpose of the Plan? The purpose of the Plan is to provide eligible record owners of common stock of the Company with a simple and convenient means of investing
New Alternatives Fund, Inc. INDIVIDUAL RETIREMENT ACCOUNT (IRA) TRADITIONAL IRA SEP IRA ROTH IRA TABLE OF CONTENTS COMBINED DISCLOSURE STATEMENT 3 TRADITIONAL INDIVIDUAL RETIREMENT ACCOUNT DISCLOSURE 4
INSTRUCTIONS FOR ESTABLISHING A WRONGFUL DEATH TRUST These instructions are intended as a guideline only and should not be relied upon as a comprehensive list of duties in a wrongful death trust. If you
Sample Partnership Agreement THIS AGREEMENT is made and entered into at, this day of, 20, by and between (Name And Address) and (Name And Address) (hereafter collectively referred to as the "Partners").
Sample Corporate Cross Purchase Agreement (Optional Disability Buy-Out) This sample agreement has been prepared as a guide to assist attorneys. Our publication, Buy-Sell Arrangements, A Guide for Professional
SAMPLE IRREVOCABLE TRUST DECLARATION OF TRUST DECLARATION OF TRUST, made as of this day of, 20, among, having an address at, as grantor (hereinafter referred to as the "Grantor"), and, having an address
COLLECTIVE INVESTMENT FUNDS ACT Act 174 of 1941 AN ACT to authorize the establishment and the maintenance of common trust funds and collective investment funds; to authorize investments or participations
THE FEDERATED FUNDS State Street Bank and Trust Company SIMPLE Individual Retirement Custodial Account Information Kit Employee Instructions for Opening Your SIMPLE IRA IMPORTANT: These Instructions and
TRUST PROVISIONS WITH THE PRIVATE TRUST COMPANY, N.A., AS TRUSTEE READ THIS PAGE BEFORE PROCEEDING The Private Trust Company, N.A. ( The Private Trust Company ) is pleased to provide the following trust
CUSTODIAL AGREEMENT PTC - IRA Form 5305-A under Section 408(a) of the Internal Revenue Code FORM (REV. MARCH 2002) The Depositor named on the Application is establishing a Traditional individual retirement
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Chapter 33A. North Carolina Uniform Transfers to Minors Act 33A-1. Definitions. In this Chapter: (1) "Adult" means an individual who has attained the age of 21 years. (2) "Benefit plan" means an employer's
MARYLAND STATUTORY FORM LIMITED POWER OF ATTORNEY PLEASE READ CAREFULLY This power of attorney authorizes another person (your agent) to make decisions concerning your property for you (the principal).