CRACKED TOOTH SYNDROME

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "CRACKED TOOTH SYNDROME"

Transcription

1 CRACKED TOOTH SYNDROME Dr Vijay Salvi We all come across apparently healthy teeth eliciting complex and often bizarre symptoms. The patient will give a long history of undiagnosed but severe pain, and of treatments which failed to provide relief. These symptoms can be attributed to a cracked tooth. This article describes the signs and symptoms, diagnostic techniques, classification and management to what is universally referred to as Cracked Tooth Syndrome. The article will describe those cracks that may have involved the underlying dentin and has the potential to propagate further to the pulp and/or periodontal structure culminating in a fractured tooth but will not refer to superficial enamel cracks which may be secondary to trauma, stress or iatrogenic in nature. People are living longer and keeping their teeth longer. As a result, patients are more likely to have complex restorative and endodontic procedures leaving teeth more susceptible to cracks. Stressful lifestyle resulting in parafunctional habits such as clenching and bruxism and consumption of paan, betel nut etc. are important contributory factors. Additionally, in recent years, practitioners have been more aware of the existence of cracks and, therefore, diagnose more cracks. The key to saving a cracked tooth is to be aware of the characteristic signs and symptoms, diagnose the crack as early in its development as possible and initiate appropriate treatment without delay. CLASSIC SIGNS, CLASSIC CONFUSION Teeth with cracks elicit erratic pain on mastication, especially with release of biting pressure and/or pain to extremes of temperature, especially cold. Generally, there is no pain to percussion, and radiographs are inconclusive. Often patients give history of pain which has been difficult to diagnose and of treatment/s which has failed to relieve their symptoms. Depending on the location, direction, and extent of the crack, the patient may present any one or all of these signs and symptoms making diagnosis confusing. If the pulp is involved, there may be signs and symptoms of irreversible pulpitis or necrosis with periradicular pathosis. If the crack extends to a root surface, there may be a periodontal defect. Many times, cracks go unnoticed until a variety of symptoms are present, a restoration is removed, or a significant periodontal defect is identified. If caught and treated appropriately, many cracks can be stopped or at least slowed down from propagating further, preventing loss of the tooth. Steps should be taken immediately to confirm the presence of a crack, determine the type of crack, and formulate an appropriate treatment plan. DIAGNOSTIC PROTOCOL FOR DETECTION OF CRACKS: In a tooth suspected of having a crack it is important to know if the tooth has undergone endodontic procedure. A cracked root canaled tooth will exhibit only those signs and symptoms associated with periodontal breakdown secondary to crack propagation. Teeth with vital pulp will require further investigations to determine the health of pulp and periodontium once a crack is diagnosed.

2 Dental History A detailed dental history which includes dietary habits, bruxism and clenching of teeth is a must. Check for a history of previous cracked teeth as many anatomical and behavioral factors that predispose teeth to crack affect more than one tooth. History of periodontal disease with extensive bone loss in the area can be an important pointer to diagnosis as decreased bone support has been thought to lead to increased stress on dentin, predisposing the roots of a tooth to cracking. History of any previous trauma can be useful in detecting a cracked tooth. Visual examination: Start with the face, checking for enlarged jaw muscles indicating excessive stress on mastication indicating paranormal functions. Check for wear facets, and any steep cusps or developmental grooves which may predispose teeth to cracks. Finally, check teeth surfaces carefully in a dry field. Note any craze lines or darker cracks. Generally, the darker the stain in a crack, the longer the crack has been present. Also check the cracked restorations or unusual gaps between restorations and tooth structure. Clinical microscope or enhanced magnification and illumination can be helpful in visual identification of a crack. Tactile examination Gently run the tip of a sharp explorer along the tooth surface. The tip may catch in a crack. Palpate the gingiva around the tooth, checking for possible evidence of an underlying dehiscence or fenestration typical of a vertical root fracture. Bite tests Use a rubber wheel, wood stick, or other commercially available instruments (such as Tooth Slooth fracture detector (Professional Results, Inc. CA USA). Place the instrument on each cusp or fossa and ask the patient to bite down with moderate pressure and release. Test several teeth and cusps. Be sure to use controls. Pain during biting or chewing is considered a classic symptom and may be the only conclusive evidence early in the crack s development. The absence of pain during biting, however, does not rule out the possibility of a crack. Periodontal probing Thorough probing in small increments around the entire circumference of the tooth may reveal a narrow periodontal pocket. The narrow pocket that forms along a crack will restrict side to side motion of the probe, making it easy to differentiate from the broad based defect characteristic of a periodontal disease pocket. Staining Cracks may be disclosed through staining (Figs 1 and 2). A dye, such as methylene blue, Seek (Ultradent products Inc.), or To-dye-for (Roydent Dental Products) can be applied to the external tooth surface, in the cavity after restoration removal, or on a surgically exposed root.

3 Figs 1 and 2. Crack disclosed in a molar by staining with a caries detector Transillumination In transillumination, a fiber-optic or other similar light source is applied directly to the tooth surface. The light beam is positioned perpendicular to the plane of the suspected crack. A crack will block the light. Structurally sound teeth, including those with craze lines, will transmit the light throughout the crown. Radiographs Cracks rarely show on radiographs. Mesio-distal cracks can never be seen, and buccolingual cracks will only appear if there is actual separation of the segments or the crack happens to coincide with the X-ray beam. Changes in the pulp chamber, canal or periradicular space, however, may suggest the presence of a crack. Radiographic evidence tends to be conclusive as the crack progresses and a bony defect develops. Taking periapical X rays from more than one angle and taking bite-wings may increase the chance of catching a crack- induced defect early in its development (Figs 3 and 4). Figs. 3 & 4. The patient presented with H/O inability to chew on right side. On examination no abnormalities were detected. Radiograph reveals a healthy tooth with no caries and healthy bone architecture, indicating good periodontal health. However, a periapical lesion with apparently no etiology is indicative of a cracked tooth. Note generalized occlusal wear. A thickened periodontal ligament space or a diffuse radioluscency, especially one with an elliptical shape in the apical area, may indicate a crack. Check also for restorations held in place by dentinal pins, which can predispose teeth to cracking.

4 In root canaled teeth, rare but significant findings include a radio opaque line where gutta percha or sealer has been expressed into the crack during obturation. A consistent radiolucent line along the length of the root canal filling material may indicate space caused by a crack but should not be considered conclusive, because it could be caused by other factors. Root canal sealer expressed in a horizontal plane within the apical third of the root is strongly indicative of a rot fracture. Check root canaled teeth for long posts, short-wide posts, custom metal posts, or posts with threads that bind with tooth structure, as the size, design and placement of posts often contribute to cracks. Restoration removal This allows for visual examination of the cavity. Carefully check the mesial and distal marginal ridges, which tend to be weak areas. Magnification and staining can be helpful. Surgical assessment Surgical exploration allows for visual examination of the root surface for the appearance of a crack and should only be used if the crack is highly suspected and cannot be confirmed by other diagnostic means. Performing diagnostic surgery, however, can help early detection of untreatable situations, sparing the need for endodontic or restorative treatment on an ultimately hopeless case. A consultation with an endodontist or periodontist may be advisable prior to surgical assessment. Whenever a surgery is performed to detect a crack, the patient should be fully informed that it is a diagnostic procedure. CRACK TYPES AND CLASSIFICATION Inconsistent terms have led to confusion in classification. This article proposes a classification for cracked teeth based on absence or presence of pulpal and periodontal apparatus involvement and the extent of crack making treatment planning and prognosis of the affected tooth simpler. The proposed classification is as under: Class A - Crack involving Enamel and Dentin but NOT involving pulp Class B - Incomplete fracture of Crown extending to the pulp but NOT involving periodontal apparatus Class C - Incomplete fracture of crown extending to the pulp and involving periodontal apparatus Class D - Complete division of tooth with pulpal and periodontal apparatus involvement Class E - Apically induced fractures. Classification Involvement of Involvement Involvement Initiation Prognosis Enamel/Dentin of Pulp of Perio. of crack Apparatus Class A YES NO MAYBE CORONAL EXCELLENT Class B YES YES NO CORONAL GOOD Class C YES YES YES CORONAL AVERAGE Class D YES YES YES CORONAL POOR Class E ROOT INVOLVEMENT YES YES APICAL POOR

5 Class A FRACTURED CUSPS AND ENAMEL CRACKS Class A cusp fractures are the easiest to diagnose and has the best prognosis, especially when the crack does not extend below the gingival attachment. The fractured cusp usually results from a lack of cusp support due to a weakened marginal ridge. Occlusally, it is common for the crack to have both a mesio-distal and a bucco-lingual component. The crack will cross the marginal ridge-frequently weakened by a restoration or caries- and continue down a buccal or lingual groove in apical direction. It may terminate parallel to the gingival margin or slightly subgingivally. Generally, only one cusp is affected. Pain- occasionally associated with sensitivity- is mild. Bite tests will elicit brief, sharp pain, especially with release of biting pressure. The pulp is usually vital. Radiographs are inconclusive. The affected cusp may break off during restoration removal, possibly resulting in relief of symptoms when the cusp breaks off. When present on a root canaled tooth, the discomfort is minimal except when the fracture line extends subgingivally. Treatment: The tooth is treated by removing the affected cusp and restoring the tooth with a full crown that covers the crack margin. Root canal treatment is necessary only in the rare event when the crack affects the pulp chamber or has resulted in irreversible pulpitis. Correction of causative factors of crack is essential. Frequently a tooth will show a mesio-distally oriented crack arising from the occlusal surface advancing apically. These cracks may terminate above the CE junction, but frequently will cross the CEJ to continue apically (Figs 5 and 6). If detected early, it is important that these cracks are treated before they spread and involve the pulp or the periodontium. Prognosis is excellent with a bonded restoration. Figs 5 and 6 A lower second molar revealed a crack arising from an old restoration and advancing apically- on exploration it turned out to be a class A crack. Class B and C CRACKED TOOTH The crack runs from occlusal surface apically without separation of the two segments. Occlusally, the crack is more centered than a cusp fracture and, therefore, more likely to cause pulpal and periradicular pathosis as it extends apically. The crack may cross either or both marginal ridges and is more often mesiodistal, shearing toward the lingual/palatal root surface (Fig 7). Rarely, the crack may be buccal-lingual in mandibular molars.

6 The signs and symptoms of a cracked tooth will vary significantly depending on the progress of the crack. Fig 7. A Crack running mesio-distally on a upper left first premolar. This crack on further examination turned out to be a class C crack. Differential diagnosis: The crack will probably be invisible to the naked eye and impossible to disclose with staining initially. The cracked tooth may only exhibit acute pain on chewing or sharp, brief pain to cold. The restorative history of the tooth, while diagnostically helpful for cusp fracture, is not as helpful with cracked tooth. Restorations can contribute to cracked tooth, and the crack may be evident across the cavity floor after a restoration is removed. However, unrestored teeth that are free of caries and teeth with conservative restorations frequently experience these cracks. Teeth with class1 restorations crack as frequently as those with class 2 restorations. If a crack can be detected, gently test for movement of the segments to differentiate a cracked tooth from a fractured cusp (class A) or split tooth (class D). A fractured cusp or a split tooth may break off under slight pressure while the segments of a cracked tooth (Class B or C) will remain in place. Position of the crack may also help differentiate a cracked tooth from a fractured cusp. Tooth crack occurs more toward the centre of the occlusal surface as compared to the cusp fracture which is more peripheral in position. More centered cracks tend to go deeper toward the apex before completely separating the tooth into two segments. If the crack has progressed to involve the pulp or periodontal tissue, the patient may have thermal sensitivity that lingers after removal of the stimulus or slight to very severe spontaneous pain consistent with irreversible pulpitis, pulp necrosis, or apical periodontitis. There may even be pulp necrosis with periradicular pathosis. Treatment planning: The cracked tooth treatment plan will vary depending on the location and extent of the crack. Even when the crack can be located, the extent is still difficult to determine. Endodontic treatment is often indicated, followed by a full crown to bind the cracked segments and protect the cusps. However, many factors can affect prognosis, and each of these must be carefully considered before proceeding with treatment. These include: Periodontal probing: Absence of a defect does not rule out the presence of a crack. Deep probing indicates an adverse prognosis. Radiographic examination: Findings will depend on pulpal and periradicular status but are usually not significant.

7 Vertical or furcal bone loss may indicate a severe crack. Pulp and periradicular tests: If pain on chewing is the only symptom, a tight-fitting band or temporary crown may be cemented to help confirm a cracked tooth diagnosis. The band serves as a splint, holding the crack together. If banding resolves pain on chewing, a full coverage restoration may keep the tooth pain free. If pain continues after banding, further evaluation of the extent of the crack and pulpal and periradicular status should be performed. Any thermal sensitivity probably indicates pulp involvement, and root canal treatment will be necessary prior to restoring the tooth with a crown. Endodontic access: The practitioner may choose to create an endodontic access to determine whether the pulpal floor is cracked. However, an attempt should not be made to chase down the extent of the crack with a bur, because the crack becomes invisible long before it terminates and sound dentin will be sacrificed unnecessarily. Staining the access cavity may help disclose the crack. Magnification and illumination may help confirm the presence of a crack on the pulpal floor. Fig 8 & 9: A lower molar with a class B crack running along distal half of the floor. Binding of the cracked segments during the endodontic procedure will improve the overall prognosis of the tooth. The segments in this case have dentinal pins (Filpin, S J Filhol Dental Mfg Ltd., Ireland) placed and area bonded with resin restorative material after identifying the canals but before biomechanical preparation and obturation. A tightfitting band or temporary crown will serve the same purpose as the dentinal pins. If the crack is partially visible across the floor of the chamber, the tooth may be banded with a temporary crown or orthodontic band. This will aid in determining the prognosis of the tooth and protect it from further deterioration till endodontic therapy is completed and a permanent restoration placed.

8 Fig 10 Fig 11 Fig 12 Fig 13 Fig 14 Figs. 10, 11 radiographs of tooth no 36. Fig 12 class C incomplete crack along the floor of the same tooth. Fig 13 after endodontic therapy and restorative management and, fig 14 with final restoration. A crown will be placed after clinical and radiological evidence of improved periodontal status. If the crack runs across the full width of the floor, the prognosis is poor. An extraction may be considered. If the crack line runs bucco-lingually in a lower molar or involving a single root in an upper molar, a resection of the separated root may be advisable in a strategically important tooth. Prognosis is hopeless in a tooth where the crack line extends to the full length of the floor and has a large periodontal defect associated with it. Class D SPLIT TOOTH The prognosis of a tooth that has split is very poor to hopeless and the entire cannot be saved. These cracks are usually mesio-distal, across both marginal ridges, split the tooth into two segments, and usually is the final stage of progression of a cracked tooth. A split tooth is easily identified by a crack line running across the tooth, usually mesiodistally, with the two segments easily separable with a probe. The patient will complain of pain on chewing and soreness of the gums of the affected area. Periodontal involvement, however, may result in mistaken diagnosis of periodontal abscess. In a few cases of split tooth, the smaller fractured segment can be removed and the remaining segment restored. If the crack extends apically to a significant extent, than the

9 extraction of the segment may leave a large periodontal defect, in which case an extraction may be the only remedy. (Fig 15 and 16) Figs 15 and 16 complete crack of upper molar involving attachment apparatus Class E VERTICAL ROOT FRACTURE [VRF] Vertical root fractures begin in the apical third of the root, usually in the bucco-lingual plane, extending to varying distance in the coronal direction. The crack may or may not extend to both buccal and lingual surfaces. VRF occurs almost exclusively on root canaled tooth. Chief etiological factors are iatrogenic viz. overzealous instrumentation or condensation during obturation and placement of post. VRF present with very few signs and symptoms, hence go unnoticed till periapical or periradicular pathology develops. At that stage it can mimic a failing root canal treatment or a periodontal abscess. The treatment is usually extraction; hence, a conclusive diagnosis is important. Patient may present with mild signs and symptoms. The tooth may or may not be mobile, x-rays do not give a conclusive picture except occasionally, in case of separation of a segment. Widening or breakdown of periodontal space from apical to coronal direction may be indicative of a VRF. Periodontal probing can be helpful as the crack may occur at any level along the root and may not reach from apical to cervical. However, most will allow deep probing in narrow or rectangular patterns typical of a cracked tooth lesion. Deep probing may be only on the facial or the lingual aspect or on both. Some VRFs show normal probing patterns. Percussion and palpation tests may be inconclusive. Surgical assessment: Vertical root fracture may require surgical inspection for conclusive diagnosis. When soft tissue is reflected, a punched-out oblong bony defect filled with granulomatous tissue overlying the root is characteristic. The defect may be a dehiscence or a fenestration. When the inflammatory tissue is removed, the crack is usually evident. In some cases, a crack may be detected when a resected root end is examined under magnification. Even if the crack is not readily detectable, the characteristic bony defect is usually considered conclusive evidence. Treatment: Depending on the type of tooth affected, VRF treatment may involve extraction, root resection or hemisection. To conclude, it may be stated that diagnosis of a cracked tooth can be difficult, but there is no doubt that it must be done with a sense of urgency. Establishing a diagnosis of a cracked tooth to your patient s elusive problem satisfies the patient s reasons for having sought your expertise and helps in initiating appropriate treatment plan.

The Obvious and the Obscure:Diagnostic Steps for Crack Confirmation

The Obvious and the Obscure:Diagnostic Steps for Crack Confirmation Cracking the Cracked Tooth Code In response to your requests... At the end of each issue of ENDODONTICS: Colleagues for Excellence, the American Association of Endodontists (AAE) asks readers to send in

More information

Longitudinal tooth fractures: findings that contribute to complex endodontic diagnoses

Longitudinal tooth fractures: findings that contribute to complex endodontic diagnoses Endodontic Topics 2009, 16, 82 111 All rights reserved 2009 r John Wiley & Sons A/S ENDODONTIC TOPICS 2009 1601-1538 Longitudinal tooth fractures: findings that contribute to complex endodontic diagnoses

More information

4-1-2005. Dental Clinical Criteria and Documentation Requirements

4-1-2005. Dental Clinical Criteria and Documentation Requirements 4-1-2005 Dental Clinical Criteria and Documentation Requirements Table of Contents Dental Clinical Criteria Cast Restorations and Veneer Procedures... Pages 1-3 Crown Repair... Page 3 Endodontic Procedures...

More information

Diagnosis, Treatment and Prognosis of Cracked Teeth Iowa Dental Association Annual Session May 6, 2011 Dr. Bruce C. Justman

Diagnosis, Treatment and Prognosis of Cracked Teeth Iowa Dental Association Annual Session May 6, 2011 Dr. Bruce C. Justman Diagnosis, Treatment and Prognosis of Cracked Teeth Iowa Dental Association Annual Session May 6, 2011 Dr. Bruce C. Justman Longitudinal Fractures Types of Longitudinal Fractures Craze Lines Cusp Fracture

More information

Communication Task - Scenario 1 CANDIDATE COPY

Communication Task - Scenario 1 CANDIDATE COPY Communication Task - Scenario 1 Your patient is 30 years old, and has presented today complaining of pain from the lower right posterior side. The tooth had been cold sensitive for several weeks, but the

More information

MEDICAID DENTAL PROGRAMS CODING, POLICY AND RELATED FEE REVISION INFORMATION

MEDICAID DENTAL PROGRAMS CODING, POLICY AND RELATED FEE REVISION INFORMATION MEDICAID DENTAL PROGRAMS CODING, POLICY AND RELATED FEE REVISION INFORMATION Effective for dates of service on and after November 1, 2005, the following dental coding, policy and related fee revisions

More information

Postendodontic Tooth Restoration - Part I: The Aim and the Plan of. the procedure.

Postendodontic Tooth Restoration - Part I: The Aim and the Plan of. the procedure. Postendodontic Tooth Restoration - Part I: The Aim and the Plan of the Procedure Sanja egoviê 1 Nada GaliÊ 1 Ana Davanzo 2 Boæidar PaveliÊ 1 1 Department of Dental Pathology School of Dental Medicine University

More information

CLASSIFICATION OF CARIOUS LESIONS AND TOOTH PREPARATION.

CLASSIFICATION OF CARIOUS LESIONS AND TOOTH PREPARATION. CLASSIFICATION OF CARIOUS LESIONS AND TOOTH PREPARATION. ١ G.V. BLACK who is known as the father of operative dentistry,he classified carious lesions into groups according to their locations in permanent

More information

CHAPTER 10 RESTS AND PREPARATIONS. 4. Serve as a reference point for evaluating the fit of the framework to the teeth.

CHAPTER 10 RESTS AND PREPARATIONS. 4. Serve as a reference point for evaluating the fit of the framework to the teeth. CHAPTER 10 RESTS AND DEFINITIONS A REST is any rigid part of an RPD framework which contacts a properly prepared surface of a tooth. A REST PREPARATION or REST SEAT is any portion of a tooth or restoration

More information

Residency Competency and Proficiency Statements

Residency Competency and Proficiency Statements Residency Competency and Proficiency Statements 1. REQUEST AND RESPOND TO REQUESTS FOR CONSULTATIONS Identify needs and make referrals to appropriate health care providers for the treatment of physiologic,

More information

Case Report(s): Uncomplicated Crown Fractures

Case Report(s): Uncomplicated Crown Fractures Case Report(s): Uncomplicated Crown Fractures Tooth fractures can be classified as follows: Uncomplicated crown fracture = fracture limited to the crown of the tooth with dentin exposure but no pulp exposure.

More information

Molar Uprighting Dr. Margherita Santoro Division of Orthodontics School of Dental and Oral surgery. Consequences of tooth loss.

Molar Uprighting Dr. Margherita Santoro Division of Orthodontics School of Dental and Oral surgery. Consequences of tooth loss. Molar Uprighting Dr. Margherita Santoro Division of Orthodontics School of Dental and Oral surgery Molars The wide occlusal surface is designed for food grinding. The surface needs to be aligned with the

More information

CLASS II AMALGAM. Design Principles

CLASS II AMALGAM. Design Principles CLASS II AMALGAM Design Principles CLASS II Class II cavitated caries lesions Class II cavitated caries lesions opaque white haloes identify areas of enamel undermining and decalcification from within

More information

Dentists. Schedule of Dental Services and Fees for Ontario Works Adults

Dentists. Schedule of Dental Services and Fees for Ontario Works Adults Dentists Schedule of Dental Services and Fees for Ontario Works Adults 2015 2015 Ontario Works Adults - Schedule of Dental Services and Fees PURPOSE OF THE PROGRAM Halton Region does not intend to provide

More information

The Treatment of Traumatic Dental Injuries

The Treatment of Traumatic Dental Injuries The Recommended Guidelines of the American Association of Endodontists for The Treatment of Traumatic Dental Injuries 2013 American Association of Endodontists Revised 9/13 The Recommended Guidelines of

More information

If there is NO complaint: 5 Oral Examination

If there is NO complaint: 5 Oral Examination 5 Oral Examination mirror Mirror Periodontal probe periodontal probe You will need: Bright spot light (flashlight or similar). Dry mouth (have patient swallow). Intraoral mirror Periodontal probe Explorer

More information

What Dental Implants Can Do For You!

What Dental Implants Can Do For You! What Dental Implants Can Do For You! Putting Smiles into Motion About Implants 01. What if a Tooth is Lost and the Area is Left Untreated? 02. Do You Want to Restore Confidence in Your Appearance? 03.

More information

The Cracked Tooth Syndrome. Christopher D. Lynch, BDS, MFDRCSI Robert J. McConnell, BDS, PhD, FFDRCSI

The Cracked Tooth Syndrome. Christopher D. Lynch, BDS, MFDRCSI Robert J. McConnell, BDS, PhD, FFDRCSI C L I N I C A L P R A C T I C E The Cracked Tooth Syndrome Christopher D. Lynch, BDS, MFDRCSI Robert J. McConnell, BDS, PhD, FFDRCSI A b s t r a c t The purpose of this article is to review the clinical

More information

HEALTH SERVICES POLICY & PROCEDURE MANUAL. SUBJECT: Types of Dental Treatments Provided EFFECTIVE DATE: July 2014 SUPERCEDES DATE: January 2014

HEALTH SERVICES POLICY & PROCEDURE MANUAL. SUBJECT: Types of Dental Treatments Provided EFFECTIVE DATE: July 2014 SUPERCEDES DATE: January 2014 PAGE 1 of 5 References Related ACA Standards 4 th Edition Standards for Adult Correctional Institutions 4-4369, 4-4375 PURPOSE To provide guidelines for determining appropriate levels of care and types

More information

A collection of pus. Usually forms because of infection. A tooth or tooth structure which is responsible for the anchorage of a bridge or a denture.

A collection of pus. Usually forms because of infection. A tooth or tooth structure which is responsible for the anchorage of a bridge or a denture. Abscess A collection of pus. Usually forms because of infection. Abutment A tooth or tooth structure which is responsible for the anchorage of a bridge or a denture. Amalgam A silver filling material.

More information

Referred pain: a confusing case of differential diagnosis between two teeth presenting with endo-perio problems

Referred pain: a confusing case of differential diagnosis between two teeth presenting with endo-perio problems doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2591.2006.01139.x Referred pain: a confusing case of differential diagnosis between two teeth presenting with endo-perio problems E. Koyess & M. Fares Department of Endodontics, Dental

More information

Periodontal Disease: Outta Sight!

Periodontal Disease: Outta Sight! Periodontal Disease: Outta Sight! I touched on this issue in The CUSP back in 2005 (http://www.toothvet.ca/pdffiles/periocommon.pdf) but would like to revisit it and add some illustrative images to drive

More information

An Overview of Your Dental Benefits

An Overview of Your Dental Benefits An Overview of Your Dental Benefits Educators Health Alliance ii \ DENTAL BENEFITS PPO Dental Plan Options OPTION 1 Maintenance Dentistry OPTION 2 (STANDARD PLAN) IN-NETWORK OUT-OF-NETWORK Maintenance

More information

RESIDENT TRAINING GOALS AND OBJECTIVES STATEMENTS

RESIDENT TRAINING GOALS AND OBJECTIVES STATEMENTS RESIDENT TRAINING GOALS AND OBJECTIVES STATEMENTS Evaluation and treatment of dental emergencies Recognize, anticipate and manage emergency problems related to the oral cavity. Differentiate between those

More information

Anatomic Anomalies. Anomalies. Anomalies. Anomalies. Supernumerary Teeth. Supernumerary Teeth. Steven R. Singer, DDS 212.305.5674 srs2@columbia.

Anatomic Anomalies. Anomalies. Anomalies. Anomalies. Supernumerary Teeth. Supernumerary Teeth. Steven R. Singer, DDS 212.305.5674 srs2@columbia. Anatomic Anomalies Steven R. Singer, DDS 212.305.5674 srs2@columbia.edu Anomalies! Anomalies are variations in the:! Size! Morphology! Number! Eruption of the teeth Anomalies Anomalies There are two categories:!

More information

OVERVIEW The MetLife Dental Plan for Retirees

OVERVIEW The MetLife Dental Plan for Retirees OVERVIEW The MetLife Dental Plan for Retirees IN NETWORK: Staying in network saves you money. 1 Participating dentists have agreed to MetLife s negotiated fees which are typically 15% to 45% below the

More information

Dentalworkers JOB DESCRIPTIONS Great Team Members make your Office function!

Dentalworkers JOB DESCRIPTIONS Great Team Members make your Office function! Dentalworkers JOB DESCRIPTIONS Great Team Members make your Office function! Dental Assistant Registered Dental Assistant with Expanded Function: RDAEF Sterilization Assistant Dental Hygienist General

More information

Managing worn teeth with composites

Managing worn teeth with composites 6 Managing worn teeth with composites Clinical details A 50-year-old man presents to you complaining about his worn teeth and would like the appearance improved (Fig. 6.1). He complains of regurgitation

More information

Glossary Terms for Simplifying Anterior Dental Anatomy

Glossary Terms for Simplifying Anterior Dental Anatomy Glossary Terms for Simplifying Anterior Dental Anatomy Accentuate To accent or emphasize. To give prominence. We can accentuate an area by adding to it or by reducing the surrounding areas. The dental

More information

Humana Health Plans of Florida. Important:

Humana Health Plans of Florida. Important: Humana Health Plans of Florida Important: Dental discount membership in Florida is determined by viewing the member s ID card and verifying that the Humana Logo and Medicare name is listed with an effective

More information

IMPLANT CONSENT FORM WHAT ARE DENTAL IMPLANTS?

IMPLANT CONSENT FORM WHAT ARE DENTAL IMPLANTS? IMPLANT CONSENT FORM WHAT ARE DENTAL IMPLANTS? Dental implants are a very successful and accepted treatment option to replace lost or missing teeth. A dental implant is essentially an artificial tooth

More information

Dental-based Injuries

Dental-based Injuries Dental-based Injuries LUXATIONS CROWN FRACTURE CROWN/ROOT FRACTURE ROOT FRACTURE ALVEOLAR BONE FRACTURE AVULSIONS LUXATIONS The tooth is loose, now what? 1. Concussive-not loose or displaced, but tender

More information

Complications Associated with Tooth Extraction

Complications Associated with Tooth Extraction 1 Complications Associated with Tooth Extraction Mark M. Smith, VMD, DACVS, DAVDC Center for Veterinary Dentistry and Oral Surgery 9041 Gaither Road Gaithersburg, MD 20877 Introduction Tooth extraction

More information

Chapter 10--Endodontics

Chapter 10--Endodontics Overview --Endodontics Introduction The following material is presented to help orient the clinician to sound endodontic principles recommended by the IHS Endodontic Consultants. The contents represent

More information

2007 Insurance Benefits Guide. Dental and Dental Plus. Dental and. Dental Plus. www.eip.sc.gov Employee Insurance Program 91

2007 Insurance Benefits Guide. Dental and Dental Plus. Dental and. Dental Plus. www.eip.sc.gov Employee Insurance Program 91 Dental and www.eip.sc.gov Employee Insurance Program 91 Table of Contents Introduction...93 Your Dental Benefits at a Glance...94 Claim Examples (using Class III procedure claims)...95 How to File a Dental

More information

Full Crown Module: Learner Level 1

Full Crown Module: Learner Level 1 Full Crown Module Restoration / Tooth # Full Gold Crown (FGC) / 30 Extensions: Porcelain Fused to Metal (PFM) / 12 All Ceramic / 8 Learner Level 1 Mastery of Tooth Preparation Estimated Set Up Time: 30

More information

Fast and Predictable Tooth Extraction Technique

Fast and Predictable Tooth Extraction Technique Fast and Predictable Tooth Extraction Technique When I first saw the ads for Physics Forceps, I did not believe the claims could be true. At first glance, I didn t see how this strange looking instrument

More information

A Guide to Reporting D4346

A Guide to Reporting D4346 Guide to Reporting D4346 May 17, 2016 Page 1 of 10 ADA Code of Ethics: Veracity A Guide to Reporting D4346 A resource guide from the ADA developed to educate dentists and others in the dental community

More information

Ando A., Nakamura Y., Kanbara R., Kumano H., Miyata T., Masuda T., Ohno Y. and Tanaka Y.

Ando A., Nakamura Y., Kanbara R., Kumano H., Miyata T., Masuda T., Ohno Y. and Tanaka Y. 11. The Effect of Abutment Tooth Connection with Extracoronal Attachment using the Three Dimensional Finite Element Method - Part 2. The Construction of Finite Element Model from CT Data - Ando A., Nakamura

More information

Page 1 of 11 BDS FINAL PROFESSIONAL EXAMINATION 2007 OPERATIVE DENTISTRY (MCQs) Model Paper

Page 1 of 11 BDS FINAL PROFESSIONAL EXAMINATION 2007 OPERATIVE DENTISTRY (MCQs) Model Paper Page 1 of 11 Marks 45 Time 45 minutes Total No. of MCQs 45 One mark for each 01. Hand cutting instruments are composed of: A. Handle and neck. B. Handle and blade only. C. Handle, shank and blade. D. Handle,

More information

Develop a specialist who is capable of correlation of basic sciences and clinical sciences, and challenge the requirements for certification.

Develop a specialist who is capable of correlation of basic sciences and clinical sciences, and challenge the requirements for certification. Course Specification Faculty : Dentistry Department : Endodontics Program Specification: Diploma Degree A-Basic Information 1-Programme Title: Diploma in Endodontics 2-Departments (s): Endodontics 4-Coordinator:

More information

DENTAL TRAUMATIC INJURIES

DENTAL TRAUMATIC INJURIES DENTAL TRAUMATIC INJURIES Nitrous Oxide Not Contraindicated Predisposing Factors > 90% of All Injuries Protrusion of Anterior Teeth Poor Lip Coverage Mouthguards Girls as Well as Boys Off - the - Shelf

More information

A Dental Benefit Summary for Rice University

A Dental Benefit Summary for Rice University Aetna Dental presents A Dental Benefit Summary for Rice University CODE CODE Office Visit Copay $5 DIAGNOSTIC CROWNS/BRIDGES D0120 Exam-Periodic No Charge D2510 Inlay, Metallic, One surface $225 D0150

More information

Friday 29 th April 2016

Friday 29 th April 2016 8.00 9.00 Registration and coffee/bread 9.00 9.45 1. Status of Dental Traumatology worldwide. Is prevention realistic? Lars Andersson Presently almost all countries have published data on the dental trauma

More information

Dental. Covered services and limitations module

Dental. Covered services and limitations module Dental Covered services and limitations module Dental Covered Services and Limitations Module Covered Dental Services for Patients Under the Age of 21...2 Examinations...2 Radiographs and Diagnostic Imaging...2

More information

Enroll in DeltaCare USA and you ll enjoy these features: you and your family. dentists, so you can enjoy a long-term relationship with your dentist

Enroll in DeltaCare USA and you ll enjoy these features: you and your family. dentists, so you can enjoy a long-term relationship with your dentist DeltaCare USA A Dental HMO Plan We ll do whatever it takes and then some. Welcome to DeltaCare USA - quality, convenience, predictable costs Find a DeltaCare USA dentist Select a conveniently located DeltaCare

More information

ACADEMY OF LASER DENTISTRY COMMITTEE ON REGULATORY AFFAIRS TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACADEMY OF LASER DENTISTRY COMMITTEE ON REGULATORY AFFAIRS TABLE OF CONTENTS ACADEMY OF LASER DENTISTRY COMMITTEE ON REGULATORY AFFAIRS INFORMATION PACKET FOR STATE BOARDS OF DENTISTRY May 2014 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Mission Statement of the Academy... 1 2. Position Statement on

More information

What is a dental implant?

What is a dental implant? What is a dental implant? Today, the preferred method of tooth replacement is a dental implant. They replace missing tooth roots and form a stable foundation for replacement teeth that look, feel and function

More information

Rochester Regional Health. Dental Plan

Rochester Regional Health. Dental Plan Rochester Regional Health Dental Plan TABLE OF CONTENTS EXPLANATION OF TERMS... 2 INTRODUCTION... 4 DENTAL BENEFITS... 5 DEDUCTIBLES AND COINSURANCE... 7 PRE-TREATMENT ESTIMATES... 8 LIMITATIONS... 8

More information

8 TREATMENTS. How you clean teeth and gums should be based upon the findings in the examination.

8 TREATMENTS. How you clean teeth and gums should be based upon the findings in the examination. Cleaning teeth and gums 8 TREATMENTS How you clean teeth and gums should be based upon the findings in the examination. Gingivitis If there is only plaque, the gums are red and inflamed, and there is no

More information

Endodontics. Colleagues for Excellence. Access Opening and Canal Location

Endodontics. Colleagues for Excellence. Access Opening and Canal Location Endodontics Colleagues for Excellence Spring 2010 Access Opening and Canal Location Published for the Dental Professional Community by the American Association of Endodontists Cover artwork: Rusty Jones,

More information

Role of dentistry in the health scciences, the dental team. Dr. Dézsi Anna Júlia

Role of dentistry in the health scciences, the dental team. Dr. Dézsi Anna Júlia Role of dentistry in the health scciences, the dental team Dr. Dézsi Anna Júlia The art of medicine Herodatus, a historian, described the medical art in Egypt: "The art of medicineis distributed thus:

More information

Dental Implants - the tooth replacement solution

Dental Implants - the tooth replacement solution Dental Implants - the tooth replacement solution Are missing teeth causing you to miss out on life? Missing teeth and loose dentures make too many people sit on the sidelines and let life pass them by.

More information

CODING DENTAL CHARACTERISTICS Letter to Dentist

CODING DENTAL CHARACTERISTICS Letter to Dentist CODING DENTAL CHARACTERISTICS Letter to Dentist Dear Doctor: Because it is believed that you have treated the subject of this report, your assistance with the enclosed dental report is requested. Your

More information

CLINICAL GOALS OF PATIENT CARE AND CLINIC MANAGEMENT. Philosophical Basis of the Patient Care System. Patient Care Goals

CLINICAL GOALS OF PATIENT CARE AND CLINIC MANAGEMENT. Philosophical Basis of the Patient Care System. Patient Care Goals University of Washington School of Dentistry CLINICAL GOALS OF PATIENT CARE AND CLINIC MANAGEMENT Philosophical Basis of the Patient Care System The overall mission of the patient care system in the School

More information

Position Classification Standard for Dental Officer Series, GS-0680

Position Classification Standard for Dental Officer Series, GS-0680 Position Classification Standard for Dental Officer Series, GS-0680 Table of Contents SERIES DEFINITION... 2 BACKGROUND... 2 TITLES... 3 GRADE-LEVEL EVALUATION CRITERIA... 3 NOTES ON THE USE OF THE STANDARDS...

More information

TMJ DISEASE TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DISEASE

TMJ DISEASE TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DISEASE TMJ DISEASE TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DISEASE The temporomandibular joint is the point at which the mandible (lower jaw) hinges on the skull. Frequently, the pain experienced is ear pain, s o patients are

More information

Influence of Biomechanical Factors on Restoration of Devitalized Teeth

Influence of Biomechanical Factors on Restoration of Devitalized Teeth Influence of Biomechanical Factors on Restoration of Devitalized Teeth Adnan atoviê 1 Davor Seifert 1 Renata Poljak-Guberina 1 Boris KvasniËka 2 1 Department of Fixed Prosthodontics School of Dental Medicine

More information

Periapical radiography

Periapical radiography 8 Periapical radiography Periapical radiography describes intraoral techniques designed to show individual teeth and the tissues around the apices. Each film usually shows two to four teeth and provides

More information

Classification of Malocclusion

Classification of Malocclusion Classification of Malocclusion What s going on here? How would you describe this? Dr. Robert Gallois REFERENCE: Where Do We Begin? ESSENTIALS FOR ORTHODONTIC PRACTICE By Riolo and Avery Chapter 6 pages

More information

X-Plain Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Reference Summary

X-Plain Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Reference Summary X-Plain Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Reference Summary Introduction Temporomandibular joint disorders, or TMJ disorders, are a group of medical problems related to the jaw joint. TMJ disorders can

More information

porcelain fused to metal crown

porcelain fused to metal crown Lectur.5 Dr.Adel F.Ibraheem porcelain fused to metal crown the most widely used fixed restoration,it is full metal crown having facial surface (or all surfaces) covered by ceramic material. It consist

More information

Implants in your Laboratory: Abutment Design

Implants in your Laboratory: Abutment Design 1/2 point CDT documented scientific credit. See Page 41. Implants in your Laboratory: Abutment Design By Leon Hermanides, CDT A patient s anatomical limitations have the greatest predictive value for successful

More information

Alberta Blue Cross Usual and Customary dental fees

Alberta Blue Cross Usual and Customary dental fees Alberta Blue Cross Usual and Customary dental fees Why Usual and Customary dental fees? In Alberta, individual dental providers set their own prices. As a result, dental offices across the province charge

More information

TREATMENT REFUSAL FORMS

TREATMENT REFUSAL FORMS TREATMENT REFUSAL FORMS These forms are intended to be used when a patient refuses the treatment. These forms help confirm that the patient is informed and aware of the risks involved with not proceeding

More information

Cigna Dental Care (*DHMO) Patient Charge Schedule

Cigna Dental Care (*DHMO) Patient Charge Schedule A3O08 Cigna Dental Care (*DHMO) Schedule This Schedule lists the benefits of the Dental Plan including covered procedures and patient charges. Important Highlights This Schedule applies only when covered

More information

DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY. BUREAU OF MEDICINE AND SWlGEAY 2300 E ST REET t.frn WASHINGTON DC 20372-5300

DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY. BUREAU OF MEDICINE AND SWlGEAY 2300 E ST REET t.frn WASHINGTON DC 20372-5300 DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY BUREAU OF MEDICINE AND SWlGEAY 2300 E ST REET t.frn WASHINGTON DC 20372-5300 IN REPL Y REFER lo BUMEDINST 6600.18 BUMED-M3/S BUMED INSTRUCTION 6600.18 From: Chief, Bureau of Medicine

More information

A new cone beam computerized tomography system for use in endodontic surgery

A new cone beam computerized tomography system for use in endodontic surgery doi:10.1111/j.1365-2591.2006.01198.x CASE REPORT A new cone beam computerized tomography system for use in endodontic surgery T. Tsurumachi 1 & K. Honda 2 1 Department of Endodontics, Division of Advanced

More information

DENTAL FOR EVERYONE SUMMARY OF BENEFITS, LIMITATIONS AND EXCLUSIONS

DENTAL FOR EVERYONE SUMMARY OF BENEFITS, LIMITATIONS AND EXCLUSIONS DENTAL FOR EVERYONE SUMMARY OF BENEFITS, LIMITATIONS AND EXCLUSIONS DEDUCTIBLE The dental plan features a deductible. This is an amount the Enrollee must pay out-of-pocket before Benefits are paid. The

More information

Dental Updates. Excerpted Article e-mail: re777@comcast.net. Why Implant Screws Loosen Part 1. Richard Erickson, MS, DDS

Dental Updates. Excerpted Article e-mail: re777@comcast.net. Why Implant Screws Loosen Part 1. Richard Erickson, MS, DDS ¼ ½ ¾ µ mw/cm 2 Volume 17; 2007 Dental Updates "CUTTING EDGE INFORMATION FOR THE DENTAL PROFESSIONAL " 200 SEMINARS AND 30 JOURNALS REVIEWED YEARLY FOR THE LATEST, CUTTING EDGE INFORMATION Excerpted Article

More information

Quality guidelines for endodontic treatment: consensus report of the European Society of Endodontology

Quality guidelines for endodontic treatment: consensus report of the European Society of Endodontology doi:10.1111/j.1365-2591.2006.01180.x QUALITY GUIDELINES Quality guidelines for endodontic treatment: consensus report of the European Society of Endodontology Abstract. Quality guidelines for endodontic

More information

Introduction to Charting. Tooth Surfaces: M = mesial D = distal O = Occlusal B = buccal F = facial I = incisal L = lingual

Introduction to Charting. Tooth Surfaces: M = mesial D = distal O = Occlusal B = buccal F = facial I = incisal L = lingual Tooth Surfaces: M = mesial D = distal O = Occlusal B = buccal F = facial I = incisal L = lingual When combining tooth surfaces, as in defining cavity preparations or restorations, there are some spelling

More information

Universal Crown and Bridge Preparation

Universal Crown and Bridge Preparation Universal Crown and Bridge Preparation The All-Ceramic Crown Preparation Technique for Predictable Success According to Dr. Ronald E. Goldstein Expect the Best. Buy Direct. The Universal * Crown and Bridge

More information

DENTAL CLINIC. Policy and Procedure Oral Health Records Management. Responsible Party: Director of Dental Support Services

DENTAL CLINIC. Policy and Procedure Oral Health Records Management. Responsible Party: Director of Dental Support Services Responsible Party: Director of Dental Support Services Policy: The oral health record is one of the most important documents in dental clinic. It must be accurately and concisely completed. In order to

More information

portion of the tooth such as 3/4 Crown, 7/8Crown.

portion of the tooth such as 3/4 Crown, 7/8Crown. Lecture.1 Dr.Adel F.Ibraheem Crown and Bridge: It s a branch of dental science that deals with restoration of damaged teeth with artificial crown replacing the missing natural teeth by a cast prosthesis

More information

CLASSIFICATION OF PULPAL & PERIAPICAL PATHOSIS

CLASSIFICATION OF PULPAL & PERIAPICAL PATHOSIS CLASSIFICATION OF PULPAL & PERIAPICAL PATHOSIS Objectives Clinical classification of pulpal & periapical pathosis Pathobiology Treatment Classification of Pulp Normal pulp Classification of Pulp Disease

More information

DISCOUNT DENTAL PLAN COMPLETE LISTING OF MEMBER COPAYMENTS

DISCOUNT DENTAL PLAN COMPLETE LISTING OF MEMBER COPAYMENTS DISCOUNT DENTAL PLAN COMPLETE LISTING OF MEMBER COPAYMENTS 0120 PERIODIC ORAL EXAMINATION - ESTABLISHED PATIENT 20 0140 LIMITED ORAL EVALUATION - PROBLEM FOCUSED 33 0150 COMPREHENSIVE ORAL EVALUATION -

More information

Dental Radiography collimator Ionising radiation image radiolucent area radiopaque area controlled zone scatter radiation intraoral

Dental Radiography collimator Ionising radiation image radiolucent area radiopaque area controlled zone scatter radiation intraoral Dental Radiography X-rays for dental radiography are produced by high voltages of electricity within an x-ray head and come out through a metal tube called a collimator. This ensures the x-rays only come

More information

Dental Services. Dental Centre. HKSH Healthcare Medical Centre Dental Centre. For enquiries and appointments, please contact us

Dental Services. Dental Centre. HKSH Healthcare Medical Centre Dental Centre. For enquiries and appointments, please contact us Dental Services For enquiries and appointments, please contact us HKSH Healthcare Medical Centre Dental Centre Level 22, One Pacific Place 88 Queensway, Hong Kong (852) 2855 6666 (852) 2892 7589 dentalcentre@hksh.com

More information

I. PROCEDURAL BACKGROUND

I. PROCEDURAL BACKGROUND STATE OF MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF INSURANCE AND FINANCIAL SERVICES Before the Director of Insurance and Financial Services In the matter of: v Petitioner Standard Insurance Company Respondent File No. 147809-001

More information

Schedule B Indemnity plan People First Plan Code #4084

Schedule B Indemnity plan People First Plan Code #4084 : Calendar year deductible Waived for Type I preventive dental services Calendar year maximum Type I, II, III Waiting period Type I, II, III $50 individual $150 family (3 per family) $1,000 per covered

More information

TABLE OF DENTAL PROCEDURES PLEASE READ THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION CAREFULLY FOR YOUR PROCEDURE FREQUENCIES AND PROVISIONS.

TABLE OF DENTAL PROCEDURES PLEASE READ THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION CAREFULLY FOR YOUR PROCEDURE FREQUENCIES AND PROVISIONS. TABLE OF DENTAL PROCEDURES PLEASE READ THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION CAREFULLY FOR YOUR PROCEDURE FREQUENCIES AND PROVISIONS. The attached is a list of dental procedures for which benefits are payable under

More information

INTRAOSSEOUS ANESTHESIA

INTRAOSSEOUS ANESTHESIA ENDODONTICS: Colleagues for Excellence Winter 2009 Bonus Material F INTRAOSSEOUS ANESTHESIA Intraosseous Anesthesia With the Stabident and X Tip Systems The intraosseous injection allows placement of a

More information

FORD DENTAL COVERAGE

FORD DENTAL COVERAGE FORD DENTAL COVERAGE HOW DENTAL COVERAGE WORKS The Trust provides dental coverage to you and your eligible Dependents. A Dental Benefits Manager, Delta Dental of Michigan, whose contact information is

More information

The Full Dental Plan is designed to cover diagnostic, preventive and restorative procedures necessary for adequate dental health.

The Full Dental Plan is designed to cover diagnostic, preventive and restorative procedures necessary for adequate dental health. Full Dental Plan The Full Dental Plan is designed to cover diagnostic, preventive and restorative procedures necessary for adequate dental health. Covered services include: Oral Examinations Periapical

More information

Periodontal surgery report for crown lengthening of tooth number 24,25

Periodontal surgery report for crown lengthening of tooth number 24,25 411 PDS Periodontal surgery report for crown lengthening of tooth number -Course director : Dr. Nahid Ashri - instructor: Dr.Fatin Awaratani - - Student Name: Hanadi Alyami Computer Number: K S U - D E

More information

Teeth and Dental Implants: When to save, and when to extract.

Teeth and Dental Implants: When to save, and when to extract. Teeth and Dental Implants: When to save, and when to extract. One of the most difficult decisions a restorative dentist has to make is when to refer a patient for extraction and placement of dental implants.

More information

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION. Facial Esthetics. Dental Esthetics

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION. Facial Esthetics. Dental Esthetics ABSTRACT The FACE philosophy is characterized by clearly defined treatment goals. This increases diagnostic ability and improves the quality and stability of the end result. The objective is to establish

More information

Toothaches of Non-dental Origin

Toothaches of Non-dental Origin Toothaches of Non-dental Origin This brochure is produced by the American Academy of Orofacial Pain The American Academy of Orofacial Pain is an organization of health care professionals dedicated to alleviating

More information

The Adverse Effects of Orthodontic Treatment

The Adverse Effects of Orthodontic Treatment THE ADVERSE EFFECTS OF ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT By The Adverse Effects of Orthodontic Treatment William F. Holt and Judith B. Rose From Riolo, M. and Avery, J. Eds., Essentials for Orthodontic Practice, EFOP

More information

The traumatic injuries of permanent teeth and complex therapy

The traumatic injuries of permanent teeth and complex therapy The traumatic injuries of permanent teeth and complex therapy Dr. Katalin Déri Semmelweis Egyetem Department of Pedodontics and Orthodontics Risk Angle II/1 Predisposing factor: overjet insufficient lip

More information

SCD Case Study. Treatment Considerations for Implant Rehabilitation

SCD Case Study. Treatment Considerations for Implant Rehabilitation SCD Case Study Treatment Considerations for Implant Rehabilitation Multiple surgical and restorative factors play a role in the treatment planning of implant restorations for the edentulous patient (Ali

More information

2015 Insurance Benefits Guide. Dental Insurance. Dental Insurance. www.eip.sc.gov S.C. Public Employee Benefit Authority 95

2015 Insurance Benefits Guide. Dental Insurance. Dental Insurance. www.eip.sc.gov S.C. Public Employee Benefit Authority 95 2015 Insurance Benefits Guide www.eip.sc.gov S.C. Public Employee Benefit Authority 95 Insurance Benefits Guide 2015 Table of Contents Introduction...97 State Dental Plan... 97 Dental Plus... 97 Dental

More information

PREPARATION OF MOUTH FOR REMOVABLE PARTIAL DENTURES Dr. Mazen kanout

PREPARATION OF MOUTH FOR REMOVABLE PARTIAL DENTURES Dr. Mazen kanout PREPARATION OF MOUTH FOR REMOVABLE PARTIAL DENTURES Dr. Mazen kanout Mouth preparation includes procedures in four categories: 1. Oral Surgical Preparation. 2. Conditioning of Abused and Irritated Tissue.

More information

TRICARE Dental Program Benefit Booklet Supplement

TRICARE Dental Program Benefit Booklet Supplement TRICARE Dental Program Benefit Booklet Supplement These pages contain updated information and expanded details about your benefit under the TRICARE Dental Program. Keep these pages with your TRICARE Dental

More information

WMI Mutual Insurance Company

WMI Mutual Insurance Company Dental Policy WMI Mutual Insurance Company PO Box 572450 Salt Lake City, UT 84157 (801) 263-8000 & (800) 748-5340 Fax: (801) 263-1247 DENTAL POLICY A. Schedule of Benefits: Annual Maximum Dental Benefit

More information

The Penn Dental Plan for Undergraduate and Graduate Students of the University of Pennsylvania

The Penn Dental Plan for Undergraduate and Graduate Students of the University of Pennsylvania The Penn Dental Plan for Undergraduate and Graduate Students of the University of Pennsylvania Effective August 1, 2015 Introduction The Penn Dental Plan of the University of Pennsylvania ( Penn Dental

More information

Dental Services Rider Harbor Choice Plus, a product of Harbor Health Plan, Inc.

Dental Services Rider Harbor Choice Plus, a product of Harbor Health Plan, Inc. Your Agreement gives You important information about Your health care benefits. This Dental Services Rider ( Rider ) is issued to You with Your Agreement because the plan you selected includes Other Dental

More information

Guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries. I. Fractures and luxations of permanent teeth

Guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries. I. Fractures and luxations of permanent teeth Dental Traumatology 2007; doi: 10.1111/j.1600-9657.2007.00592.x DENTAL TRAUMATOLOGY Guidelines Guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries. I. Fractures and luxations of permanent teeth

More information

Zirconium Abutments for Improved Esthetics in Anterior Restorations

Zirconium Abutments for Improved Esthetics in Anterior Restorations Zirconium Abutments for Improved Esthetics in Anterior Restorations by Luke S., C.D.T. Mr. is the founder and owner of Capital Dental Technology Laboratory, Inc., in Naperville, Illinois. The laboratory

More information