The Feasibility of Supporting Large-Scale Live Streaming Applications with Dynamic Application End-Points

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "The Feasibility of Supporting Large-Scale Live Streaming Applications with Dynamic Application End-Points"

Transcription

1 The Feasibility of Supporting Large-Scale Live Streaming Applications with Dynamic Application End-Points Kay Sripanidkulchai, Aditya Ganjam, Bruce Maggs, and Hui Zhang Instructor: Fabian Bustamante Presented by: Mario Sanchez

2 The focus of this paper Generate new insight on the feasibility of application end-point architectures for large scale broadcast Methodology Analysis and simulation Leverage an extensive set of real-world workloads from Akamai (infrastructure-based architecture) 1/23/09 2

3 Overlay multicast architectures Router Source Application end-point 1/23/09 3

4 Infrastructure-based architecture [Akamai] + Well-provisioned Router Source Application end-point Infrastructure server 1/23/09 4

5 Application end-point architecture [End System Multicast (ESM)] + Instantly deployable + Enables ubiquitous broadcast Router Source Application end-point 1/23/09 5

6 Feasibility of supporting large-scale groups with an application end-point architecture? Is the overlay stable enough despite dynamic participation? Is there enough upstream bandwidth? Are overlay structures efficient? 1/23/09 6

7 Large-scale groups Challenging to address these fundamental feasibility questions Little knowledge of what large-scale live streaming is like 1/23/09 7

8 Talk outline Akamai live streaming workload With an application end-point architecture Is the overlay stable enough despite dynamic participation? Is there enough upstream bandwidth? Are overlay structures efficient? Summary 1/23/09 8

9 Measurements used in this study Akamai live streaming traces Trace format for a request [IP, Stream URL, Session start time, Session duration] Additional measurements collected Hosts upstream bandwidth Hosts GNP coordinates 1/23/09 9

10 Akamai live streaming infrastructure Source A A A A A A Reflectors Edge servers 1/23/09 10

11 Request volume (daily) Weekdays Number of requests Weekends Missing logs 1/23/09 11

12 Extensive traces ~ 1,000,000 daily requests ~ 200,000 daily client IP addresses from over 200 countries ~ 1,000 daily streams ~ 1,000 edge servers ~ Everyday, over a 3-month period ~ Quicktime, Real, Windows Media Player 1/23/09 12

13 Definitions Two categories of streaming (event duration) Non-stop events Short duration events Divided into 24-hour events called STREAMS Definitions Large-scale: peak group size of over 1,000 entities Entity: unique host (IP) Incarnation: entity connection to broadcast 1/23/09 13

14 Largest Event Characteristics of the traces Stream encoding bit-rate < 80kbps = audio. Overall: 71% audio vs. 7% video vs. 22 % unknown 660 large-scale streams: 605 audio, 55 video 3 encoding streams: (a) 20 kbps, audio; (b) 100 kbps, audio and video; (c) 250 kbps, audio and video 2 hour duration; all three encodings treated as one with 250 kbps requirement 1/23/09 14

15 Largest stream 75,000 x 250 kbps = 18 Gbps! 5pm 6pm 7pm 8pm 9pm 10pm 11pm 12am 1/23/09 15

16 Talk outline Akamai live streaming workload With an application end-point architecture Is there enough upstream bandwidth? Is the overlay stable enough despite dynamic participation? Are overlay structures efficient? Summary 1/23/09 16

17 Is there enough upstream bandwidth to support all hosts? Video 300 kbps DSL Upstream bandwidth only 128 kbps DSL Saturated tree DSL What if application end-points are all DSL? 1/23/09 17

18 Bandwidth Estimation Bandwidth Collection: Direct measurements alone, out of question Bandwidth Collection: Data Mining 72% of hosts: bandwidth reported by broadbandreports.com Active Measurements 7.6%: IP /24 block measurement / packet pair to estimate technology (table bellow) 1/23/09 18

19 Bandwidth Estimation Inference: 7.1%: EdgeScape IP to technology 2.2%: DNS name to technology 1.2%: Manually known domains with not-common- DNS-names to technology 90% of IP addresses with estimates 10% unknown 1/23/09 19

20 Outbound BW unit: degree vs. kbps Resources: amount of outgoing bandwidth that hosts in the system can contribute. Normalized bandwidth value by encoding bit rate: 300 kbps bandwidth, 250 kbps encoding = 300/250 = 1 degree Largest Event: 1/23/09 20

21 Metric: Resource index Ratio of the supply to the demand of upstream bandwidth; Resource index == 1 means the system is saturated Resource index == 2 means the system can support two times the current members in the system Resource Index: (3+5)/3 = 2.7 1/23/09 21

22 Metric: Resource index 10% unknown: Optimistic, Pessimistic (free-rider), Distribution Degree is dependent on the encoding bit rate, so is the Resource Index 1/23/09 22

23 Single-Tree Protocol 81 streams 1/23/09 23

24 Resource index Multiple Trees Multiple Description Coding: Video stream is encoded into k independent sub-streams and distributed across k independent trees. Fractional supply: 250 kbps encoding split into 50 kbps sub-streams = 300/250 = 1.2 degree MDC: - Increases amount of resources, - Increases the feasibility of overlay multicast 1/23/09 24

25 Multiple-Trees Protocol 1/23/09 25

26 Large-scale video streams A few streams are in trouble or close. 1/3 of the streams are in trouble. Most streams have sufficient upstream bandwidth. 1/23/09 26

27 Talk outline Akamai live streaming workload With an application end-point architecture Is there enough upstream bandwidth? Is the overlay stable enough despite dynamic participation? Are overlay structures efficient? Summary 1/23/09 27

28 When is a tree stable? Not stable X Interruptions Time Ancestor leaves More stable Stable nodes X Less stable X nodes Departing hosts have no descendants Stable nodes at the top of the tree 1/23/09 28

29 Extreme group dynamics 45% stay less than 2 minutes! 15% stay longer than 30 minutes (heavy-tailed) 1/23/09 29

30 Stability evaluation: simulation Hosts construct an overlay amongst themselves using a single-tree protocol Goal: construct a stable tree Parent selection is key Group dynamics from Akamai traces (join/ leave) Honor upstream bandwidth constraints Assign degree based on bandwidth estimation 1/23/09 30

31 Overlay Protocol Simulation: Join IP1 IP2... Join 1/23/09 31

32 Probe and select parent IP 1 IP 2 IP 1 IP /23/09 32

33 Probe and select parent Parent selection algorithms Oracle: pick a parent who will leave after me Random Minimum depth (select one out of 100 random) Longest-first (select one out of 100 random) 1/23/09 33

34 Parent leave X Host leaves 1/23/09 34

35 Parent leave Host leaves All descendants are disconnected? 1/23/09 35

36 Find new parent Host leaves All descendants are disconnected All descendants probe to find new parents 1/23/09 36

37 Stability metrics Mean interval between ancestor change Interruptions Number of descendants of a departing host X Time Ancestor leaves 1/23/09 37

38 Stability of largest stream Longest-first Random Min depth Oracle: there is stability! 1/23/09 38

39 Is longest-first giving poor predictions? Oracle, ~100% no descendants Longest-first, 91% Min depth, 82% Random, 72% 1/23/09 39

40 Percentage of sessions with interval between ancestor change < 5 minutes Stability of 50 large-scale streams Random Longest-first Oracle There is stability! Of the practical algorithms, min depth performs the best. 1/23/09 40 Min depth

41 There is inherent stability Given future knowledge, stable trees can be constructed In many scenarios, practical algorithms can construct stable trees Minimum depth is robust Predicting stability (longest-first) is not always robust; when wrong, the penalty is severe Mechanisms to cope with interrupts are useful Multiple trees 1/23/09 41

42 Stability Multiple Trees Poor stability = being disconnected from at least 25% of the trees 1/23/09 42

43 There is inherent stability Multiple trees can increase the perceived quality of the streams but improved performance comes at a cost of more frequent disconnects, more protocol overhead and more complex protocol. 1/23/09 43

44 Talk outline Akamai live streaming workload With an application end-point architecture Is the overlay stable enough despite dynamic participation? Is there enough upstream bandwidth? Are overlay structures efficient? Summary 1/23/09 44

45 Efficient Overlay Efficient overlay: one in which the overlay structure closely reflects the underlying IP network. The Challenge: to enable hosts to discover other nearby hosts that may be used as parents. Large number of hosts: prohibitive to know everyone else. Solution: partition end-points into clusters. 1/23/09 45

46 Cluster Membership Membership server: One member of each cluster is designated as the cluster head. Hosts in the same cluster maintain knowledge about one another. 1/23/09 46

47 Cluster Membership Handling host join: obtain list of member servers from rendezvous point Creating Membership servers: rendezvous point create servers on-demand as needed Recovering from membership server dynamics: before leaving a membership server looks to promote host inside cluster State maintenance: servers exchange state with the rendezvous point; among themselves and random set of hosts inside cluster. 1/23/09 47

48 Cluster policies Naïve clustering, 3 policies: Random, delaybased clustering, geographic clustering. Two critical requirements: Cluster size (redirection, new cluster creation) Resources within cluster (redirect free-riders) Cluster Quality Proximity Data, GNP: network delay, geographic distance 1/23/09 48

49 Relative Delay Penalty (RDP) How well does the overlay structure match the underlying network topology? RDP = Overlay distance Direct unicast distance US US 50ms 20ms US 50ms Europe US 50ms Europe Results are more promising than previous studies using synthetic workloads and topologies. 1/23/09 49

50 Summary Indications of the feasibility of application end-point architectures The overlay can be stable despite dynamic participation There often is enough upstream bandwidth Overlay structures can be efficient These findings can be generalized to other protocols Thank you! 1/23/09 50

The Feasibility of Supporting Large-Scale Live Streaming Applications with Dynamic Application End-Points

The Feasibility of Supporting Large-Scale Live Streaming Applications with Dynamic Application End-Points The Feasibility of Supporting Large-Scale Live Streaming Applications with Dynamic Application End-Points Kunwadee Sripanidkulchai, Aditya Ganjam, Bruce Maggs, Carnegie Mellon University and Hui Zhang

More information

The Feasibility of Supporting Large-Scale Live Streaming Applications with Dynamic Application End-Points

The Feasibility of Supporting Large-Scale Live Streaming Applications with Dynamic Application End-Points The Feasibility of Supporting Large-Scale Live Streaming Applications with Dynamic Application End-oints aper 475, Regular paper, 4 pages Abstract While application end-point architectures have proven

More information

Peer-to-Peer Networks. Chapter 6: P2P Content Distribution

Peer-to-Peer Networks. Chapter 6: P2P Content Distribution Peer-to-Peer Networks Chapter 6: P2P Content Distribution Chapter Outline Content distribution overview Why P2P content distribution? Network coding Peer-to-peer multicast Kangasharju: Peer-to-Peer Networks

More information

Stability of QOS. Avinash Varadarajan, Subhransu Maji {avinash,smaji}@cs.berkeley.edu

Stability of QOS. Avinash Varadarajan, Subhransu Maji {avinash,smaji}@cs.berkeley.edu Stability of QOS Avinash Varadarajan, Subhransu Maji {avinash,smaji}@cs.berkeley.edu Abstract Given a choice between two services, rest of the things being equal, it is natural to prefer the one with more

More information

Design and Deployment of Locality-aware Overlay Multicast Protocol for Live Streaming Services

Design and Deployment of Locality-aware Overlay Multicast Protocol for Live Streaming Services Design and Deployment of Locality-aware Overlay Multicast Protocol for Live Streaming Services Xuping Tu, Hai Jin, Dafu Deng, Chao Zhang, and Quan Yuan Cluster and Grid Computing Lab Huazhong University

More information

Content Distribution over IP: Developments and Challenges

Content Distribution over IP: Developments and Challenges Content Distribution over IP: Developments and Challenges Adrian Popescu, Blekinge Inst of Technology, Sweden Markus Fiedler, Blekinge Inst of Technology, Sweden Demetres D. Kouvatsos, University of Bradford,

More information

Octoshape. Introducing. a new technology for large-scale streaming over the Internet. Scale and cost problems are the spoilers

Octoshape. Introducing. a new technology for large-scale streaming over the Internet. Scale and cost problems are the spoilers Octoshape Introducing a new technology for large-scale streaming over the Internet Stephen Alstrup and Theis Rauhe Octoshape The popularity of live streaming over the Internet is growing. The number of

More information

A Comparative Study of Tree-based and Mesh-based Overlay P2P Media Streaming

A Comparative Study of Tree-based and Mesh-based Overlay P2P Media Streaming A Comparative Study of Tree-based and Mesh-based Overlay P2P Media Streaming Chin Yong Goh 1,Hui Shyong Yeo 1, Hyotaek Lim 1 1 Dongseo University Busan, 617-716, South Korea cgnicky@gmail.com, hui_shyong@hotmail.com,

More information

Octoshape s Multicast Technology Suite:

Octoshape s Multicast Technology Suite: : The Next-Gen CDN Alternative for Large-Scale, Cost-Optimized, Global HD Streaming HQ: +45 8833 4680 USA: +1 770 578 1686 Asia: +65 81125330 www.octoshape.com Table of Contents Core Transport...4 Making

More information

Content Delivery Networks. Shaxun Chen April 21, 2009

Content Delivery Networks. Shaxun Chen April 21, 2009 Content Delivery Networks Shaxun Chen April 21, 2009 Outline Introduction to CDN An Industry Example: Akamai A Research Example: CDN over Mobile Networks Conclusion Outline Introduction to CDN An Industry

More information

HPAM: Hybrid Protocol for Application Level Multicast. Yeo Chai Kiat

HPAM: Hybrid Protocol for Application Level Multicast. Yeo Chai Kiat HPAM: Hybrid Protocol for Application Level Multicast Yeo Chai Kiat Scope 1. Introduction 2. Hybrid Protocol for Application Level Multicast (HPAM) 3. Features of HPAM 4. Conclusion 1. Introduction Video

More information

An Analysis of Live Streaming Workloads on the Internet

An Analysis of Live Streaming Workloads on the Internet An Analysis of Live Streaming Workloads on the Internet Kunwadee Sripanidkulchai, Bruce Maggs, Carnegie Mellon University and Hui Zhang ABSTRACT In this paper, we study the live streaming workload from

More information

Distributing Streaming Media Content Using Cooperative Networking

Distributing Streaming Media Content Using Cooperative Networking Distributing Streaming Media Content Using Cooperative Networking Venkata N. Padmanabhan, Helen J. Wang, Philip A. Chou Microsoft Research {padmanab,helenw,pachou}@microsoft.com Kunwadee Sripanidkulchai

More information

Virtual PortChannels: Building Networks without Spanning Tree Protocol

Virtual PortChannels: Building Networks without Spanning Tree Protocol . White Paper Virtual PortChannels: Building Networks without Spanning Tree Protocol What You Will Learn This document provides an in-depth look at Cisco's virtual PortChannel (vpc) technology, as developed

More information

BM 465E Distributed Systems

BM 465E Distributed Systems BM 465E Distributed Systems Lecture 4 Networking (cont.) Mehmet Demirci Today Overlay networks Data centers Content delivery networks Overlay Network A virtual network built on top of another network Overlay

More information

Intelligent Content Delivery Network (CDN) The New Generation of High-Quality Network

Intelligent Content Delivery Network (CDN) The New Generation of High-Quality Network White paper Intelligent Content Delivery Network (CDN) The New Generation of High-Quality Network July 2001 Executive Summary Rich media content like audio and video streaming over the Internet is becoming

More information

Opportunities and Challenges of Peer-to-Peer Internet Video Broadcast

Opportunities and Challenges of Peer-to-Peer Internet Video Broadcast Opportunities and Challenges of Peer-to-Peer Internet Video Broadcast Jiangchuan Liu, Sanjay G. Rao, Bo Li, and Hui Zhang School of Computing Science, Simon Fraser University Burnaby, British Columbia,

More information

diversifeye Application Note

diversifeye Application Note diversifeye Application Note Test Performance of IGMP based Multicast Services with emulated IPTV STBs Shenick Network Systems Test Performance of IGMP based Multicast Services with emulated IPTV STBs

More information

Implementation of a Lightweight Service Advertisement and Discovery Protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Networks

Implementation of a Lightweight Service Advertisement and Discovery Protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Networks Implementation of a Lightweight Advertisement and Discovery Protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Networks Wenbin Ma * Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 19 Memorial Drive West, Lehigh University Bethlehem,

More information

International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering

International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering Volume 2, Issue 9, September 2012 ISSN: 2277 128X International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering Research Paper Available online at: www.ijarcsse.com An Experimental

More information

Traffic delivery evolution in the Internet ENOG 4 Moscow 23 rd October 2012

Traffic delivery evolution in the Internet ENOG 4 Moscow 23 rd October 2012 Traffic delivery evolution in the Internet ENOG 4 Moscow 23 rd October 2012 January 29th, 2008 Christian Kaufmann Director Network Architecture Akamai Technologies, Inc. way-back machine Web 1998 way-back

More information

TRILL Large Layer 2 Network Solution

TRILL Large Layer 2 Network Solution TRILL Large Layer 2 Network Solution Contents 1 Network Architecture Requirements of Data Centers in the Cloud Computing Era... 3 2 TRILL Characteristics... 5 3 Huawei TRILL-based Large Layer 2 Network

More information

Architectural Framework for Large- Scale Multicast in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Architectural Framework for Large- Scale Multicast in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Architectural Framework for Large- Scale Multicast in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Ahmed Helmy Electrical Engineering Department University of Southern California (USC) helmy@usc.edu http://ceng.usc.edu/~helmy

More information

End System Multicast

End System Multicast End System Multicast Hui Zhang School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University May 2004 1 A Virtual Classroom Stanford Prof. Harry Bovik CMU MIT Berkeley 2 Solution Based on IP Unicast MIT Stanford

More information

CHAPTER 6. VOICE COMMUNICATION OVER HYBRID MANETs

CHAPTER 6. VOICE COMMUNICATION OVER HYBRID MANETs CHAPTER 6 VOICE COMMUNICATION OVER HYBRID MANETs Multimedia real-time session services such as voice and videoconferencing with Quality of Service support is challenging task on Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANETs).

More information

Optimal Network Connectivity Reliable Network Access Flexible Network Management

Optimal Network Connectivity Reliable Network Access Flexible Network Management The Intelligent WAN Load Balancer Aggregating Links For Maximum Performance Optimal Network Connectivity Reliable Network Access Flexible Network Management Enterprises are increasingly relying on the

More information

SAAR: A Shared Control Plane for Overlay Multicast

SAAR: A Shared Control Plane for Overlay Multicast SAAR: A Shared Control Plane for Overlay Multicast Animesh Nandi Aditya Gangam,, Peter Druschel,, T.S. Eugene Ng, Ion Stoica, Hui Zhang, Bobby Bhattacharjee (MPI for Software Systems, Rice University,

More information

Distributed Systems. 23. Content Delivery Networks (CDN) Paul Krzyzanowski. Rutgers University. Fall 2015

Distributed Systems. 23. Content Delivery Networks (CDN) Paul Krzyzanowski. Rutgers University. Fall 2015 Distributed Systems 23. Content Delivery Networks (CDN) Paul Krzyzanowski Rutgers University Fall 2015 November 17, 2015 2014-2015 Paul Krzyzanowski 1 Motivation Serving web content from one location presents

More information

How To. Instreamer to Exstreamer connection. Project Name: Document Type: Document Revision: Instreamer to Exstreamer connection. How To 1.

How To. Instreamer to Exstreamer connection. Project Name: Document Type: Document Revision: Instreamer to Exstreamer connection. How To 1. Instreamer to Exstreamer connection Project Name: Document Type: Document Revision: Instreamer to Exstreamer connection 1.11 Date: 06.03.2013 2013 Barix AG, all rights reserved. All information is subject

More information

Interplanetary Internet (IPN): An Architectural Definition

Interplanetary Internet (IPN): An Architectural Definition Interplanetary Internet (IPN): An Architectural Definition 1. Introduction 2. Inter-Internet Dialogs 3. Building a stable Backbone for the IPN 4. IPN Nodes 5. Security in the IPN 6. Deployed Internets

More information

Definition. A Historical Example

Definition. A Historical Example Overlay Networks This lecture contains slides created by Ion Stoica (UC Berkeley). Slides used with permission from author. All rights remain with author. Definition Network defines addressing, routing,

More information

White Paper. Enterprise IPTV and Video Streaming with the Blue Coat ProxySG >

White Paper. Enterprise IPTV and Video Streaming with the Blue Coat ProxySG > White Paper Enterprise IPTV and Video Streaming with the Blue Coat ProxySG > Table of Contents INTRODUCTION................................................... 2 SOLUTION ARCHITECTURE.........................................

More information

IP QoS Interoperability Issues

IP QoS Interoperability Issues SP-030371 IP QoS Interoperability Issues Source: Contact: SBC Communications, BT Randolph Wohlert Randolph_Wohlert@labs.sbc.com 2 Industry Trend: IP Based Services Next Generation Networks Multi-service

More information

Distributed Systems. 25. Content Delivery Networks (CDN) 2014 Paul Krzyzanowski. Rutgers University. Fall 2014

Distributed Systems. 25. Content Delivery Networks (CDN) 2014 Paul Krzyzanowski. Rutgers University. Fall 2014 Distributed Systems 25. Content Delivery Networks (CDN) Paul Krzyzanowski Rutgers University Fall 2014 November 16, 2014 2014 Paul Krzyzanowski 1 Motivation Serving web content from one location presents

More information

Fault-Tolerant Framework for Load Balancing System

Fault-Tolerant Framework for Load Balancing System Fault-Tolerant Framework for Load Balancing System Y. K. LIU, L.M. CHENG, L.L.CHENG Department of Electronic Engineering City University of Hong Kong Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR HONG KONG Abstract:

More information

Optimizing Enterprise Network Bandwidth For Security Applications. Improving Performance Using Antaira s Management Features

Optimizing Enterprise Network Bandwidth For Security Applications. Improving Performance Using Antaira s Management Features Optimizing Enterprise Network Bandwidth For Security Applications Improving Performance Using Antaira s Management Features By: Brian Roth, Product Marketing Engineer April 1, 2014 April 2014 Optimizing

More information

CS555: Distributed Systems [Fall 2015] Dept. Of Computer Science, Colorado State University

CS555: Distributed Systems [Fall 2015] Dept. Of Computer Science, Colorado State University CS 555: DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS [MESSAGING SYSTEMS] Shrideep Pallickara Computer Science Colorado State University Frequently asked questions from the previous class survey Daisy chain MapReduce jobs? Multiple

More information

Module 15: Network Structures

Module 15: Network Structures Module 15: Network Structures Background Topology Network Types Communication Communication Protocol Robustness Design Strategies 15.1 A Distributed System 15.2 Motivation Resource sharing sharing and

More information

Analyzing Mission Critical Voice over IP Networks. Michael Todd Gardner

Analyzing Mission Critical Voice over IP Networks. Michael Todd Gardner Analyzing Mission Critical Voice over IP Networks Michael Todd Gardner Organization What is Mission Critical Voice? Why Study Mission Critical Voice over IP? Approach to Analyze Mission Critical Voice

More information

Performance Evaluation of AODV, OLSR Routing Protocol in VOIP Over Ad Hoc

Performance Evaluation of AODV, OLSR Routing Protocol in VOIP Over Ad Hoc (International Journal of Computer Science & Management Studies) Vol. 17, Issue 01 Performance Evaluation of AODV, OLSR Routing Protocol in VOIP Over Ad Hoc Dr. Khalid Hamid Bilal Khartoum, Sudan dr.khalidbilal@hotmail.com

More information

A NETWORK CONSTRUCTION METHOD FOR A SCALABLE P2P VIDEO CONFERENCING SYSTEM

A NETWORK CONSTRUCTION METHOD FOR A SCALABLE P2P VIDEO CONFERENCING SYSTEM A NETWORK CONSTRUCTION METHOD FOR A SCALABLE P2P VIDEO CONFERENCING SYSTEM Hideto Horiuchi, Naoki Wakamiya and Masayuki Murata Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Osaka University 1

More information

Content Delivery Networks

Content Delivery Networks Content Delivery Networks Silvano Gai Cisco Systems, USA Politecnico di Torino, IT sgai@cisco.com 1 Agenda What are Content Delivery Networks? DNS based routing Server Load Balancing Content Routers Ethical

More information

Interconnection Networks. Interconnection Networks. Interconnection networks are used everywhere!

Interconnection Networks. Interconnection Networks. Interconnection networks are used everywhere! Interconnection Networks Interconnection Networks Interconnection networks are used everywhere! Supercomputers connecting the processors Routers connecting the ports can consider a router as a parallel

More information

Operating System Concepts. Operating System 資 訊 工 程 學 系 袁 賢 銘 老 師

Operating System Concepts. Operating System 資 訊 工 程 學 系 袁 賢 銘 老 師 Lecture 7: Distributed Operating Systems A Distributed System 7.2 Resource sharing Motivation sharing and printing files at remote sites processing information in a distributed database using remote specialized

More information

Efficient and low cost Internet backup to Primary Video lines

Efficient and low cost Internet backup to Primary Video lines Efficient and low cost Internet backup to Primary Video lines By Adi Rozenberg, CTO Table of Contents Chapter 1. Introduction... 1 Chapter 2. The DVP100 solution... 2 Chapter 3. VideoFlow 3V Technology...

More information

OVERLAYING VIRTUALIZED LAYER 2 NETWORKS OVER LAYER 3 NETWORKS

OVERLAYING VIRTUALIZED LAYER 2 NETWORKS OVER LAYER 3 NETWORKS OVERLAYING VIRTUALIZED LAYER 2 NETWORKS OVER LAYER 3 NETWORKS Matt Eclavea (meclavea@brocade.com) Senior Solutions Architect, Brocade Communications Inc. Jim Allen (jallen@llnw.com) Senior Architect, Limelight

More information

Berkeley Ninja Architecture

Berkeley Ninja Architecture Berkeley Ninja Architecture ACID vs BASE 1.Strong Consistency 2. Availability not considered 3. Conservative 1. Weak consistency 2. Availability is a primary design element 3. Aggressive --> Traditional

More information

Chapter 7 outline. 7.5 providing multiple classes of service 7.6 providing QoS guarantees RTP, RTCP, SIP. 7: Multimedia Networking 7-71

Chapter 7 outline. 7.5 providing multiple classes of service 7.6 providing QoS guarantees RTP, RTCP, SIP. 7: Multimedia Networking 7-71 Chapter 7 outline 7.1 multimedia networking applications 7.2 streaming stored audio and video 7.3 making the best out of best effort service 7.4 protocols for real-time interactive applications RTP, RTCP,

More information

Content Delivery Networks

Content Delivery Networks Content Delivery Networks Terena 2000 ftp://ftpeng.cisco.com/sgai/t2000cdn.pdf Silvano Gai Cisco Systems, USA Politecnico di Torino, IT sgai@cisco.com Terena 2000 1 Agenda What are Content Delivery Networks?

More information

Adapting Distributed Hash Tables for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Adapting Distributed Hash Tables for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks University of Tübingen Chair for Computer Networks and Internet Adapting Distributed Hash Tables for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Tobias Heer, Stefan Götz, Simon Rieche, Klaus Wehrle Protocol Engineering and

More information

IxLoad: Testing Microsoft IPTV

IxLoad: Testing Microsoft IPTV IxLoad: Testing Microsoft IPTV IxLoad provides a comprehensive solution for validating service delivery networks utilizing Microsoft IPTV. IxLoad offers a complete solution that simulates core systems

More information

Analysis of QoS Routing Approach and the starvation`s evaluation in LAN

Analysis of QoS Routing Approach and the starvation`s evaluation in LAN www.ijcsi.org 360 Analysis of QoS Routing Approach and the starvation`s evaluation in LAN 1 st Ariana Bejleri Polytechnic University of Tirana, Faculty of Information Technology, Computer Engineering Department,

More information

NETWORK ISSUES: COSTS & OPTIONS

NETWORK ISSUES: COSTS & OPTIONS VIDEO CONFERENCING NETWORK ISSUES: COSTS & OPTIONS Prepared By: S. Ann Earon, Ph.D., President Telemanagement Resources International Inc. Sponsored by Vidyo By:S.AnnEaron,Ph.D. Introduction Successful

More information

IxChariot Pro Active Network Assessment and Monitoring Platform

IxChariot Pro Active Network Assessment and Monitoring Platform IxChariot Pro Active Network Assessment and Monitoring Platform Network performance and user experience are critical aspects of your business. It is vital to understand customers perception of your website,

More information

A Framework for Scalable Global IP-Anycast (GIA)

A Framework for Scalable Global IP-Anycast (GIA) A Framework for Scalable Global IP-Anycast (GIA) Dina Katabi, John Wroclawski MIT Laboratory for Computer Science 545 Technology Square Cambridge, MA 02139 {dina,jtw}@lcs.mit.edu ABSTRACT This paper proposes

More information

Chapter 14: Distributed Operating Systems

Chapter 14: Distributed Operating Systems Chapter 14: Distributed Operating Systems Chapter 14: Distributed Operating Systems Motivation Types of Distributed Operating Systems Network Structure Network Topology Communication Structure Communication

More information

CROSS LAYER BASED MULTIPATH ROUTING FOR LOAD BALANCING

CROSS LAYER BASED MULTIPATH ROUTING FOR LOAD BALANCING CHAPTER 6 CROSS LAYER BASED MULTIPATH ROUTING FOR LOAD BALANCING 6.1 INTRODUCTION The technical challenges in WMNs are load balancing, optimal routing, fairness, network auto-configuration and mobility

More information

Lecture 3: Scaling by Load Balancing 1. Comments on reviews i. 2. Topic 1: Scalability a. QUESTION: What are problems? i. These papers look at

Lecture 3: Scaling by Load Balancing 1. Comments on reviews i. 2. Topic 1: Scalability a. QUESTION: What are problems? i. These papers look at Lecture 3: Scaling by Load Balancing 1. Comments on reviews i. 2. Topic 1: Scalability a. QUESTION: What are problems? i. These papers look at distributing load b. QUESTION: What is the context? i. How

More information

Preventing DDoS Attacks with P2P Systems through Robust Membership Management

Preventing DDoS Attacks with P2P Systems through Robust Membership Management Preventing DDoS Attacks with P2P Systems through Robust Membership Management Xin Sun, Ruben Torres and Sanjay Rao School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University West Lafayette, IN 4797

More information

Swistry: P2P Live Streaming

Swistry: P2P Live Streaming Master Thesis Swistry: P2P Live Streaming Philip Frey philip.frey@alumni.ethz.ch Dept. of Computer Science Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich January-July, 2006 Prof. Dr. Roger Wattenhofer

More information

Trace Driven Analysis of the Long Term Evolution of Gnutella Peer-to-Peer Traffic

Trace Driven Analysis of the Long Term Evolution of Gnutella Peer-to-Peer Traffic Trace Driven Analysis of the Long Term Evolution of Gnutella Peer-to-Peer Traffic William Acosta and Surendar Chandra University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame IN, 46556, USA {wacosta,surendar}@cse.nd.edu Abstract.

More information

Early Experience with an Internet Broadcast System Based on Overlay Multicast

Early Experience with an Internet Broadcast System Based on Overlay Multicast Abstract Early Experience with an Internet Broadcast System Based on Overlay Multicast Yang-hua Chu, Aditya Ganjam, T. S. Eugene Ng, Sanjay G. Rao, Kunwadee Sripanidkulchai, Jibin Zhan, and Hui Zhang Carnegie

More information

A Topology-Aware Relay Lookup Scheme for P2P VoIP System

A Topology-Aware Relay Lookup Scheme for P2P VoIP System Int. J. Communications, Network and System Sciences, 2010, 3, 119-125 doi:10.4236/ijcns.2010.32018 Published Online February 2010 (http://www.scirp.org/journal/ijcns/). A Topology-Aware Relay Lookup Scheme

More information

Multicast Group Management for Interactive Distributed Applications

Multicast Group Management for Interactive Distributed Applications Multicast Group Management for Interactive Distributed Applications Carsten Griwodz griff@simula.no September 25, 2008 based on the thesis work of Knut-Helge Vik, knuthelv@simula.no Group communication

More information

May 09, 2010. Creating live broadcast with Kaltura Complete guide

May 09, 2010. Creating live broadcast with Kaltura Complete guide Creating live broadcast with Kaltura Complete guide May 09, 2010 Page 1 1. Change history... 3 2. Overview... 3 3. Client side integration... 4 3.1. Internet connection... 4 3.2. Broadcasting machine...

More information

Load Balancing in Distributed Web Server Systems With Partial Document Replication

Load Balancing in Distributed Web Server Systems With Partial Document Replication Load Balancing in Distributed Web Server Systems With Partial Document Replication Ling Zhuo, Cho-Li Wang and Francis C. M. Lau Department of Computer Science and Information Systems The University of

More information

Detecting rogue systems

Detecting rogue systems Product Guide Revision A McAfee Rogue System Detection 4.7.1 For use with epolicy Orchestrator 4.6.3-5.0.0 Software Detecting rogue systems Unprotected systems, referred to as rogue systems, are often

More information

A Utility-Aware Middleware Architecture for Decentralized Group Communication Applications

A Utility-Aware Middleware Architecture for Decentralized Group Communication Applications A Utility-Aware Middleware Architecture for Decentralized Group Communication Applications Jianjun Zhang 1, Ling Liu 1, Lakshmish Ramaswamy 2, Gong Zhang 1, and Calton Pu 1 1 College of Computing, Georgia

More information

Live Streaming with CCN & Content Transmission with CCNx

Live Streaming with CCN & Content Transmission with CCNx Live Streaming with CCN & Content Transmission with CCNx 21 Jun. 2012 Suphakit Awiphan Katto Laboratory, Waseda University Outline Introduces the paper entitled Live Streaming with Content Centric Networking

More information

other. A B AP wired network

other. A B AP wired network 1 Routing and Channel Assignment in Multi-Channel Multi-Hop Wireless Networks with Single-NIC Devices Jungmin So + Nitin H. Vaidya Department of Computer Science +, Department of Electrical and Computer

More information

The Performance of Measurement-Based Overlay Networks

The Performance of Measurement-Based Overlay Networks The Performance of Measurement-Based Overlay Networks Daniel Bauer, Sean Rooney, Paolo Scotton, Ilias Iliadis, Sonja Buchegger IBM Research Säumerstrasse 4 CH-8803 Rüschlikon/Switzerland Measurement Based

More information

SYNCHRONIZATION IN PACKET NETWORKS: TIMING METRICS AND MONITORING

SYNCHRONIZATION IN PACKET NETWORKS: TIMING METRICS AND MONITORING SYNCHRONIZATION IN PACKET NETWORKS: TIMING METRICS AND MONITORING Charles Barry and Srinivas Bangalore Brilliant Telecommunications 307 Orchard City Drive, San Jose, CA 95008, USA E-mail: srinivas@brillianttelecom.com

More information

MINIMUM NETWORK REQUIREMENTS 1. REQUIREMENTS SUMMARY... 1

MINIMUM NETWORK REQUIREMENTS 1. REQUIREMENTS SUMMARY... 1 Table of Contents 1. REQUIREMENTS SUMMARY... 1 2. REQUIREMENTS DETAIL... 2 2.1 DHCP SERVER... 2 2.2 DNS SERVER... 2 2.3 FIREWALLS... 3 2.4 NETWORK ADDRESS TRANSLATION... 4 2.5 APPLICATION LAYER GATEWAY...

More information

Source-domain DDoS Prevention

Source-domain DDoS Prevention bhattacharjee, LTS S 05 Page: 0 Source-domain DDoS Prevention Bobby Bhattacharjee Christopher Kommareddy Mark Shayman Dave Levin Richard La Vahid Tabatabaee University of Maryland bhattacharjee, LTS S

More information

Using the Streaming & Recording Features

Using the Streaming & Recording Features VIDEO COMMUNICATION SYSTEM-APPLICATION NOTE Using the Streaming & Recording Features PCS-G50/G50P All PCS-G70/G70P All Introduction Sony PCS-G50/G50P/G70/G70P videoconferencing systems come standard with

More information

LiveSwarms: Adapting BitTorrent for end host multicast

LiveSwarms: Adapting BitTorrent for end host multicast LiveSwarms: Adapting BitTorrent for end host multicast Michael Piatek, Colin Dixon, Arvind Krishnamurthy, and Thomas Anderson University of Washington Technical Report TR 2006-11-01 Abstract The lack of

More information

Hints and Implications of Player Interaction

Hints and Implications of Player Interaction Network Game Design: Hints and Implications of Player Interaction Kuan-Ta Chen, Academia Sinica Chin-Laung Lei, National Taiwan University NetGames 006 Observation User behavior is a key factor of how

More information

A Measurement of NAT & Firewall Characteristics in Peer to Peer Systems

A Measurement of NAT & Firewall Characteristics in Peer to Peer Systems A Measurement of NAT & Firewall Characteristics in Peer to Peer Systems L. D Acunto, J.A. Pouwelse, and H.J. Sips Department of Computer Science Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands l.dacunto@tudelft.nl

More information

Chapter 16: Distributed Operating Systems

Chapter 16: Distributed Operating Systems Module 16: Distributed ib System Structure, Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2009 Chapter 16: Distributed Operating Systems Motivation Types of Network-Based Operating Systems Network Structure Network Topology

More information

Performance Monitoring on Networked Virtual Environments

Performance Monitoring on Networked Virtual Environments Performance Monitoring on Networked Virtual Environments C. Bouras 1, 2, E. Giannaka 1, 2 Abstract As networked virtual environments gain increasing interest and acceptance in the field of Internet applications,

More information

FortiBalancer: Global Server Load Balancing WHITE PAPER

FortiBalancer: Global Server Load Balancing WHITE PAPER FortiBalancer: Global Server Load Balancing WHITE PAPER FORTINET FortiBalancer: Global Server Load Balancing PAGE 2 Introduction Scalability, high availability and performance are critical to the success

More information

First Midterm for ECE374 02/25/15 Solution!!

First Midterm for ECE374 02/25/15 Solution!! 1 First Midterm for ECE374 02/25/15 Solution!! Instructions: Put your name and student number on each sheet of paper! The exam is closed book. You have 90 minutes to complete the exam. Be a smart exam

More information

CHAPTER 5 WLDMA: A NEW LOAD BALANCING STRATEGY FOR WAN ENVIRONMENT

CHAPTER 5 WLDMA: A NEW LOAD BALANCING STRATEGY FOR WAN ENVIRONMENT 81 CHAPTER 5 WLDMA: A NEW LOAD BALANCING STRATEGY FOR WAN ENVIRONMENT 5.1 INTRODUCTION Distributed Web servers on the Internet require high scalability and availability to provide efficient services to

More information

BroadCloud PBX Customer Minimum Requirements

BroadCloud PBX Customer Minimum Requirements BroadCloud PBX Customer Minimum Requirements Service Guide Version 2.0 1009 Pruitt Road The Woodlands, TX 77380 Tel +1 281.465.3320 WWW.BROADSOFT.COM BroadCloud PBX Customer Minimum Requirements Service

More information

CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS

CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS 137 CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS 8.1 CONCLUSION In this thesis, efficient schemes have been designed and analyzed to control congestion and distribute the load in the routing process of

More information

Scaling Server-Based Channel-Change Acceleration to Millions of IPTV Subscribers

Scaling Server-Based Channel-Change Acceleration to Millions of IPTV Subscribers Proceedings of 212 IEEE 19th International Packet Video Workshop May 1-11, 212, Munich, Germany Scaling Server-Based Channel-Change Acceleration to Millions of IPTV Subscribers Marc Mignon Belgacom, Brussels,

More information

Figure 1. The Example of ZigBee AODV Algorithm

Figure 1. The Example of ZigBee AODV Algorithm TELKOMNIKA Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering Vol.12, No.2, February 2014, pp. 1528 ~ 1535 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11591/telkomnika.v12i2.3576 1528 Improving ZigBee AODV Mesh Routing Algorithm

More information

Measurements on the Spotify Peer-Assisted Music-on-Demand Streaming System

Measurements on the Spotify Peer-Assisted Music-on-Demand Streaming System The Spotify Protocol on the Spotify Peer-Assisted Music-on-Demand Streaming System Mikael Goldmann KTH Royal nstitute of Technology Spotify gkreitz@spotify.com P2P 11, September 1 2011 on Spotify Spotify

More information

Giving life to today s media distribution services

Giving life to today s media distribution services Giving life to today s media distribution services FIA - Future Internet Assembly Athens, 17 March 2014 Presenter: Nikolaos Efthymiopoulos Network architecture & Management Group Copyright University of

More information

Bit-Rate and Application Performance in Ultra BroadBand Networks

Bit-Rate and Application Performance in Ultra BroadBand Networks Bit-Rate and Application Performance in Ultra BroadBand Networks Gianfranco Ciccarella - Telecom Italia Vice President Global Advisory Services 4ºFocus: Gianfranco Ciccarella - Telecom Index QoE platforms:

More information

Concept of Cache in web proxies

Concept of Cache in web proxies Concept of Cache in web proxies Chan Kit Wai and Somasundaram Meiyappan 1. Introduction Caching is an effective performance enhancing technique that has been used in computer systems for decades. However,

More information

Friends, not Foes Synthesizing Existing Transport Strategies for Data Center Networks

Friends, not Foes Synthesizing Existing Transport Strategies for Data Center Networks Friends, not Foes Synthesizing Existing Transport Strategies for Data Center Networks Ali Munir Michigan State University Ghufran Baig, Syed M. Irteza, Ihsan A. Qazi, Alex X. Liu, Fahad R. Dogar Data Center

More information

Flexible Building Blocks for Software Defined Network Function Virtualization (Tenant-Programmable Virtual Networks)

Flexible Building Blocks for Software Defined Network Function Virtualization (Tenant-Programmable Virtual Networks) Flexible Building Blocks for Software Defined Network Function Virtualization (Tenant-Programmable Virtual Networks) Aryan TaheriMonfared Chunming Rong Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer

More information

Region 10 Videoconference Network (R10VN)

Region 10 Videoconference Network (R10VN) Region 10 Videoconference Network (R10VN) Network Considerations & Guidelines 1 What Causes A Poor Video Call? There are several factors that can affect a videoconference call. The two biggest culprits

More information

Load Balancing Mechanisms in Data Center Networks

Load Balancing Mechanisms in Data Center Networks Load Balancing Mechanisms in Data Center Networks Santosh Mahapatra Xin Yuan Department of Computer Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 33 {mahapatr,xyuan}@cs.fsu.edu Abstract We consider

More information

Distributed Systems. 24. Content Delivery Networks (CDN) 2013 Paul Krzyzanowski. Rutgers University. Fall 2013

Distributed Systems. 24. Content Delivery Networks (CDN) 2013 Paul Krzyzanowski. Rutgers University. Fall 2013 Distributed Systems 24. Content Delivery Networks (CDN) Paul Krzyzanowski Rutgers University Fall 2013 November 27, 2013 2013 Paul Krzyzanowski 1 Motivation Serving web content from one location presents

More information

Voice over IP (VoIP) Overview. Introduction. David Feiner ACN 2004. Introduction VoIP & QoS H.323 SIP Comparison of H.323 and SIP Examples

Voice over IP (VoIP) Overview. Introduction. David Feiner ACN 2004. Introduction VoIP & QoS H.323 SIP Comparison of H.323 and SIP Examples Voice over IP (VoIP) David Feiner ACN 2004 Overview Introduction VoIP & QoS H.323 SIP Comparison of H.323 and SIP Examples Introduction Voice Calls are transmitted over Packet Switched Network instead

More information

Mixer/Translator VOIP/SIP. Translator. Mixer

Mixer/Translator VOIP/SIP. Translator. Mixer Mixer/Translator VOIP/SIP RTP Mixer, translator A mixer combines several media stream into a one new stream (with possible new encoding) reduced bandwidth networks (video or telephone conference) appears

More information

Optimal Network Connectivity Reliable Network Access Flexible Network Management

Optimal Network Connectivity Reliable Network Access Flexible Network Management Aggregating Links For Maximum Performance Optimal Network Connectivity Reliable Network Access Flexible Network Management Enterprises are increasingly relying on the internet for delivery of critical

More information