Institut für Politische Wissenschaft. Discussion Paper. No. 11. Recent Education Policy and School Reform in Bavaria: A Critical Assessment.

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Institut für Politische Wissenschaft. Discussion Paper. No. 11. Recent Education Policy and School Reform in Bavaria: A Critical Assessment."

Transcription

1 Institut für Politische Wissenschaft Discussion Paper No. 11 Recent Education Policy and School Reform in Bavaria: A Critical Assessment von Ralph Rotte und Ursula Rotte Juni ISSN

2 Recent Education Policy and School Reform in Bavaria: A Critical Assessment Ralph Rotte Institute for Political Science, RWTH Aachen University, Germany Ursula Rotte Institute for Education, University of Munich, Germany 1 Introduction: Educational federalism in Germany The Federal Republic of Germany consists of 16 states (Laender) which are autonomous in educational and cultural affairs. Federal competences are limited to aspects like joint financing of universities and special education projects. The function of the Federal Minister for Education and Science in this system is mainly to motivate and moderate Laender activities. As a consequence of this state autonomy being at the core of political self-confidence and regional peculiarities and traditions, educational systems differ from Land to Land within Germany. Some fundamental coordination of education systems and policy is provided mainly by Laender cooperation in a permanent conference of state and federal education ministers, and by the common legal framework of the federal constitution demanding a relatively generous minimum equivalence of living standards throughout Germany (Baumert et al., 2002: ). Especially strong federalist feelings and traditions can be found in the southern state of Bavaria with its area of 70.5 square kilometres and its population of 12.4 million (Germany: square kilometres and 82.5 million inhabitants). This strong sense for political autonomy may be explained by its long history. 1 In 1806 Bavaria became a kingdom (until 1918) and remained a sovereign state until its joining of the German Reich established in Within the Reich Bavaria retained a number of reservation rights in taxes, military affairs, public 1 The Bavarian country and people established themselves as early as in the 8th and 9th century, and since the 12 th century the Duchy of Bavaria was an important and increasingly autonomous state within the Holy Roman Empire. Following the gradual internal dissolution of the Empire in the 17 th century Bavaria became even a player on the European political scene, trying (and failing) to become a great power. Ignoring some peripheral alterations, Bavaria today is still the arbitrary amalgam of principalities, dukedoms, towns and bishoprics thrown together and declared a monarchy by Napoleon in 1806 (Sutherland, 2001: 19).

3 3 administration and education policy (Volkert, 2001: 62-98). Between 1919 and 1933, the Bavarian government tried to strengthen the federalist aspects of the Weimar Republic, and even during the national socialist regime from 1933 to 1945, Bavarian individualism and stubbornness could be found especially in school affairs (Rotte and Rotte, 2003). Following Germany s defeat in World War II, the existence of a Bavarian state was declared by the U.S. Military Government as early as on 19 September Based on its history of political autonomy within the framework of a greater political entitiy, after the Second World War, political myth-making in the German federal state of Bavaria has largely succeeded in bracketing the period of the Third Reich and emphasizing continuity instead; the preamble of the Bavarian constitution of 1946 refers to 1,000 years of Bavarian history (Sutherland, 2001: 13-14). As a consequence of this traditional and conservative attitude of continuity, while accepting and implementing democracy and human rights as fundamentals of any education, Bavarian policy also resisted structural changes in the school system urgently demanded and even ordered by the U.S. miltary government in Instead of introducing an all-day compehensive school for grades 7 to 12, based on a primary school of six grades, Bavaria returned to the pre-nazi system with a fourgrade primary school and selection of pupils for the differentiated secondary schools at the age of ten (Deffner, 2004: ). Since the 1950s and 1960s Bavaria has developed from an agriculturally dominated country to a center of German and European industry, high technology and scientific research. Bavarian selfperception, political culture, and, consequently, education policy after World War II have been decisively coined by the Christian Socialist Party (CSU) founded in 1946 which has governed the state continuously since then except for a three-year break in the 1950s. Bavaria s post-war development from a backward, agricultural economy to one of the richest Länder in Germany is inextricably linked to CSU policy and is extremely important to the party s image of credibility. ( ) The CSU has attempted to present the 12 years of Nazi rule as a tragic hiatus in Bavarian state tradition and continue a process of nation-building which began with the creation of the Bavarian monarchy in ( ) The CSU derives its vision of Bavaria from a historical myth of statehood, territorial continuity and democratic state of law, which also recognises internal diversity. Particularly important to the party is the preservation of Bavaria s long-standing though limited, legislative sovereignty and administrative autonomy (Sutherland, 2001: ). Today, Bavaria has a reputation of having an excellent education system strongly coined by the CSU s conservative attitudes (Oerter, 2003: 72-73), probably the best in Germany except for its neighbouring state of Baden-Wuerttemberg.

4 4 2 Bavaria s school system in a nutshell In 2003/04 Bavaria had 5,505 schools with 1.88 million students and 105,500 teachers million and 174,000 pupils were educated in public state and local community schools, respectively. 190,000 went to private schools which employed 14,500 teachers (Bavarian State Ministry for Education and Cultural Affairs/BMoE, 2004a). In 2001, the state and local communities spent EUR 4,600 on each student, which is above the German average (EUR 4,500) mainly driven by the city states of Berlin (EUR 5,100), Bremen (EUR 4,900) and Hamburg (EUR 6,300) (Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft, 2004: 120). The Bavarian state budget for schools were EUR 5.9 billion (16.7 percent of total state spending), local communities added EUR 2.2 billion (14.7 percent of total spending). Together, outlays for schools amounted for 2.2 percent of Bavaria s GNP, a ratio which has been constant since the end of the 1990s (BMoE, 2004b). Schooling in Germany starts at the age of 6 and is compulsory to the age of 18. Nine years have to be spent at a full time school. In Bavaria, like in most other German states, all children attend primary school in grades 1 to 4. A crucial specialty of the Bavarian system, however, is their having to choose between three alternative tiers after the 4th grade: (1) Hauptschule (extended elementary school/secondary modern school) for grades 5 to 9 (or 10), leading to a certificate of compulsory education (Hauptschulabschluss) or of qualified basic education (Qualifizierender Hauptschulabschluss), (2) Realschule (secondary school/junior high school) for grades 5 to 10, leading to a intermediate high school certificate, similar to the British GCE O-levels (Fachoberschulreife), or (3) Gymnasium (higher secondary school/grammar school) for grades 5 to 13 (12), leading to a general university entrance certificate, comparable to the British A-levels or the French baccalauréat (Abitur/Allgemeine Hochschulreife). The opportunity to attend a Realschule or Gynmasium depends on the marks a pupil receives in the 4th grade. A good performance in core subjects including mathematics and German is essential. In 2003, graduates with a Hauptschulabschluss and a Fachoberschulreife made up 37.1 and 42.7 percent of the average age cohort of 15 to 18 year-olds, respectively. 8.5 percent finished their compulsory schooling without a certificate percent of the 18 to 21 year-olds had an Allgemeine Hochschulreife (BMoE, 2004c).

5 5 Prior to the most recent reforms, the Realschule started only at grade 7 which meant that most students aiming at an intermediate education certificate attended the Hauptschule for two years before changing to the Realschule. An opposition-backed attempt to keep this orientation phase in grades 5 and 6, and to extend it to all children including future Gymnasium students was turned down in a referendum in Moreover, Bavarian grammar schools have been switching to graduation after the 12 th grade since 2004, and Hauptschulen have introduced special 10 th grade classes leading gifted students to the intermediate education certificate. Additionally, there is a vast range of Foerderschulen (special school for handicapped or maladjusted children) for students of all ages in Bavaria: There are support centers for mental, audiovisual or physical development (grades 1 to 8), schools for educational, lingual or cognitive support (grades 3 to 8), secondary schools for social pedagogical support (grades 9 to 10), and vocational schools for social pedagogical support (grades 11 to 13) (Friedl and Poehlmann, 2004). An alternative to the Realschule is the Wirtschaftsschule (higher secondary commercial school with grades 7 to 10, 8 to 10, or 10 to 11), which also leads to an intermediate high school certificate and has a stronger focus on subjects relevant for economics and business (BMoE, 2005a). Both types of school provide a way to qualify for a Fachoberschule (technical/professional college) which leads to a special university entrance certificate (Fachhochschulreife) enabling graduates to study at a University of Applied Sciences (Fachhochschule). Traditionally, graduates from a Hauptschule or a Realschule/Wirtschaftsschule are considered qualified for vocational training, with the former aiming at skilled blue collar jobs (craftsman s trades) and the latter at white collar jobs, e.g. in the bank or insurance businesses. The German system of vocational training combines training on the job with two or three years of attendance of a vocational school (Berufsschule) which takes place on one day per week or in equivalent periods every few months. Good Hauptschule graduates with a completed vocational training may receive a Fachhochschulreife at a Berufsoberschule. In 2003, 11.4 percent of the 18 to 21 year-olds had such a certificate in Bavaria. A Gymnasium provides an acadmically orientated general education considered indispensible for future university students but also provides the formal qualification for vocational training. Persistent problems in the German labor market and a growing lack of skills of Hauptschule

6 6 graduates, have led to worse opportunities for Hauptschule graduates to find vocational training posts since competition by Realschule and Gymnasium graduates has increased seriously in recent years. As a consequence, about 80 percent (i.e. about 4,100) of all Hauptschule students repeating the 9th grade in 2003/04 did so voluntarily in order to avoid unemployment (Bayerischer Lehrer- und Lehrerinnenverband, 2005: 3). Today, the three types of Bavarian secondary education Hauptschule, Realschule/Wirtschaftsschule and Gymnasium have become the seemingly irrevocable and strictly implemented pillars of a highly selective school system. Due to tradition and for ideological reasons, the conservative Christian-Socialist party which has been ruling Bavaria without coalition partners since 1966, has always resisted attempts to introduce comprehensive schools (Gesamtschulen) as an alternative to the established system. Unlike many other German states, Bavaria has not even comprehensive schools as an additional educational offer for students and parents: There are only two experimental Gesamtschulen in Bavaria, one in Munich and one in Nuremberg. Formally, there are many ways to reach higher educational levels for graduates of lower types of school in the officially very open and flexible Bavarian education system, which cannot listed here. Nevertheless, these ways of qualification are actually mostly theoretically feasible only. The mass of certificates is still acquired in one of the traditional tiers of the system. Official data shows that, in 2003, Hauptschulen accounted for 86.3 percent of all certificates of compulsory education, Realschulen and Wirtschaftsschulen for 66.4 percent of all intermediate education certificates, and grammar schools for 94.4 percent of all general university entrance certificates and 24.2 percent of all special university entrance certificates were granted by Fachoberschulen or Berufsoberschulen, respectively. With 0.4 and 0.1 percent alternative ways to the Allgemeine Hochschulreife, like night school (Abendgymnasium) for working people or special talent examinations (Begabtenprüfung) play hardly any role. In 2003, the possibility of acquiring a Fachhochschulreife by a TV-based course (Telekolleg II) produced not a single graduate in Bavaria. The only significant change in this traditional pattern has been caused by the introduction of the 10 th grades at Hauptschulen. As a consequence, Hauptschulen provided 11.8 percent of all intermediate education certificates in 2003 (BMoE, 2004c).

7 7 3 The performance of the system According to the Ministry of Education, international comparisons like PISA 2000 or PIRLS, and corresponding intra-german tests (PISA-E, IGLU-E) have demonstrated the outstanding quality of the Bavarian school system. In the German context, Bavarian students showed the best performance in all three aspects of the PISA tests, and Bavaria was ranked among the best performing OECD countries (together with Baden-Wuerttemberg and Hesse) participating in the primary school test PIRLS (Ebert, 2004). While most German Laender reached results clearly below the OECD average in PISA, only Bavaria (in reading, mathematics and science) and Baden-Wuerttemberg (in mathematics) were ranked significantly higher than the OECD average of 500 points (Baumert et al., 2002: 62-73, , ). In reading literacy, Bavaria (510 pts.) reached about the level of Sweden (516 pts.), Austria (507 pts.) and Belgium (507 pts.), in mathematical literacy the score of 516 points equalled about the French (517 pts.) and Austrian (515 pts.) results. 508 points in sciences put Bavaria close to the Czech Republic (511 pts.). With 448, 452 and 461 points, respectively, the worst performing German state, Bremen, hardly reached the level of Portugal (470, 454 and 459 pts.) and Greece (474, 447 and 461 pts.). As a consequence, Bavarian education policy took PISA as a proof of the quality of the traditional three pillar school system and once more turned down ideas of fostering comprehensive schools like in the Skandinavian countries since Laender with Gesamtschulen had performed so bad. A closer look at PISA, however, shows that the Bavarian system is just about mediocre when compared to internationally leading countries. Seven of the eight Australian states or territories, for example, reached clearly higher scores in all three areas of literacy (the exception was New Brunswick). Similarly, seven of eight Canadian provinces (exception: Northern Territory) outperformed Bavaria in reading literacy, which is why Bavaria has been ironically termed Canada s Bremen in the German discussion (Baumert et al., 2002: ). PISA has demonstrated that there are at least three main problems which the Bavarian school system faces: (1) Bavaria is the German state in which access to higher education is strongest associated with the socio-economic background of a student s family. A child from an academic white-collar or leading civil servant s family, for example, is ten times more likely to attend a Gymnasium than one from an skilled blue collar worker s family. Even if one controls statistically for

8 8 cognitive skills and actual reading literacy, the odds ratio remains at 6:1 (Baumert et al., 2002: ). Concerning the actual performance as measured by the PISA score for reading literacy, the positive correlation between socio-economic origin and reading competence in Bavaria is about the German average (Baumert et al., 2002: ). Thus, while Germany as a whole is one of the high income OECD countries with the least equality in educational opportunities vis-àvis the socio-economic and educational background of a student s parents anyway (OECD, 2002: ; OECD, 2003: ), Bavaria has one of the most socioeconomically selective school systems in Germany. (2) In the Bavarian school system students from migrant families are clearly disadvantaged. Given the same socio-economic background the likelihood of a child from a German family to receive an intermediate or higher education certificate is more than twice a migrant student s chance to achieve such a educational level (Baumert et al., 2002: 198). While about 35 percent of German students attend a Gymnasium and about 15.4 percent a Realschule, only 10.4 percent of the children from non-german families attend a Gymnasium and less than 7 percent a Realschule. Since migrant children from most other countries of the pre-enlargement European Union (EU- 15) show no significantly different distribution among types of school, it is the students from traditional guestworker families that came to Germany mainly from Turkey, Greece and Italy in the 1950s to the early 1970s, i.e. third generation migrants, who have especially serious problems in the school system: While 20.2 percent and 4.1 percent of the German children attend a Hauptschule or a Foerderschule, respectively, the numbers for Turks are 40.6 and 7.2 percent, and for Italians 37 and 11.2 percent. The ratio of the numbers of students at a Gymnasium and at a Hauptschule is 10:8 for the Germans, but 10:57 for the Italians and 10:77 for the Turks. There are more children of Serbian nationality attending a Foerderschule in Bavaria than a Gymnasium or a Realschule combined (Hüfner, 2005). The most important problem of those migrant groups is their deficits in the command of the German language which is an important empirically significant determinant of individual reading literacy rather than nationality in Germany (Fertig, 2003: 5-7). (3) Bavaria has the highest number of Gymnasium drop-outs who then attend a Realschule or a Hauptschule: In 2000, almost 21 percent of all 15-year-olds had left grammar school for a less demanding school type since grade 5. Bavaria is the German state with the lowest ratio of Gymnasium graduates in Germany. On the one hand, this may be attributed to the high quality of selective top secondary education, but on the other hand it leads to a serious shortage of

9 9 potential university students and graduates. Gymnasium graduates are thus important for a modern knowledge society and an economy characterized by services and scientific dynamics. The pressure that the system exercises on students via its tough selection mechanisms including the fundamental choice of school type at an age of ten and parents ambitions is also highlighted by the development of the private school sector and by the boom in private lessons. Between 1999/2000 and 2003/04 the ratio of students attending private schools has risen continuously from 9.1 to 10.1 percent of all pupils. While the supply of public schools remained about the same (4,405 in 2000 vs. 4,402 in 2004), the number of private schools rose by almost 13 percent from 979 in 2000 to 1,103 in 2004 (BMoE, 2004a). At the same time, the demand for private lessons has increased massively. More than a quarter of German students take private lessons, and the estimated turnover of suppliers of private lessons (individuals like university students or companies covering about 22 percent of the market) is more than a billion Euros each year. In Bavaria, about 20 percent of the primary school pupils take provate lessons in order to make the vital step to a Realschule or a Gymnasium (Lindner, 2004). Obviously, many parents are not satisfied with the public school system any more and try to improve their children s chances to gain a good education certificate and to find an adequate job by choosing private (and expensive) alternatives. In other words, Bavaria might not use the intellectual potential of its people efficiently in its quest for international economic competitiveness. 4 Projects and measures to improve school performance Motivated by the suboptimal performance of German pupils in earlier international studies like TIMSS (Third International Mathematics and Science Study; Baumert et al., 1997; Baumert, Bos and Lehmann, 2000) as well as the huge public resonance of PISA 2000 the Bavarian government has started a number of reform projects since the end of the 1990s. These measures mainly cover five areas: (1) Tightening the three pillar school system Since the relatively good results of Bavarian students (in the German context) in recent tests are taken as a legitimation of the three tier school system, one basic step has been to complete it and make each pillar available for students after primary school. In order to do so, after

10 10 several years of testing, the six grade Realschule ( R6 ) was introduced as the standard intermediate secondary school in Since then, the choice after grade 4 is not only between a Gymnasium or a Hauptschule, with the latter being a step towards the Realschule starting at grade 7, but between Gymnasium, Realschule and Hauptschule without any detour. The previous Realschule starting at grade 7 (R4) has been phasing out since then. Since, as a consequence, the Hauptschule has been increasingly perceived as a kind of residual school for losers of the school system without any good opportunities in the labour market, two novelties have been introduced there. First, special 10 th grade classes ( M-tiers ) have been created at the Hauptschulen, which shall give gifted students a chance to obtain the intermediate high school certificate like at a Realschule. Second, for students without any prospect of successfully graduating from the Hauptschule, there are now so-called practical classes (Praxisklassen). They shall provide potential Hauptschule drop-outs with job qualifications and training positions by directly getting in touch and cooperating with local firms. In 2003/04, about 13 percent of all Hauptschule pupils attended an M-class, and about 0.2 percent a practical class. In 2003, 12.4 percent of all Hauptschule graduates achieved an intermediate high school certificate while 31.7 percent received a certificate of compulsory education and 45.8 percent a certificate of qualified basic education left the Hauptschule without any certificate (Bayerischer Lehrer- und Lehrerinnenverband, 2005: 2/4). Given that the average age of German university graduates is 28 years, compared to about 24 years of their British or French counterparts, the Bavarian government decided to accelerate schooling in Bavaria by cutting one year of Gymnasium education in 2003 (Hohlmeier, 2004: 4). In 2004 the eight-grade Gymnasium ( G8 ) with a reduced and more flexible curriculum and more frequent lessons in the afternoon started as the new standard of higher secondary education in Bavaria. Another measure to reduce the age of school graduates in Bavaria is the successively decreased age of entrance to primary school. In 2003, the average age of a Bavarian school beginner was 6.7 years, due to relatively moderate rules of eligibility and exemption for primary schools. In early 2005 the Bavarian Parliament decided that the agerelated deadline for school beginners should be lowered stepwise from July for the school year 2005/06 to December for 2010/11 (BMoE, 2005b). Thus from 2010 on, every kid getting six years old by 31 December will be of school-age. As the school term in Bavaria begins in September this means that by 2008 it will be standard for primary schools to have five-year-old children in their first grades. The government hopes to cut the average age at school entrance to 6.2 years (Hohlmeier, 2004: 4).

11 11 Until now, the typical core schooling time ends at noon in Bavaria. The good performance of Skandinavian and Anglo-Saxon countries in PISA, however, has initiated an intense discussion about the merits all-day schooling in Germany as well (Wendt, 2005). Apart from increased opportunities to support children with learning problems this would be attractive for parents (especially women) wishing to work more than part-time (or to work at all, for that matter). Allday schooling, if properly organized, could thus have positive effects on educational performance and on the labour market (by the growth effects of increased supply). The Bavarian government, despite ideological reservations of the ruling party concerning the dissolution of traditional family structures, has responded to these arguments and intends to increase the supply of all-day schools. Since 2002 there is a project with seven all-day Hauptschulen, sponsored by a number of employers associations of the Bavarian industry (BMoE, 2004e). Due to lessons in the afternoon on at least two days per week (BMoE, 2004e: 9), the new Gymnasium will also be a step towards all-day schooling. In 2003/04 there were 39 genuine all-day public schools in Bavaria: 30 Hauptschulen, 3 Realschulen and 6 grammar schools (G8s) (BMoE, 2003a: 6). Conservative attitudes and a general lack of money has prevented all-day schooling from becoming a core issue of Bavarian educational reform so far. Instead, the government has been relying on demanddriven, self-organized and only partly state-sponsored projects realized by schools offering aspects of all-day schooling to interested parents, especially in the areas of lunchtime alimentation of children and homework assistance in the afternoons. In 2003, about 80 percent of the primary schools provided supervision until 1 p.m. and a total of 470 schools had some kind of all-day offers (Hohlmeier, 2003a: 23). Officially, the government counts on offers following the needs of families, respects the free choice of mothers and fathers, and trusts in the pedagogical competence of schools and local youth assistance institutions instead of applying unitary concepts and spoon-feeding the citizens (Hohlmeier, 2003a: 21). (2) Quality management and evaluation of school performance Following the recent shift of education policy towards an output-oriented assessment of the school system, the Bavarian government has introduced several instruments of quality management. Following the Bavarian tradition of centralized final exams at secondary schools and the definition of curriculum-related grade-specific standards of competences, annual state tests at primary and secondary schools have been introduced since These tests are to give

12 12 an overview of the performance of Bavarian schools and enable individual schools to assess and improve their relative positions. Since 2003, orientation tests (Orientierungsarbeiten) in mathematics and German have been compulsory in grades 2 and 3 (BMoE, 2003b). Since 2004/05 there are obligatory tests (Jahrgangsstufentests) in mathematics and German in grades 6 and 8 of the Hauptschule and Realschule, and in English in grade 7. Gymnasium students are tested in German in grades 6 and 8, in mathematics in grades 8 and 10, and in English in grades 6 and 10. There are also tests German and English in grade 8 of the Wirtschaftsschulen (BMoE, 2005c). At the same time the procedures to join a Realschule have become a little easier though no less complicated. So far, in order to maintain a minimum standard, the qualification for being accepted at a Realschule was an average mark of 2.33 or less 2 in the three main primary school subjects (mathematics, German, and science and local studies). Pupils with a worse average had to pass test lessons in maths and German at the Realschule. Students with an average of 2.66 who failed the test lessons by receiving marks 4 in each subject could still attend the Realschule after a discussion of parents with teachers. Since 2004, students with an average of 2.66 but with marks 2/3 or 3/2 in German and maths in primary schools may proceed to the Realschule without test lessons after an information round with teachers if their parents want them to. Prerequisites for attending a Gymnasium are not changed: Students with an average mark of 2.0 or better in the three subjects mentioned as well as those with an average of 2.33 (of which 2.0 in maths and German) qualify directly for grammar school. The others with an average of 2.33 may join a Gymnasium after a discussion of their parents with the teachers of the receiving school (not the primary teachers any more). Pupils with an average of 3.0 have to pass test lessons in maths and German with marks 3/4 or 4/3 or better. Since 2004, test lessons at Realschulen, grammar schools and Wirtschaftsschulen have been provided centrally by the Ministry in order to guarantee a statewide equal minimum standard. From 2005/06 on, students wishing to change from a Hauptschule to a Realschule or a Gymnasium after grade 5 will have to have a minimum average mark of 2.5 or 2.0, respectively, in German and mathematics (BMoE, 2004g). Until now, an average mark of 2.0 or better in German, maths and English is necessary for attending the 6th grade of a Realschule for pupils having passed the 5th grade of a Hauptschule. The same rule holds for students changing from a Realschule 5th grade to a Gymnasium 6th grade. Note that changing from a Hauptschule to a Gymnasium is typically possible only from grade 5 to grade 5, i.e. the 5th grade of a Hauptschule is considered 2 The school grading system in Germany has six levels of marks, ranging from 1 (very good) to 6 (failed).

13 13 more or less worthless for a Gymnasium. Joining grade 6 of a Gymnasium after grade 5 of a Hauptschule requires passing of a special entrance examination, just like changing for students with marks worse than the officially necessary average. In 2003, school supervision authorities and a new division of the State Institute for School Quality and Educational Research (ISB), the ISB Quality Agency (Meinel, 2004) have started external evaluation of Bavarian schools. Evaluation teams with teachers, university staff and representatives of parents and industry visit schools selected by the Ministry at the beginning of a school year for several days and produce a report with recommendations for improvements of school performance. The report shall cover all aspects of school performance and its determinants, including school culture, class conduct, individual support, assistance for selforganized work, variability of teaching methods or sustainability of learning (Ohrnberger, 2004: 7-8). After a joint conference of all people involved and comments by the school the report is taken as a basis for objectives of further school development which, officially, the school and the school supervision (i.e. the Ministry or its agencies on the regional or county level) agree upon. While this external evaluation process is still being tested, the long-term aim is a regular evaluation of all Bavarian schools every five years (Ohrnberger, 2004: 8). Internal evaluation and school develpoment are another way promoted for improving the quality of Bavarian schools (Schiessl, 2001). Based on the commitment of teachers and directors, and supported by recommendations by the ISB and ministerial advisors, schools are motivated to review their organization and communication structures, teaching methods, and interaction and cooperation among teachers, students and parents. In order to make selfassessment more effective and efficient, schools are urged to use instruments originating from business adminsitration, like the model of the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) or an evaluation programme bilanz ziehen ( taking stock ) provided by the ISB (Hohlmeier, 2003b: 7). The Ministry of Education wants to increase incentives for internal evaluation measures by a prize for especially innovative schools (i.s.i. Innere Schulentwicklung Innovationspreis/Internal school development innovation prize) which is officially called the Oscar for innovative schools (Stiftung Bildungspakt Bayern/SBB, 2005a), introduced in 2001, or a quality label Center of Excellence for grammar schools successful in quality management (SBB, 2005b).

14 14 (3) Improvement of teachers training Like in the rest of Germany, all teachers are graduates from a university and have to pass two state exams before becoming civil servants at school in Bavaria. The first state exam is taken at the end of a teacher university program. Teachers studies typically cover two academic subjects including their didactics (one consolidated subject of choice and pedagogy for primary school teachers), and educational science. The second state exam takes place after a training phase of two years in school accompanied by seminars organized by the school supervision authorities. This pattern of teacher training has focused very much on theoretical and scientific academic qualifications in the past. More often than not this has resulted in methodological and practical deficits especially of secondary school teachers who tend to experience a reality shock in school. Therefore new examination regulations for the first state exam were introduced in 2002, emphasizing the role of internships and practical experience in the first phase of teacher training. The new regulations (BMoE, 2002b) demand: an internship of 8 weeks in a firm, in order to give future teachers some insight in job realities outside school, an orientation internship in school of 3 to 4 weeks prior to the start of university studies, in order to give would-be teachers an opportunity to reassess their suitability for the profession, a pedagogical internship in class of 3 weeks, focussing on surveillance of students behaviour, teaching methods, social and educational problems, and assessment of own lessons, a didactic internship of 3 weeks, containing subject-related curricula and methods (for future Gymnasium teachers, the pedagogical and the didactical interships are combined and last about 5 weeks), and a didactic intership of 4 hours a week in one semester during lecture time. Moreover, there is a project exercitium paedagogicum that gives students the opportunity to volunteer for accompanying a class and its teacher in everyday work on one day per week during one school year (or for a block of 250 hours). Thus future teachers are expected to improve their practical qualifications as early as in their second year of studies, and to relieve experienced teachers by giving them additional time to support especially weak (or, for that matter, gifted) pupils (SBB, 2005c). The regulations of in-service training for teachers were also changed in Since then, all Bavarian teachers have to attend an equivalent of 12 days of courses every four years. These

15 15 courses of variable duration are organized by the Bavarian Academy for Teachers In-Service Training and Personnel Management (Akademie für Lehrerfortbildung und Personalfuehrung) in Dillingen, local community media centers, the Ministry of Education, local and regional school supervision authorities, and schools (for their own staff). All schools have to develop inservice training plans defining their staff s specific training needs, and all institutions involved in the training programs have to evaluate their offers in order to improve the quality of courses. Course topics cover all areas from subject-related innovations (e.g. in mathematics, science, music or sports) and interdisciplinary educational tasks (e.g. road safety or media education) to pedagogical issues (e.g. diagnosis of learning deficiencies, support for weaker students or coping with social problems) and school management (e.g. methods of evaluation). In 2003, more than 19,000 teachers took part in courses offered by institutions other than their own schools (BMoE, 2004d: ). (4) Enhancement of school autonomy Officially, Bavarian education policy relies more and more on local and voluntary commitment of schools, teachers, pupils and parents in order to improve school performance. As a consequence, the traditionally very strict hierarchy of school administration and supervision tends to become more flexible. Instead of keeping the structures of a highly formalized and regulated system of public administration which is typical for Germany and especially Bavaria, the Ministry of Education states that schools are too complex a system for unitary, uniform rules being able to guarantee a maximum level of equality and comparability of school performance (Hohlmeier, 2003b: 6). Therefore, red tape is to be cut and autonomy of schools is to be increased. Schools shall be granted more competences in order to improve their professional and pedagogical performance in the long run, and to develop specific profiles and competences that might be attractive for students and parents. According to this new aim of education policy, there has been a pilot project MODUS 21 Modell Unternehmen Schule im 21. Jahrhundert ( Model: School as an enterprise in the 21 st century ) testing how much autonomy schools need on the one hand, and how much central direction on the other hand (SBB, 2005d) since By late 2004, 44 school were taking part in the project. MODUS 21 takes account of four areas: quality of lessons and education, personnel management, intra- and extra-school partnerships, and administration of finances other than outlays for personnel. Every school decides how its new relative autonomy is used,

16 16 e.g. in recruitment of teachers for vacancies, acquisition of equipment, innovation in teaching methods, or organization of timetables and lessons. So far new models of individual support for students and modern ways of examination have been priorities in participating schools (SBB, 2005d). Since the school year 2003/04 several successful initiatives of MODUS 21 schools have been generalized for all Bavarian schools. For example, they have been granted the possibility to organize lessons more flexible including deviations from the usual 45-minutes scheme at German schools. Classes may be combined in joint lectures in order to make teachers available for assistance of weaker students, and projects and lessons may be organized beyond strict class and grade structures (Hohlmeier, 2003a: 13). Another project, Focus Hauptschule, started in 2004 and aims at strengtheing the attractiveness and qualification tasks of Hauptschulen. Three secondary schools in Nuremberg have defined their special profiles in the areas of (1) preparation for work and employment, (2) music, arts and sports, and (3) languages, literature and media, in order to provide actual school options to choose from for students and to improve their labour market opportunities. One important prerequisite of this project is the suspension of the traditional formal rule that students have to attend the school of their local district (Sprengelpflicht), which still applies to all pupils of primary schools and Hauptschulen in Bavaria (BMoE, 2004h; SBB, 2005e). (5) Improvement of individual support for children One important result of PISA was that German - and Bavarian - students of non-german origin tend to have far more serious problems at school than natives. The most important issue is command of the German language. In order to improve the language competence of the 87,000 students of foreign nationality at primary schools and Hauptschulen in Bavaria and thus increase their opportunities to achieve at school, a number of measures have been taken. In 2002 the ISB developed a special language test (Sprachstandsdiagnose) for children in transition from kindergarten to primary school, which was first applied in 2004/05. About 4,200 children were tested by this four-step screening method, of which about 2,400 were found to need assistance to improve their German. Actual support is to be provided by language courses and, if necessary, by special language and transition classes (Sprachlernklassen/Übergangsklassen) for foreign students at primary school (BMoE, 2005d). Another way of support are preparatory courses (Vorkurse Deutsch) for kindergarten kids. These courses of one hour of German every day take place in May to July, i.e. before the actual

17 17 start of school in September. In 2003/04 there were 336 preparatory courses with about 2,800 children. 116 of them were organized at kindergartens, 220 at primary schools (BMoE, 2005d). Since a fundamental problem of learning German is the lack of German being spoken at home, another idea of the Ministry has been to involve mothers in language courses. Based on the cooperation of schools, local communities, private sponsors and institutions of post-school education, mothers of non-german students shall attend courses at their kids schools. Thus they shall promote their children s command of German not only by their own increased language competence but also by getting involved in school life. The project is based on a similar example realized at primary schools in Munich in 1999/2000 (BMoE, 2005d). Between mid-2003 and early 2005, about 100 courses were organized successfully (Dirnaichner, 2005: 94). Furthermore, the disadvantaged position of foreign pupils in Bavarian schools is to be improved by a project Talent im Land started in Each year 50 gifted foreign students in Bavaria will receive a grant in order to be able to attend a Gymnasium and reach the Allgemeine Hochschulreife. The official aim is to show the other face of immigration and to encourage youngsters with a migration background. (...) Education fosters integration. We foster education (SBB, 2005f). Apart from providing assistance for foreign students, recent Bavarian education policy tries to improve the general support for children at age 3 to 6. In fact, kindergarten and primary school have been separated areas of education so far. As research results from modern neuro science and psychology, and experiences in other countries, e.g. in the French école maternelle indicate that especially young children have a great potential of learning, the Bavarian government intends to promote actual school-like learning in the kindergarten. Therefore a curriculum for kindergartens is currently introduced, and cooperation between kindergartens and primary schools is increased (Hohlmeier and Stewens, 2003). In 2004 a project KiDZ Kindergarten der Zukunft ( kindergarten of the future ) was initiated, in which kindergarten and grade 1 of the primary school are combined. The staffs of both institutions shall cooperate in order to create a learning environment with a smooth transition from learning in playing to playing in learning (SBB, 2005g). Finally, the introduction of G8 is also accompanied by the intention to improve individual assistance to students. Here, similar to the established regulations at primary schools (Förderunterricht/ lessons for assistance ), two or three hours (Intensivierungsstunden/

18 18 lessons for enhancement ) of the weekly schedule in grades 5 to 10 are reserved for individualized offers according to the pupils specific needs and interests (BMoE, 2004f: 10). One interesting aspect of this catalogue of reform projects for Bavarian schools is the choice of instruments and institutions for implementation. The Bavarian government not only relies on traditional administrative structures like the Ministry, the state school supervision authorities on the regional and county levels, and public institutions like the universities, the ISB or the Academy in Dillingen. It also tries to get the parents and the local communities involved, and cooperates closely with the economy. Actually, almost every project that has been initiated since 2000 has been organized by a joint foundation of the state of Bavaria and Bavarian firms. The S tiftu n g Bild u n g sp a kt Ba yern (Foundation Education Pact Bavaria) is a private-publicpartnership established in October 2000 with a founding capital of EUR 4.9 million. By late 2004, 120 firms had joined the Foundation which has received about EUR 3.2 million in donations and has spent about EUR 3.4 million on about 125 projects since 2000 (SBB, 2005h). 5 Implementation and problems of the reforms Since the publication of the results of the most recent international comparative education studies, especially PISA, Bavarian policy has obviously been quite creative and innovative. A whole range of projects and reforms have been initiated which, each by itself, cover important aspects of improving school performance. While these steps of reform take account of many crucial aspects cited in the scientific literature or demonstrated in experiences in other countries, their actual implementation has been facing a number of practical and overall systematic obstacles. One may distinguish five areas of essential shortcomings that will have to be overcome if Bavarian education policy is to achieve its aims of increasing international competitiveness as well as domestic justice of the Bavarian school system: (1) When one tries to assess the effects of the reform projects concerning the structure of the school system one quickly recognizes that, contrary to the official targets, the tightening of the traditional Bavarian system has intensified its selective character. Certainly, this does not hold for the total distribution of students over the various types of schools. In 8th grade, when adjustment processes (changes of school types) have practically finished, about 26 to 27

19 19 percent of all students typically attend a Gymnasium, about 26 percent a Realschule and 37 to 39 percent a Hauptschule. These figures have been constant since the end of the 1980s (BMoE, 2004d: 113). But a closer look at the official data reveals that the three pillars of the system have become more and more closed: In 1989/90 the ratio of students joining a Gymnasium after grade 4 to those coming from a Hauptschule after grade 5 was 7.6. Since then it has risen constantly to 23.9 in 2002/03 and 25.6 in 2003/04. A similar effect seems to be generated by the introduction of the R6. While in the old system (R4 with grade 7 to 10) the ratio of students coming from a Hauptschule to a Realschule after grade 6 to those joining after grade 7 only grew from 5.4 to 5.8 between 1989/90 and 1998/99, the ratio of students joining after primary school grade 4 to those changing after Hauptschule grade 5 according to the new model has already increased from 2.9 in 2000/0 1 to 3.9 in 2003/04 (BMoE, 2004d: 114). Thus, not only is the choice of school types (and potential qualifications and certificates) a decision made at the early age of 10 for most Bavarian students, it has even become more and more irrevocable as far as subsequent positive vertical mobility is concerned. In other words, once parents and children have decided on the path of the kids education, the way upwards is more or less blocked or at least excessively difficult. It is not surprising that, under these circumstances, parents try to make their children attend a school of as high as possible a level, i.e. a Gymnasium or at least a Realschule at virtually all cost, even if this means that this is more than their children are able to handle. This explains the increasing attractiveness of private schools and private lessons in Bavaria mentioned above. (2) For several years now school policy as well as all other fields of education and general policy have been dominated by the overpowering aim of a balanced budget by 2006 declared by the government (Stoiber, 2003: 4). Setting this strict target has been mainly motivated by the upcoming federal elections in that same year and the ruling party s ambition to present Bavaria as a role model for the whole of Germany. Thus, Bavarian reform policies have not only been facing the usual fiscal problems of public education but have even been submitted to a massive pressure of saving money. Basically, any current Bavarian education reform has to avoid additional costs and therefore suffers from a fundamental structural handicap. As a result, for example, the number of language classes (Sprachlernklassen) for the almost 90,000 foreign students (half of which may be needing assistance for improving their German) at primary schools have been limited to 220 due to financial reasons. In part, language courses for foreign pupils have to be paid for by private sponsors (Schindler, 2005).

20 20 Moreover, Bavaria has experienced a serious shortage of teachers in recent years. New employment of teachers has been low in general, and, in a parallel reaction at the universities, less students have enlisted for teacher programs in science. As a consequence, there is not enough qualified personnel for specialized tasks like e.g. teaching German to non-native speakers. For several years there have not been enough mobile reserves for teachers who are unavailable for service because of illness, pregnancy etc. Facing a lack of teachers, especially primary schools and Hauptschulen sometimes have to create makeshift combined classes of more than 40 students in order to keep up lessons (Muenchner Merkur, 6 April 2005, p. 9). In 2003, the Ministry of Education has officially recommended that qualified parents take over lessons at primary schools as part-time substitutes for missing teachers (Dannhäuser, 2003), e.g. forest rangers. At secondary schools, university graduates without any training in pedagogy or didactics are accepted for service at school and shall make up for their schoolrelated deficiencies in seminars accompanying their job practice. Since 2002, for example, the Ministry has been trying to attract graduates in physics for service in grammar schools (BMoE, 2003c). In 2001, a similar scheme was announced for graduates in physics and software engineering to recruit Realschule teachers (BMoE, 2001). In 2002, the teacher s profession at vocational schools was opened for graduates in electronics, mechanical engineering, business administration and economics (BMoE, 2002c). Under these circumstances the increased involvement of parents fostered by the Ministry seems to be a method of saving money rather than opening schools for new cooperative structures, e.g. in lunchtime alimentation of students, as substitutes for missing teachers at primary schools, or as sponsors for books and hardware (Junkers and Nelles, 2005: 34). (3) Shortages of personnel at schools, increasing working time, growing social and educational deficits of students, and a general feeling of insecurity because of the numerous reform steps and innovations decreed by the Ministry have resulted in growing exhaustion and rising frustration among active teachers (Dannhäuser, 2003b; Dauber and Vollstädt, 2004; Hüfner, 2004). About 50 percent of all teachers quit their job before reaching the official pension age (which is between 63 and 65 years), typically between 51 and 56 years. In Bavaria, more than half of them suffer from burnt-out syndrome mainly caused by the stressful perception of socially difficult students, high working hours, and too big classes (Häfner and Bauer, 2005: 85).

Basic Structure of the Education System in the Federal Republic of Germany - Diagram

Basic Structure of the Education System in the Federal Republic of Germany - Diagram Basic Structure of the Education System in the Federal Republic of Germany - Diagram 13 12 11 10 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 grade Basic Structure of the Educational System in the Federal Republic of Germany

More information

Will Bulgaria Remain a "Quiet Place" for Higher Education?

Will Bulgaria Remain a Quiet Place for Higher Education? Page 1 of 5 Will Bulgaria Remain a "Quiet Place" for Higher Education? Bulgarian higher education fails to compete successfully either within the EU or with the US. It is lagging behind in terms of available

More information

(OECD, 2012) Equity and Quality in Education: Supporting Disadvantaged Students and Schools

(OECD, 2012) Equity and Quality in Education: Supporting Disadvantaged Students and Schools (OECD, 2012) Equity and Quality in Education: Supporting Disadvantaged Students and Schools SPOTLIGHT REPORT: AUSTRIA www.oecd.org/edu/equity This spotlight report draws upon the OECD report Equity and

More information

Basic Structure of the Education System in the Federal Republic of Germany - Diagram

Basic Structure of the Education System in the Federal Republic of Germany - Diagram Basic Structure of the Education System in the Federal Republic of Germany - Diagram 13 12 11 10 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 grade Basic Structure of the Educational System in the Federal Republic of Germany

More information

Evaluation of the nation wide Integration Courses

Evaluation of the nation wide Integration Courses Rambøll Management Federal Ministry of the Interior Evaluation of the nation wide Integration Courses Executive Summary February 2007 Federal Ministry of the Interior Evaluation of the nation wide Integration

More information

Strategy of the Federal and Länder Ministers of Science. for the Internationalisation of the Higher Education Institutions.

Strategy of the Federal and Länder Ministers of Science. for the Internationalisation of the Higher Education Institutions. Strategy of the Federal and Länder Ministers of Science for the Internationalisation of the Higher Education Institutions in Germany (Resolution of the 18th Meeting of the Joint Science Conference in Berlin

More information

Basic Structure of the Education System in the Federal Republic of Germany - Diagram

Basic Structure of the Education System in the Federal Republic of Germany - Diagram Basic Structure of the Education System in the Federal Republic of Germany - Diagram 13 12 11 10 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 grade Basic Structure of the Educational System in the Federal Republic of Germany

More information

GETTING AHEAD THROUGH EDUCATION. The Qualification Initiative for Germany

GETTING AHEAD THROUGH EDUCATION. The Qualification Initiative for Germany GETTING AHEAD THROUGH EDUCATION The Qualification Initiative for Germany Dresden, 22 October 2008 FOREWORD Education is the key to the future of our country. Education must therefore continue to enjoy

More information

ANNEX E. Czech Republic

ANNEX E. Czech Republic Czech Republic Population: 10.24 m. Fertility rate: 1.18. GDP per capita: USD 15 100. Children under 6years: 540 000. Female labour force participation: Female labour force participation rate for women

More information

Germany's school system

Germany's school system Germany's school system School is compulsory for all children living in Germany. Children normally start to attend school in the autumn of the year in which they turn 6. Compulsory education usually lasts

More information

(OECD, 2012) Equity and Quality in Education: Supporting Disadvantaged Students and Schools

(OECD, 2012) Equity and Quality in Education: Supporting Disadvantaged Students and Schools (OECD, 2012) Equity and Quality in Education: Supporting Disadvantaged Students and Schools SPOTLIGHT REPORT: NETHERLANDS www.oecd.org/edu/equity This spotlight report draws upon the OECD report Equity

More information

Encouraging Quality in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC)

Encouraging Quality in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) Encouraging Quality in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) STRATEGIES TO TACKLE CHALLENGES IN IMPROVING WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT AND WORKING CONDITIONS Challenge 1: Improving staff qualifications Qualifications

More information

Teacher Education for inclusive education in Finland. Hannu Savolainen University of Jyväskylä

Teacher Education for inclusive education in Finland. Hannu Savolainen University of Jyväskylä Teacher Education for inclusive education in Finland Hannu Savolainen University of Jyväskylä Teacher Education for inclusive education in Finland Background of the Finnish comprehensive education system

More information

QUESTIONNAIRE ON NORMS AND STANDARDS FOR QUALITY OF EDUCATION BY THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE RIGHT TO EDUCATION

QUESTIONNAIRE ON NORMS AND STANDARDS FOR QUALITY OF EDUCATION BY THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE RIGHT TO EDUCATION Masarykova 16, 1000 Ljubljana T: +386 1 400 52 00 F: +386 1 400 53 21 E: gp.mss@gov.si www.mss.gov.si QUESTIONNAIRE ON NORMS AND STANDARDS FOR QUALITY OF EDUCATION BY THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE RIGHT

More information

General Guidelines of Grade 1-9 Curriculum of Elementary and Junior High School Education.

General Guidelines of Grade 1-9 Curriculum of Elementary and Junior High School Education. General Guidelines of Grade 1-9 Curriculum of Elementary and Junior High School. 1 Grade 1-9 Curriculum Guidelines 1 Preface In keeping with the 21st century and the global trends of educational reform,

More information

Guide through the Croatian education system

Guide through the Croatian education system Guide through the Croatian education system Ministry of science, education and sports, Republic of Croatia FIRST STEPS OF EDUCATION The education system in the Republic of Croatia starts in kindergartens

More information

Results of Public Opinion Poll and Review of International Practice About the draft law on Vocational Education (December 2006)

Results of Public Opinion Poll and Review of International Practice About the draft law on Vocational Education (December 2006) Results of Public Opinion Poll and Review of International Practice About the draft law on Vocational Education (December 2006) 1.1 Focus group analysis 1 From October through November 2006 Transparency

More information

(OECD, 2012) Equity and Quality in Education: Supporting Disadvantaged Students and Schools

(OECD, 2012) Equity and Quality in Education: Supporting Disadvantaged Students and Schools (OECD, 2012) Equity and Quality in Education: Supporting Disadvantaged Students and Schools SPOTLIGHT REPORT: SPAIN www.oecd.org/edu/equity This spotlight report draws upon the OECD report Equity and Quality

More information

THE LITHUANIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM

THE LITHUANIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM THE LITHUANIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM THE LITHUANIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM Lithuania has 12 years of comprehensive education and three cycles of higher education, including the programmes of Bachelor, Master and

More information

Australians get fail mark on what works to improve schools

Australians get fail mark on what works to improve schools REVOLUTION SCHOOL Summary of Survey and Research Australians get fail mark on what works to improve schools A significant number of Australians wrongly believe that smaller class sizes, compulsory homework

More information

1. Key indicators and benchmarks

1. Key indicators and benchmarks 1. Key indicators and benchmarks Italy EU average Europe 2020 target / Europe 2020 headline targets 2009 2012 2009 2012 Benchmark 1. Early leavers from education and training (age 18-24) 2. Tertiary educational

More information

PARLIAMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF LITHUANIA RESOLUTION RE. PROVISIONS OF THE NATIONAL EDUCATION STRATEGY 2003-2012. No. IX-1700, 4 July 2003 Vilnius

PARLIAMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF LITHUANIA RESOLUTION RE. PROVISIONS OF THE NATIONAL EDUCATION STRATEGY 2003-2012. No. IX-1700, 4 July 2003 Vilnius PARLIAMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF LITHUANIA RESOLUTION RE. PROVISIONS OF THE NATIONAL EDUCATION STRATEGY 2003-2012 No. IX-1700, 4 July 2003 Vilnius Taking into consideration the President s Decree on the Approval

More information

AUSTRIA State of Implementation of the Bologna Objectives. Bundesministerium für Bildung, Wissenschaft und Kultur

AUSTRIA State of Implementation of the Bologna Objectives. Bundesministerium für Bildung, Wissenschaft und Kultur AUSTRIA State of Implementation of the Bologna Objectives Bundesministerium für Bildung, Wissenschaft und Kultur AUSTRIA State of Implementation of the Bologna Objectives Introduction The Austrian Federal

More information

WELCOME AND TAKING CHARGE

WELCOME AND TAKING CHARGE WELCOME AND TAKING CHARGE In this preliminary phase, you will be fully informed by the information point that will be indicated to you by your Region the contents and services provided by the Programme

More information

education in finland Finnish education in a nutshell

education in finland Finnish education in a nutshell Finnish education in a nutshell education in finland A central objective is to provide all citizens with equal opportunities. 6 5 A 4 3 1&2 0 iscedclassification duration in years 0 5 1 9 3 3 2 Education

More information

education in finland Finnish education in a nutshell

education in finland Finnish education in a nutshell Finnish education in a nutshell education in finland 2 Finnish education in a nutshell A central objective is to provide all citizens with equal opportunities. Education system in Finland 6 Doctoral degrees

More information

DEHEMS project. Description of the Professional Domains EDUCATION. Country: Germany

DEHEMS project. Description of the Professional Domains EDUCATION. Country: Germany DEHEMS project Description of the Professional Domains EDUCATION Country: Germany 1 1 Which study fields/study areas are covered by this professional domain? According to ISCED 97 all study fields belonging

More information

Adapting Our Schools to the Needs of All Students

Adapting Our Schools to the Needs of All Students A NEW DIRECTION FOR SUCCESS Adapting Our Schools to the Needs of All Students PLAN OF ACTION FOR SPECIAL EDUCATION Québec Ministère de l'éducation Adapting Our Schools to the Needs of All Students A NEW

More information

Information for Placement Agencies and Supervisors Bachelor s degree program in Early Childhood Education

Information for Placement Agencies and Supervisors Bachelor s degree program in Early Childhood Education Faculty of Social Work, Health Care and Nursing Sciences Information for Placement Agencies and Supervisors Bachelor s degree program in Early Childhood Education About the Faculty of Social Work, Health

More information

Science teacher education in Japan: Implications for developing countries

Science teacher education in Japan: Implications for developing countries Science teacher education in Japan: Implications for developing Hiroaki Ozawa (Naruto University of Education, Japan) 1. Introduction It is said that the 21 st century is an era of a knowledge-based society

More information

Korean Model of Secondary Education Development: Approaches, outcomes and emerging tasks

Korean Model of Secondary Education Development: Approaches, outcomes and emerging tasks Korean Model of Secondary Education Development: Approaches, outcomes and emerging tasks Chong Jae Lee Professor Seoul National University A paper presented to Seminar on Growth Strategies for Secondary

More information

National summary sheets on education system in Europe and ongoing reforms. 2009 Edition

National summary sheets on education system in Europe and ongoing reforms. 2009 Edition National summary sheets on education system in Europe and ongoing reforms 2009 Edition National summary sheets on education systems in Europe and ongoing reforms FINLAND AUGUST 2009 1. Education population

More information

OECD Insights Human Capital: How what you know shapes your life

OECD Insights Human Capital: How what you know shapes your life OECD Insights Human Capital: How what you know shapes your life Summary in English The world of work has seen enormous change over the past couple of decades. Manufacturing jobs account for an ever smaller

More information

Executive Summary. Introduction. Defining equity in education. Why does equity in education matter?

Executive Summary. Introduction. Defining equity in education. Why does equity in education matter? Executive Summary Introduction Defining equity in education Equity in education has two dimensions. The first is fairness, which implies ensuring that personal and social circumstances for example gender,

More information

INTEGRATION OF CRITICAL THINKING PRINCIPLES INTO THE CURRICULUM OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS: LITHUANIA S CASE

INTEGRATION OF CRITICAL THINKING PRINCIPLES INTO THE CURRICULUM OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS: LITHUANIA S CASE INTEGRATION OF CRITICAL THINKING PRINCIPLES INTO THE CURRICULUM OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS: LITHUANIA S CASE Research report Author Daiva Penkauskienė June 2010 Supported by a grant of from Foundation Open Society

More information

Inclusive education in Estonia

Inclusive education in Estonia Inclusive education in Estonia Imbi Henno General Education Department June 14, 2012 1 General information Area: 45 000 km 2 Total population: 1,294,000 (2012) 24,000 students have indicated a special

More information

AMENDMENTS TO THE REGULATION ON UNDERGRADUATE AND GRADUATE STUDY PROGRAMMES THE CENTRE FOR CROATIAN STUDIES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

AMENDMENTS TO THE REGULATION ON UNDERGRADUATE AND GRADUATE STUDY PROGRAMMES THE CENTRE FOR CROATIAN STUDIES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB Pursuant to the Scientific Activity and Higher Education Act (Official Gazette No. 123/03, 198/03, 105/04, 174/04, 02/07, 46/07, 45/09, 63/11 and 94/13), the Regulations on undergraduate and graduate studies

More information

Research into competency models in arts education

Research into competency models in arts education Research into competency models in arts education Paper presented at the BMBF Workshop International Perspectives of Research in Arts Education, Nov. 4 th and 5 th, 2013. Folkert Haanstra, Amsterdam School

More information

Higher Education in Japan - The past, the present and the future -

Higher Education in Japan - The past, the present and the future - Seminar on higher at the King Faisal Centre for Research and Islamic Studies, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 29 January 25. Higher Education in Japan - The past, the present and the future - Contents

More information

Entrepreneurship education in Austria 1

Entrepreneurship education in Austria 1 Entrepreneurship education in Austria 1 1 OVERVIEW Entrepreneurship education in Austria is primarily regulated through the Austrian Strategy on Lifelong Learning and the Curriculum of pre- vocational

More information

The Coalition s Policy

The Coalition s Policy The Coalition s Policy Key Commitments Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) are increasingly important to the Australian economy and to future jobs. Our children will have more and better

More information

Analysis of the Romanian policy context

Analysis of the Romanian policy context Analysis of the Romanian policy context 29 5 1.9 National Report of Romania PART 1: A DESCRIPTIVE, EVIDENCE-BASED ACCOUNT OF THE NATIONAL CONTEXT Introduction: Organization of education in Romania Romania

More information

Chess at Trier-Olewig Primary School. Summary and Evaluation of the Outcomes of the. German School Chess Foundation (Short version)

Chess at Trier-Olewig Primary School. Summary and Evaluation of the Outcomes of the. German School Chess Foundation (Short version) Chess at Trier-Olewig Primary School Summary and Evaluation of the Outcomes of the German School Chess Foundation (Short version) Degree Dissertation The Effects of Chess Lesson on Particular Aspects of

More information

Federalizing Process in Italy Challenges from an International Perspective. Case Study Germany: How did Germany disentangle competences?

Federalizing Process in Italy Challenges from an International Perspective. Case Study Germany: How did Germany disentangle competences? Federalizing Process in Italy Challenges from an International Perspective Case Study Germany: How did Germany disentangle competences? Dr. Bernd Kuster, Federal Ministry of the Interior, Berlin At this

More information

National Education Law (2014, Parliamentary Law No. 41 ) 1376, New Moon of Thadingyut 7 th day (September 30, 2014)

National Education Law (2014, Parliamentary Law No. 41 ) 1376, New Moon of Thadingyut 7 th day (September 30, 2014) National Education Law (2014, Parliamentary Law No. 41 ) 1376, New Moon of Thadingyut 7 th day (September 30, 2014) The Union Parliament creates this law. Chapter 1 Name and Definition of Terms 1. This

More information

The Master in Law and the Bologna process Models from a German Perspective

The Master in Law and the Bologna process Models from a German Perspective Prof. Dr. Jochen, LL.M. (USA) Chair for German and European Private and Business Law Universität Konstanz Judge at the Court-of-Appeals Karlsruhe The Master in Law and

More information

(AGENDA -OVERVIEW OF THE DAY) 1. COOPERATION IN THE FIELD OF POLICIES 2. COMMUNITY PROGRAMMES 3. OTHER COMMUNITY INSTRUMENTS

(AGENDA -OVERVIEW OF THE DAY) 1. COOPERATION IN THE FIELD OF POLICIES 2. COMMUNITY PROGRAMMES 3. OTHER COMMUNITY INSTRUMENTS (AGENDA -OVERVIEW OF THE DAY) 1. COOPERATION IN THE FIELD OF POLICIES 2. COMMUNITY PROGRAMMES 3. OTHER COMMUNITY INSTRUMENTS 4. OTHER OBLIGATIONS RELATED TO THE ACQUIS 1 COOPERATION IN THE FIELD OF POLICIES

More information

The Revisions of the Courses of Study for Elementary and Secondary Schools

The Revisions of the Courses of Study for Elementary and Secondary Schools The Revisions of the Courses of Study for Elementary and Secondary Schools Elementary and Secondary Education Bureau Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) Outline of the

More information

Legislative Council Secretariat FACT SHEET. Education system in Finland

Legislative Council Secretariat FACT SHEET. Education system in Finland FACT SHEET Education system in Finland 1. Introduction 1.1 The education system in Finland is often cited as a successful model as the Finnish students are among the top performers in the international

More information

MAKING THE BEST OF HUMAN RESOURCES IN GREECE

MAKING THE BEST OF HUMAN RESOURCES IN GREECE MAKING THE BEST OF HUMAN RESOURCES IN GREECE by Christos Kittas Chancellor of the University of Athens Investment on human resources through education is the key for reinforcing the position of Greece

More information

Italy: toward a federal state? Recent constitutional developments in Italy

Italy: toward a federal state? Recent constitutional developments in Italy BENIAMINO CARAVITA Italy: toward a federal state? Recent constitutional developments in Italy 1. The federal idea in Italian history Italy became a unitary State between 1861 and 1870, assembling under

More information

The EMU and the debt crisis

The EMU and the debt crisis The EMU and the debt crisis MONETARY POLICY REPORT FEBRUARY 212 43 The debt crisis in Europe is not only of concern to the individual debt-ridden countries; it has also developed into a crisis for the

More information

FACT SHEET. White Paper on Teacher Education The teacher the role and the education (Report to the Storting No. 11 (2008-2009)) Principal elements

FACT SHEET. White Paper on Teacher Education The teacher the role and the education (Report to the Storting No. 11 (2008-2009)) Principal elements FACT SHEET White Paper on Teacher Education The teacher the role and the education (Report to the Storting No. 11 (2008-2009)) Principal elements The Government is proposing a new teacher education programme

More information

Education Factor and Human Resources Development

Education Factor and Human Resources Development Education Factor and Human Resources Development Albania Case Sonila Berdo, MBA University Pavaresia Vlorë Abstract The article gives a general view of the actual situation and the potential importance

More information

Policy Implications / Policy Recommendations

Policy Implications / Policy Recommendations Policy Implications / Policy Recommendations Policy implications / policy recommendations deriving from our research findings point, for the German case, to the following aspects, which can also be seen

More information

Current issues on Mathematics Education around Europe

Current issues on Mathematics Education around Europe Current issues on Mathematics Education around Europe Introduction In all the meetings of the EMS- Educational Committee, updated reports are presented by the participants on the current situation related

More information

Joint conclusions of the Spanish Presidency EU Youth Conference youth employment and social inclusion, Jerez, Spain 13-15 April 2010

Joint conclusions of the Spanish Presidency EU Youth Conference youth employment and social inclusion, Jerez, Spain 13-15 April 2010 Joint conclusions of the Spanish Presidency EU Youth Conference youth employment and social inclusion, Jerez, Spain 13-15 April 2010 Youth Employment is the common theme of the three EU Youth Conferences

More information

Finland Population: Fertility rate: GDP per capita: Children under 6 years: Female labour force participation:

Finland Population: Fertility rate: GDP per capita: Children under 6 years: Female labour force participation: Finland Population: 5.21 m. Fertility rate: 1.7. GDP per capita: USD 26 500. Children under 6 years: 399 889. Female labour force participation: 72% of women (15-64 years) are employed, 18.2% of whom are

More information

North Rhine-Westphalia: Land of new integration opportunities 1. Federal state government report

North Rhine-Westphalia: Land of new integration opportunities 1. Federal state government report Ministry for Intergenerational Affairs, Family, Women and Integration of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia North Rhine-Westphalia: Land of new integration opportunities 1. Federal state government report

More information

Educating teachers to embrace diversity

Educating teachers to embrace diversity Educating teachers to embrace diversity Joint recommendations by the German Rectors' Conference and the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the States in the Federal

More information

Complete version from 1 October 2015 Curriculum for the Diploma Programme Law at the Faculty of Law of the University of Innsbruck

Complete version from 1 October 2015 Curriculum for the Diploma Programme Law at the Faculty of Law of the University of Innsbruck Note: The following curriculum is a consolidated version. It is legally non-binding and for informational purposes only. The legally binding versions are found in the respective issues of the University

More information

PROGRAM AND DIPLOMA REQUIREMENTS

PROGRAM AND DIPLOMA REQUIREMENTS PROGRAM AND DIPLOMA REQUIREMENTS 1999 Ministry of Education and Training Contents 1 Preface 5 2 Introduction 6 3 Diploma Requirements and Related Procedures 8 3.1 The Requirements for the Ontario Secondary

More information

slide 1 Prevention of dropout in vocational training Andreas Frey and Jean-Jacques Ruppert

slide 1 Prevention of dropout in vocational training Andreas Frey and Jean-Jacques Ruppert slide 1 Prevention of dropout in vocational training Andreas Frey and Jean-Jacques Ruppert For many years now, the dropout rate in vocational training in Europe has remained consistently high. This affects

More information

Profile of the Czech Republic s Education System. National Center on Education and the Economy New Commission on the Skills of the American Workforce

Profile of the Czech Republic s Education System. National Center on Education and the Economy New Commission on the Skills of the American Workforce Profile of the Czech Republic s Education System National Center on Education and the Economy New Commission on the Skills of the American Workforce National Center on Education and the Economy, 2006 National

More information

Master of Science (version of 15th December 2004)

Master of Science (version of 15th December 2004) Course Regulations for the Masters degree programme in Geodesy and Geoinformation Science at Faculty VI (Civil Engineering and Applied Earth Sciences) of the Technical University of Berlin leading to the

More information

The education system and lifelong learning in Finland. October 2015 Petri Haltia

The education system and lifelong learning in Finland. October 2015 Petri Haltia The education system and lifelong learning in Finland October 2015 Petri Haltia FINLAND Population: year 2012: 5,421,827 density: 16/km 2 Area: total 338,424 km 2 water 10 % GDP (nominal) 2011 estimate:

More information

LATVIA. The national Youth Guarantee Implementation Plan 2014-2018 (YGIP)

LATVIA. The national Youth Guarantee Implementation Plan 2014-2018 (YGIP) LATVIA The national Youth Guarantee Implementation Plan 2014-2018 (YGIP) 1. Context/Rationale (see SWD section 1.2 and 1.5) Description of youth unemployment in Latvia. The overall youth unemployment rate

More information

Changing multilingual situation in Narva: transition to teaching in Estonian

Changing multilingual situation in Narva: transition to teaching in Estonian Changing multilingual situation in Narva: transition to teaching in Estonian Ekaterina Protassova University of Helsinki & University of Tartu, Narva college 1 Russian: A brief overview of Russian in Europe

More information

UNITED NATIONS INDEPENDENT EXPERT ON THE QUESTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND EXTREME POVERTY

UNITED NATIONS INDEPENDENT EXPERT ON THE QUESTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND EXTREME POVERTY UNITED NATIONS INDEPENDENT EXPERT ON THE QUESTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND EXTREME POVERTY Questionnaire JAN/2011 Post-crisis adjustment and fiscal consolidation processes (2010 onwards) 1. Has your country

More information

Undergraduate education part of the development plan of KTH CSC June 2008

Undergraduate education part of the development plan of KTH CSC June 2008 Undergraduate education part of the development plan of KTH CSC June 2008 Programmes The aim of the Master of Science in Engineering program in Computer Science and Engineering is to give graduate engineers

More information

TEACHING OF STATISTICS IN NEWLY INDEPENDENT STATES: THE CASE OF KAZAKSTAN

TEACHING OF STATISTICS IN NEWLY INDEPENDENT STATES: THE CASE OF KAZAKSTAN TEACHING OF STATISTICS IN NEWLY INDEPENDENT STATES: THE CASE OF KAZAKSTAN Guido Ferrari, Dipartimento di Statistica G. Parenti, Università di Firenze, Italy The aim of this report is to discuss the state

More information

AUSTRIA 1) EDUCATION SYSTEM

AUSTRIA 1) EDUCATION SYSTEM AUSTRIA 1) EDUCATION SYSTEM In Austria, the school system is regulated by the federal government. Therefore, apart from the pilot projects carried out within the framework of school autonomy 1, throughout

More information

RECOGNITION OF FOREIGN TEACHING QUALIFICATIONS IN FINLAND

RECOGNITION OF FOREIGN TEACHING QUALIFICATIONS IN FINLAND RECOGNITION OF FOREIGN TEACHING QUALIFICATIONS IN FINLAND Publications 2010:1 RECOGNITION OF FOREIGN TEACHING QUALIFICATIONS IN FINLAND Publications 2010:1 Finnish National Board of Education Publications

More information

Inter university use of tutored online courses: an alternative to MOOCs

Inter university use of tutored online courses: an alternative to MOOCs 14 Inter university use of tutored online courses: an alternative to MOOCs Paul Rühl* 1 *Bavarian Virtual University, Bamberg, Germany Introduction There is a variety of definitions of what MOOCs (massive

More information

Teacher training - B. Ed. programme for primary and lower secondary

Teacher training - B. Ed. programme for primary and lower secondary Teacher training - B. Ed. programme for The objective of the B. Ed. Programme for school teachers is to train teachers for the school and to provide a basis for further training. With a view to their professionally

More information

Analysis of Experience of Designing the Professional Master Study Programme Career Counselling in Latvia Ilze MIKELSONE *

Analysis of Experience of Designing the Professional Master Study Programme Career Counselling in Latvia Ilze MIKELSONE * Analysis of Experience of Designing the Professional Master Study Programme Career Counselling in Latvia Ilze MIKELSONE * Abstract A person s creativity is a natural, enduring process having a structure

More information

Act on the Folkeskole The Danish Primary and Lower Secondary School

Act on the Folkeskole The Danish Primary and Lower Secondary School Act on the Folkeskole The Danish Primary and Lower Secondary School Ministry of Education Consolidation Act No. 55 of 17 January 1995 Chapter 1 The Aims of the Folkeskole 1. (1) The Folkeskole shall -

More information

Basic Structure of the Education System in the Federal Republic of Germany - Diagram

Basic Structure of the Education System in the Federal Republic of Germany - Diagram Basic Structure of the Education System in the Federal Republic of Germany - Diagram Basic Structure of the Educational System in the Federal Republic of Germany 13 12 11 10 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 grade

More information

Examination Regulations

Examination Regulations Examination Regulations for the Post Graduate Course of Study in International Business Informatics at the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration of the European University Viadrina Frankfurt

More information

ADULT EDUCATION IN CYPRUS. Klitos Symeonides Cyprus Adult Education Association

ADULT EDUCATION IN CYPRUS. Klitos Symeonides Cyprus Adult Education Association 1 Trends In Cyprus Education ADULT EDUCATION IN CYPRUS Klitos Symeonides Cyprus Adult Education Association It is generally recognized that Cyprus education is highly developed. Persianis identified the

More information

Unterrichtsmaterialien in digitaler und in gedruckter Form. Auszug aus:

Unterrichtsmaterialien in digitaler und in gedruckter Form. Auszug aus: Unterrichtsmaterialien in digitaler und in gedruckter Form Auszug aus: The education of a country reflects its society - Problems of the school system in Germany Das komplette Material finden Sie hier:

More information

FRANCE Implementation of the Sorbonne/Bologna Process objectives

FRANCE Implementation of the Sorbonne/Bologna Process objectives FRANCE Implementation of the Sorbonne/Bologna Process objectives Direction des relations internationales et de la coopération Sous-direction des affaires européennes et multilatérales Bureau des affaires

More information

To the Implementation Plan for the Czech Youth Guarantee programme

To the Implementation Plan for the Czech Youth Guarantee programme Annex 4/1 To the Implementation Plan for the Czech Youth Guarantee programme (Update of April 2014) Table 1: Key organizations to promote and implement the Youth Guarantee programme Key organization name

More information

WE FORM EUROPE S TOP EXECUTIVES!

WE FORM EUROPE S TOP EXECUTIVES! WE FORM EUROPE S TOP EXECUTIVES! A subsidiary of Study Guide Master s Programme Strategic HR Management in Europe Part-time UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SCIENCES BFI VIENNA Study Guide Master s Programme Strategic

More information

Country Report on Adult Education in CROATIA

Country Report on Adult Education in CROATIA Country Report on Adult Education in CROATIA Helsinki, 2011 Please check our website for the latest version of this country report via the following url or QR-code, or contact us directly at eaea-info[at]eaea.org.

More information

EDUCATION AND TRAINING POLICY

EDUCATION AND TRAINING POLICY E.E.P-86 FEDERAL DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC GOVERNMENT OF ETHIOPIA EDUCATION AND TRAINING POLICY Addis Ababa April, 1994 First Edition 1994 ST. GEORGE PRINTING PRESS TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 1. INTRODUCTION 1 2.

More information

New legal status of school psychologists in the Slovak Republic

New legal status of school psychologists in the Slovak Republic New legal status of school psychologists in the Slovak Republic Part I A brief review from the 40-years of school psychology and the school psychologist profession development in Slovakia (1965 2005 )

More information

Present challenges to Vocational Education Training within the Dual System in Baden-Wuerttemberg. Ministerium für Kultus, Jugend und Sport

Present challenges to Vocational Education Training within the Dual System in Baden-Wuerttemberg. Ministerium für Kultus, Jugend und Sport Present challenges to Vocational Education Training within the Dual System in Baden-Wuerttemberg Contents 1. General background information about Baden-Wuerttemberg and Germany 2. Vocational education

More information

Zurich cantonal elementary education

Zurich cantonal elementary education Englisch Zurich cantonal elementary education Information for parents Aims and core ideas The state elementary education system in the county of Zurich is committed to the fundamental values upheld by

More information

OFF-CAMPUS MASTER S PROGRAMS M.Ed. in Educational Leadership. The Head, Hand, and Heart of School Leadership. Degree Requirements:

OFF-CAMPUS MASTER S PROGRAMS M.Ed. in Educational Leadership. The Head, Hand, and Heart of School Leadership. Degree Requirements: M.Ed. in Educational Leadership This program is for experienced classroom teachers who have an inner passion for facilitating student achievement and school improvement. These educators will find the graduate

More information

MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT Dr. Mihri Napoliello Chairperson mnapoliello@njcu.edu Dr. John Klosek Graduate Advisor jklosek@njcu.edu Dr. Donna Farina Graduate Advisor

More information

Munich Financial. Market Figures. Banks

Munich Financial. Market Figures. Banks Munich Financial Market Figures Banks 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Total number of banks 163 171 172 171 169 Located in Munich 54 53 54 55 54 foreign banks 7 7 7 8 8 Branch offices of domestic banks 97 109

More information

Most people in Germany attain upper secondary education

Most people in Germany attain upper secondary education Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators is the authoritative source for accurate and relevant information on the state of education around the world. It provides data on the structure, finances, and performance

More information

School Psychology in Germany

School Psychology in Germany School Psychology in Germany 1. Context of school psychology Geographic characteristics; Germany is one of the major industrial and economic powers in Europe. Fifth largest economy in the world Location:

More information

The background of the improvement of PISA results in Hungary the impact of the EU funded educational development programs 1

The background of the improvement of PISA results in Hungary the impact of the EU funded educational development programs 1 The background of the improvement of PISA results in Hungary the impact of the EU funded educational development programs 1 by Gábor Halász ELTE University Budapest (http://halaszg.ofi.hu) Hungary, similarly

More information

K-12 Teacher Licensure Program: UOTeach College of Education, Department of Education Studies 5277 University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403-5277

K-12 Teacher Licensure Program: UOTeach College of Education, Department of Education Studies 5277 University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403-5277 K-12 Teacher Licensure Program: UOTeach College of Education, Department of Education Studies 5277 University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403-5277 Informational Meetings For Prospective Students A Program

More information

Bologna process main assumptions, implementation in Poland and Ukraine

Bologna process main assumptions, implementation in Poland and Ukraine Tomasz Oczoś Bologna process main assumptions, implementation in Poland and Ukraine 1. Introduction In my short presentation I will describe briefly Bologna process, its aims, actions and main documents

More information

The French Digital Plan for Education

The French Digital Plan for Education The French Digital Plan for Education Since December 2012, the Ministry of National Education, Higher Education and Research has been developing an ambitious strategy to bring schools into the digital

More information

English Learners Connecticut Legislation Sec and

English Learners Connecticut Legislation Sec and English Learners Connecticut Legislation Sec. 286-298 and 338-339 Sec. 286. Section 10-17f of the general statutes is repealed and the following is substituted in lieu thereof (Effective July 1, 2015):

More information