Locking down a Hitachi ID Suite server

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1 Locking down a Hitachi ID Suite server 2016 Hitachi ID Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 Organizations deploying Hitachi ID Identity and Access Management Suite need to understand how to secure its runtime platform. Hitachi ID Suite is a sensitive part of an organization s IT infrastructure and consequently must be well defended. This document is a best practices guide for securing a Hitachi ID Suite server. The objective of is to have a reliable, high availability platform that is difficult or impossible to compromise. Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Basic precautions 2 3 Physical access and security 3 4 Employee training 3 5 Hardening the operating system Service packs Limit logins to only legitimate administrators Remote access Securing services Packet filtering Anti-Virus/Malware software IIS web server General guidelines Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS) 7.0, Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS) Configure dynamic IP restrictions Password and key management 10 8 Communication defenses HTTPS Firewalls Communicating with target systems i

3 9 Auditing Hitachi ID Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

4 1 Introduction Organizations that are either considering deployment of Hitachi ID Identity and Access Management Suite, or have already deployed it, need to understand how to secure the Hitachi ID Suite server. Hitachi ID Suite is a sensitive part of an organization s IT infrastructure and consequently must be defended by strong security measures. It is important to protect not only the Hitachi ID Suite server, but also the sensitive data it stores: Administrator credentials used by Hitachi ID Suite to connect to target systems. Console user passwords used by the Hitachi ID Suite administrator to sign into, configure and manage Hitachi ID Suite itself. Passwords to managed accounts on target systems. Password history and security question data for end users. This document is organized as follows: Basic precautions Some common-sense security precautions. Physical access and security Provides suggestions on how to control physical access to the Hitachi ID Suite server. Employee training Explains the importance of security awareness training for all employees. Hardening the operating system Explains how to configure a secure Microsoft Windows server for use with Hitachi ID Suite. Web server Explains how to select and configure the web server that serves the Hitachi ID Suite software. Password and key management Provides guidance on password management. Communication defenses Explains how to protect the data transmitted to and from each Hitachi ID Suite server. Auditing Explains why auditing is important and provides guidance on monitoring access, events, and changes to Hitachi ID Suite. Microsoft Security Compliance Manager Toolkit Information on Microsoft Security Compliance Manager Hitachi ID Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 1

5 2 Basic precautions Some of the most effective security measures are common sense: Use a single-purpose server for Hitachi ID Identity and Access Management Suite. Sharing this server with other applications introduces more complexity and more administrators, each of which carries its own incremental risk. Use strong passwords for every administrative account on the server. Maintain a current, well-patched operating system on the Hitachi ID Suite server. This eliminates well-known bugs that have already been addressed by the vendor (Microsoft). Automatically apply patches, especially security patches, to the OS, database server and any third party software. Keep the Hitachi ID Suite server in a physically secure location. Provide security awareness training to all employees. Install, and keep up to date anti-virus software. Do not leave a login session open and unattended on the Hitachi ID Suite server s console. Attach the Hitachi ID Suite server to a secure, internal network rather than the public Internet. If access from the Internet is required, mediate it via a reverse web proxy running a different OS an web server platform than Hitachi ID Suite platform diversity reduces the risk of zero-day exploits. Regularly review Hitachi ID Suite, OS and network logs. Use the Microsoft Security Compliance Manager to learn more about server hardening Hitachi ID Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 2

6 3 Physical access and security Hitachi ID Identity and Access Management Suite servers should be physically protected, since logical security measures can often be bypassed by an intruder with physical access to the console: Restrict physical access Put Hitachi ID Suite server(s) in a locked and secured room. Restrict access to authorized personnel only. Hitachi ID Suite administrators should install and configure the server(s) and then only access it remotely via HTTPS to its web portal or RDP to the OS. Connect a UPS Ensure that server power is protected, that graceful shutdowns occur when power is interrupted and that there is surge protection at least on incoming power connections. Prevent boot from removable media Configure the server to boot from its physical or virtual hard drive and not from USB or optical drives. Where the Hitachi ID Suite server is virtualized, apply the above controls to the hypervisor. 4 Employee training Security policies are only as effective as user awareness and compliance. Security awareness training should include: 1. Building security including authorization for visitors and ID badges. 2. Password policies, regarding complexity, regular changes, non-reuse and not sharing passwords. 3. Social engineering and phishing attacks, to help users recognize when a person, malicious web site or tries to trick them into disclosing access or other information. 4. The consequences of a security breach, including consequences to users who may have supported the breach through action or inaction. 5. Effective security practices relating to mobile devices, such as laptops, smart phones and tablets. 6. Not leaving endpoints signed on, unlocked and unattended Hitachi ID Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 3

7 5 Hardening the operating system Hitachi ID Identity and Access Management Suite runs on Windows 2012 servers. The first step in configuring a secure Hitachi ID Suite server is to harden the operating system: 5.1 Service packs Install the latest service packs, as these frequently include security patches and updates. Keep up-to-date with the latest Windows security upgrades by subscribing to Microsoft s security bulletin at: 5.2 Limit logins to only legitimate administrators One way to limit the number of users who can access the Hitachi ID Identity and Access Management Suite server is to remove it from any Windows domain. If the Hitachi ID Suite server is not a member of a domain, it reduces the risk of a security intrusion in the domain being leveraged to gain unauthorized access to the Hitachi ID Suite server. Remove unused accounts, leaving just psadmin the Hitachi ID Suite service account. Create one administrator account to be used by the Hitachi ID Suite OS administrator to manage the server and set a strong password on this account. Disable the default administrator account. Remove any Guest or unused service accounts. Remove the terminal services user account TsInternetUser. This account is used by the Terminal Service Internet Connector License. For any accounts that must remain, limit their access. At a minimum, block access by members of Everyone to files and folders on the server Remote access If feasible, turn off the remote access and management features on the server to protect the server from remote access attempts using brute force password attacks. This includes the following: Check that "Enable remote management of this server from other computers" is disabled. Turn off "Remote Desktop Administration" Hitachi ID Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 4

8 If remote administration of the OS is required: Edit the local security policy and remove Administrators from the Allow log on through Remote Desktop Services policy. Add an alternate, lower privileges account to the Remote Desktop Users group. 5.3 Securing services Disable any unused service. This eliminates potential sources of software bugs that could be exploited to violate the server s security. Only the following services are required on Hitachi ID Identity and Access Management Suite servers: DNS Client - Required to resolve host names. Event Log - Core OS component. IIS Admin Service. IPSEC Policy Agent - Core OS component. Logical DiskManager - Core OS component. Network Connections - Required to manage network interfaces. Plug and Play - Hardware support. Protected Storage - Core OS component. Remote Procedure Call (RPC) - Core OS component. Removable Storage - Required to open CD-ROM drives. RunAs Service - Core OS security component. Security Accounts Manager - Core OS security component. TCP/IP NetBIOS Helper Service - Only required if directly managing Windows NT, Windows 2000, or Windows 2003 passwords. PC - Only required if directly managing Windows NT, Windows 2000, or Windows 2003 passwords. World Wide Web Publishing Service. Additional services should only be enabled if there is a specific business need for them. All other services should be disabled unless there is some specific reason (not related to Hitachi ID Suite) to enable them. Once you have identified a minimum set of services for your server, save the list. Check which services are running after applying service packs and other operating system updates, and disable services as required to return to your original list. 5.4 Packet filtering Open ports are an exploitable means of system entry. By limiting the number of open ports, you effectively reduce the number of potential entry points into the server. A server can be port scanned to identify available services. Use packet filtering to block all inbound connections other than the following default ports required by Hitachi ID Identity and Access Management Suite: 2016 Hitachi ID Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 5

9 Port number 443/TCP 5555/TCP 2380/TCP 3334/TCP 2340/TCP 4444/TCP Service HTTPS Hitachi ID Suite database service default port number (iddb). Hitachi ID Suite file repliaction service default port (idfilerep). Password manager service (idpm). Session monitoring package generation service (idsmpg). RSA Authentication Manager Service (psace) - if RSA tokens are managed. On Windows Server 2012, packet filtering is accessed by running the wf.msc control. 5.5 Anti-Virus/Malware software Do deploy anti-malware on each Hitachi ID Identity and Access Management Suite server. However, don t allow it to scan database files that belong to the SQL Server database as this can cause filesystem locks and outages Hitachi ID Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 6

10 6 IIS web server The IIS web server is a required component since it provides all user interface modules. It should therefore be carefully protected. Since Hitachi ID Identity and Access Management Suite does not require any web server functionality beyond the ability to serve static documents (HTML, images) and to execute self-contained CGI executable programs, all non-essential web server content can be disabled. 6.1 General guidelines IIS is more than a web server; it is also an FTP server, indexing server, proxy for database applications, and a server for active content and applications. Disable these features as Hitachi ID Identity and Access Management Suite does not use them. Create two separate NTFS partitions - one for the operating system and one for content IIS serves up. This will protect the OS from IIS compromise. Always deploy a proper, issued-by-a-real-ca SSL certificate to Hitachi ID Suite servers and disable plaintext HTTP access. Never use a self-signed certificate in a user-facing system, as this may condition users to ignore SSL validity warnings. Assign the IIS user the right to read from but not write to static HTML, image file and Javascript files used by Hitachi ID Suite. Assign the IIS user the right to execute CGI programs but not other executables on the Hitachi ID Suite filesystem. Disable directory browsing there is no reason why a user connecting to the Hitachi ID Suite web portal should be able to list files in any folder. 6.2 Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS) 7.0, 7.5 Note: Most of the information for hardening IIS 7.0 was obtained from Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1 Security Guide from Security Compliance Manager, Version 2.0. Published: March 2010, Updated September By default, IIS 7.0 is more secure than IIS 6.0. Instead of installing a variety of features like IIS 6.0 does and then disabling them, IIS 7.0 only installs the following features: Static content module Default document module Directory browsing module 2016 Hitachi ID Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 7

11 HTTP Errors module HTTP Logging module Request Monitor module Request Filtering module Static Content Compression module IIS Management Console module The default installation only supports serving static content such as HTML and image files. Hitachi ID Identity and Access Management Suite requires CGI. During the IIS installation, you will have to explicitly select the CGI option, otherwise Hitachi ID Suite won t work. Enable Anonymous Authentication as Hitachi ID Suite handles user authentication itself, rather than delegating this to the web server. 6.3 Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS) 8.0 Note: Most of the information for hardening IIS 8.0 was obtained from Windows Server 2012 Security Guide from Security Compliance Manager, Version 1.0. Published: January Follow the same guidelines as in Subsection 6.2 on Page Configure dynamic IP restrictions Windows Server 2012 includes a new feature to help reduce denial-of-service (DoS) attacks and bruteforce password attacks. Hitachi ID Systems recommend testing the configuration in a test environment first in order to identify the appropriate thresholds without disrupting the Hitachi ID Identity and Access Management Suite, before deploying into production. To configure IP based restrictions: 1. Using the server roles tool, add the IIS / IP and Domain Restrictions role. 2. From the IIS Manager tool, limit the number of concurrent connections from any given IP address, for example to a maximum of 20 connections every 200ms. 3. Be careful to allow large numbers of connections from any load balancer or other traffic management infrastructure Hitachi ID Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 8

12 2016 Hitachi ID Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 9

13 7 Password and key management During the installation of Hitachi ID Identity and Access Management Suite, be sure to generate random encryption keys for inter-server communication and for local data storage. Use the same keys on all servers. Consider periodically changing the communication key. This requires shutting down Hitachi ID Suite services on all servers, installing a new key and reactivating the services. Note that key changes may require service interruption on domain controllers that have been configured to trigger password synchronization and on Hitachi ID Suite proxy servers. Be sure to assign strong passwords to all console logins and target credentials and change these regularly. 8 Communication defenses Hitachi ID Identity and Access Management Suite sends and receives sensitive data over the network. Its communications include user passwords, administrator credentials, and personal user information. 8.1 HTTPS Require HTTPS only connections to Hitachi ID Identity and Access Management Suite and deploy real (i.e., not self-signed) SSL certificates on each server. 8.2 Firewalls If you Internet access to Hitachi ID Identity and Access Management Suite is required, protect this access using a firewall: Make sure you purchase all network hardware, including the firewall, directly from the manufacturer or from authorized resellers. Third parties may inject malware into products before resale. Keep firewall and network device firmware patched and current. Shut down all unused physical network interfaces. Implement block-by-default policy and specify what protocols and addresses may connect. Find and remove any default user name or passwords on all devices. Monitor outbound traffic and open outbound connections to prevent data exfiltration and malware seeking remote control. Use NTP to synchronize the time on all devices Hitachi ID Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 10

14 8.3 Communicating with target systems Avoid sending sensitive data as plaintext: Where possible, ensure that communications with target systems are encrypted. For example, for Oracle target systems, the default setup for the Oracle client is to allow unencrypted communications with Oracle databases. Configure encrypted communication instead. Deploy Hitachi ID Identity and Access Management Suite proxy servers, co-located with the target system, where the target system only allows a plaintext protocol and the network path between Hitachi ID Suite and the target system is vulnerable to attack Hitachi ID Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 11

15 9 Auditing Audit logs are an important measure to identify and analyze suspicious activity. Arrange for periodic archive of audit logs to a different server that is managed by different administrators. As part of the Hitachi ID Identity and Access Management Suite, the Logging Service (idmlogsvc) manages logging sessions for a particular instance. It captures event messages from Hitachi ID Suite program execution, and writes them to the configured log file (idmsuite.log by default). The Logging Service can also write to the Windows event log and to SYSLOGD services. Configure this for sensitive events, including logins to the Hitachi ID Suite admin console (psa.exe). An audit log is only effective if it is examined. Logs provide the best indications of break-ins, fraud and misuse. It is highly recommended that logs be examined on a regular basis. 500, Street SE, Calgary AB Canada T2G 2J3 Tel: Fax: Date: February 18, 2015 File: / pub/ wp/ documents/ harden/ harden_9.tex

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